De slaverede indianere, der gjorde guldrusen mulig

De slaverede indianere, der gjorde guldrusen mulig


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

James Marshall kom ikke til Californien for at finde guld. Men så bemærkede han en glimtende sten i snavs, mens han byggede en ny mølle til den lokale grundejer John Sutter. Det var 1848, og Marshalls skæbne - og Californiens skæbne - havde lige ændret sig for altid.

Guldruset, der fulgte, ændrede også livene i Californiens indianere. Inden for år ville de næsten blive udslettet på grund af den massive immigration - og sult efter rigdom - Gold Rush inspirerede.

Drevet af grådighed og frygt erklærede de anglo -nybyggere, der flokkedes til Californien, krig mod de indfødte californiere, der var kommet foran dem. Men Fyrre-Niners var ikke de første hvide mennesker til at undertrykke eller endda gøre slaver af indianere i Californien. Selve landet, hvor Marshall opdagede guldet, var en del af et stort imperium bygget på slavearbejde fra indfødte folk.

Uden indianere ville John Sutter - ejer af møllen, hvor guld blev opdaget og områdets mest indflydelsesrige grundejere - aldrig være blevet så magtfuld. Sutter, en klog forretningsmand, gjorde slaver af hundredvis af indianere og brugte dem som en fri kilde til arbejde og en provisorisk milits, som han forsvarede sit territorium med. Han satte også scenen for deres folkedrab.

Inden John Sutter blev landbaron, var han Johann Suter, en gældskrævende butiksejer i Schweiz. I stedet for at afsone fængsel for sin gæld forlod den 31-årige sit hjemland-og hans kone og fem børn-bag sig.

På det tidspunkt var Californien en mexicansk provins, og Sutter blev fristet af sine enorme naturressourcer og dens tilsyneladende sparsomme befolkning. Ledsaget af en gruppe indianere, han havde "erhvervet" sammen med proviant og værktøjer, overbeviste han provinsguvernøren om at give ham 50.000 hektar til et forligs- og handelscenter, han kaldte "Nueva Helvetia" eller New Switzerland i 1841.

Sutter blev Nueva Helvetias dommer og militærkommanderende med myndighed til at forhindre det, han karakteriserede som "røverierne begået af eventyrere fra USA" og "invasionen af ​​vilde indianere." For at erhverve jorden konverterede han til katolicisme og blev mexicansk statsborger, og inden for få år havde han mere end fordoblet sin jordbeholdning.

Det land, Sutter kontrollerede, kan have været tyndt befolket til anglo -nybyggere, men det var hjemsted for indianere, der "fandt deres hjemlande nu ejendom for udenforstående, der betragtede dem som potentielle arbejdere", skriver historiker Lisa Emmerich. Disse indfødte folk præsenterede både en trussel og en mulighed for Sutter.

Sutter indledte i første omgang et mindeligt forhold til lokale Nisenan -folk og gjorde dem til en milits, udstyrede dem med uniformer og våben og oplærede dem til at forsvare sit land.

Selvom Sutters jordtilskud krævede, at han behandlede indianere på en venlig måde, begyndte han at blande sig i lokale stammer, forstyrre de lokale ægteskabsskikke og skabe, hvad en observatør kaldte et "harem". Heinrich Lienhard, en af ​​Sutters schweiziske medarbejdere, mindede om, at Sutter havde et værelse ved siden af ​​sit kontor, hvor "en gruppe indiske kvinder altid ventede." Lienhard anklagede også Sutter for at have forulempet indfødte amerikanske piger.

Seksuel tvang var ikke den eneste måde, hvorpå Sutter udøvede sin kontrol over indianere. Ved hjælp af sin milits gjorde han dem også til slaver. "De, der ikke ville arbejde, blev betragtet som fjender," huskede en gårdmand i nærheden. "Ofte blev Sacramento -floden farvet rød af de uskyldige indianers blod."

Sutter fortalte sin tilsynsmand at holde sine tjenere i kø "strengt under frygt" og tøvede ikke med at dræbe indfødte amerikanere, der ikke undergik hårdt arbejde på hans ranch. "Sutter holder 600 til 800 indianere i en fuldstændig slaveri," skrev en besøgende bosætter, James Clyman, da han besøgte Sutters ranch. "

Edwin Bryant, en avisredaktør fra Kentucky, der var vært hos Sutter på en ekspedition til Californien, beskrev, hvordan de indfødte arbejdere blev fodret med slagteaffald og rester af hvedeklid fra trægrupper og spiste deres måltider uden redskaber eller skåle. Imens blev han serveret et rigeligt måltid på porcelænstallerkener. Slaverne sov i aflåste rum uden senge eller møbler og blev pisket og undertiden myrdet, når de nægtede at efterkomme hans ønsker.

Sartrig og velkommen til hvide nybyggere inviterede Sutter mange tidlige pionerer til sin ranch, hvor de så hans behandling af indianere. Hans besøgende, skriver historikeren Benjamin Madley, var dybt påvirket af behandlingen af ​​arbejdere, de var vidne til på Sutters jord. „Disse møder havde en stærk psykisk virkning,“ skriver Madley, „der drev racisme og følelsesmæssigt hærder kolonister… til grusomhed over for indianere i Californien.

For Sutter var indianere ikke bare et økonomisk kraftcenter - de var valuta. Han handlede indfødt arbejdskraft blandt lokale rancheros og til nye bosættere, sendte store grupper af indfødte californiere til forskellige arbejdsgivere og modtog op til to dollars om dagen for deres tjenester. Sutters berygtede gæstfrihed over for hvide nybyggere - en varm velkomst, der var i direkte konflikt med hans løfter til den mexicanske regering - var markant anderledes end den måde, han behandlede indianerne, der opretholdt hans voksende rigdom.

Ikke alle John Sutters arbejdsstyrke bestod af slaver. Selvom nogle arbejdere var slaver, blev andre "betalt" i blikvaluta, der kun kunne bruges i hans butik. Andre - ofte høvdinger, hvis støtte Sutter havde brug for - blev betalt for deres arbejde.

Til sidst udslettede en mæslingepidemi en stor del af de indianske arbejdere på Sutters ranch, og han besluttede at bygge et savværk på en nærliggende ejendom for at kompensere for tabet af arbejde.

Hvad der derefter skete, er velkendt: Sutter's Mill blev ground zero for Gold Rush i 1849. Men selv opdagelsen af ​​guld blev lettere af Sutters slaveri og tvang af indfødte folk - ja, Marshall blev ført til stedet, hvor han lagde mærke til guldklumperne af en indiansk guide og snavs der blev gravet af en gruppe af Sutter-kontrollerede indianere, der kendte til guldet, men ikke værdsatte det.

Historien sluttede ikke godt for hverken Sutter eller Marshall. Efter at tilstedeværelsen af ​​guld blev kendt, overskred squatters og tyve Sutters ranch, ødelagde hans bygning, plyndrede hans rigdom og stjal hans husdyr. Hans indianske arbejdere forlod ham, og da den nye delstat Californien vurderede lovligheden af ​​mexicanske æragrunde, blev hans krav på de arealer, han fik ham i 1841, erklæret ugyldig.

Forarmet og sadlet med gæld begærede Sutter den amerikanske regering om restitution indtil hans død i 1880. Marshall klarede sig ikke meget bedre: Han gik konkurs og døde i fattigdom efter en mislykket karriere som guldgraver.

Men måske var de største tabere indianerne i Gold Rush-æraens Californien. I de 20 år, der fulgte med opdagelsen af ​​guld, blev 80 procent af statens indianske befolkning udslettet - ofre for forskydning, sygdom og agenocid udført af magt og guld. John Sutter havde sat scenen for deres ødelæggelse - men hans grusomhed var kun begyndelsen.


Amerikansk erfaring

Sandwiched mellem Louisiana -købet i 1803 og borgerkrigen i 1861 betragtes California Gold Rush af mange historikere som den mest betydningsfulde begivenhed i første halvdel af det nittende århundrede.

En håndskrift fra 1849 fra California Gold Rush. PD.

Bliv rig hurtigt
Opdagelsen af ​​guld ved Sutter's Mill den 24. januar 1848 udløste den største migration i USA's historie og trak folk fra et dusin lande til at danne et multietnisk samfund på Amerikas rand. Løftet om rigdom ændrede for altid livets forventninger til de hundredtusinder af mennesker, der oversvømmede Californien i 1849 og det årti, der fulgte. Guldet satte også gang i den amerikanske økonomi og drev vilde drømme som opførelsen af ​​en langrendslinje.

Krig med Mexico
Da USA og Mexico gik i krig i 1846, var Californien under den mexicanske regerings løse kontrol. Californiens befolkning bestod af omkring 6.500 Californios (folk fra spansk eller mexicansk anstændig), 700 udlændinge (primært amerikanere) og 150.000 indianere, hvis antal var skåret i halve siden spaniernes ankomst i 1769. Californios boede på store ranches der var givet af den mexicanske regering.

Før opdagelsen af ​​guld
Efter to års kampe, sejrede USA. Den 2. februar 1848 blev Guadelupe Hidalgo -traktaten underskrevet, der formelt sluttede krigen og overlod kontrollen over Californien til USA. Ingen af ​​parterne vidste, at der for nylig var blevet opdaget guld på savværket, som den schweiziske immigrant John Sutter byggede nær Coloma.

Utrolighed
Da nyheden om guld først nåede San Francisco, blev det mødt med vantro. Derefter marcherede iværksætter Sam Brannan gennem byen og vinkede et hætteglas med ædle metaller som bevis. I midten af ​​juni stod butikkerne tomme. De fleste af den mandlige befolkning i San Francisco var gået til miner. Resten af ​​Californien fulgte snart efter. Den sommer gravede mænd som Antonio Franco Coronel fra Los Angeles efter guld sammen med andre Californios, indianere og et par anglo -amerikanere, der allerede var i Californien.

En dåse guld
Militærguvernør oberst Richard B. Mason, der turnerede i guldmarkerne, skrev en rapport, der indeholdt forbløffende fakta: to minearbejdere på Weber Creek samlede 17.000 dollar i guld på syv dage seks minearbejdere med 50 indianere tog 273 pund guldsalg ud ved Sam Brannans varer butik nær miner udgjorde $ 36.000 i maj, juni og begyndelsen af ​​juli. Mason sendte sin rapport og en dåse guld til Washington, en tur på mange måneder.

Militærguvernør oberst Richard B. Mason. Hilsen: Doug Scougale

Spredning af ordet
Ordet om guldet nåede derefter de steder, der var mest tilgængelige for Californiens kyst med skib. Tusindvis af mennesker fra Sandwichøerne (Hawaii), Oregon, Mexico, Chile, Peru og Kina tog til Californien i sommeren og efteråret 1848, før amerikanerne på østkysten havde en anelse om, hvad der skulle komme. Europæerne ville snart følge med.

Unionens tilstand
På østkysten offentliggjorde aviser første gang beretninger om guldfundet i midten af ​​sommeren 1848. Skeptiske redaktører bagatellerede forestillingen på trods af breve fra Californien som den i 14. september-udgaven af Philadelphia nordamerikansk der lød: "Dine vandløb har ørner og vores er belagt med guld." Først da præsident James K. Polk annoncerede oberst Mason's rapport i sin tale om Unionens tilstand 5. december 1848, blev amerikanerne troende.

Aldrig drømt om rigdom
Pludselig lånte tusinder af amerikanere (for det meste mænd) penge, pantsatte boliger eller brugte deres liv på at spare på at udnytte en mulighed, de aldrig havde drømt var mulig. I et samfund, der i stigende grad blev baseret på lønearbejde, var tanken om, at en person kunne ændre sin skæbne ved at indsamle guld fra jorden, uimodståelig. Nogle amerikanske kvinder, blandt dem Luzena Wilson, tog til Californien, men de fleste blev hjemme. Kvinderne, der blev efterladt, påtog sig ansvar, som de aldrig havde regnet med, såsom omsorg for familier alene, drift af virksomheder og drift af gårde.

Et sus af guldsøgere
I 1849 var den ikke-indfødte befolkning i Californien vokset til næsten 100.000 mennesker. Næsten to tredjedele var amerikanere. Ved ankomsten til Californien lærte immigranter, at minedrift var den hårdeste form for arbejde. De flyttede sten, gravede snavs og vadede i frysende vandløb. De mistede negle, blev syge og led underernæring. Mange døde af sygdom eller ved et uheld. Hiram Pierce, minearbejder fra Troy, New York, gennemførte en begravelse for en ung mand fra Maine, der døde af koldbrand, efter at han skødesløst skød sig selv i benet.

Sucker Flat
På trods af det nådesløse arbejde trak løftet om guld flere minearbejdere mod vest hvert år. Byer med navne som Hangtown, Sucker Flat og Murderers Bar spirede i hver lovende sprække i Sierras. I løbet af få år blev den lille havn i San Francisco en voldsom grænsemetropol med en livlig økonomi, og Californien blev udnævnt til den 31. stat.

Millioner i guld
En forbløffende mængde guld blev trukket op af jorden: $ 10 millioner i 1849, $ 41 millioner ($ 971 millioner i 2005 dollar) i 1850, $ 75 millioner i 1851 og $ 81 millioner i 1852. Derefter faldt optagelsen gradvist indtil 1857, da det udlignede til omkring 45 millioner dollars om året. De heldige forbedrede deres omstændigheder, men minedrift krævede frem for alt held. Og ikke alle var heldige.

Hvid mænds guld
En del af vanskeligheden for den enkelte minearbejder var konkurrence. Da mineregionen blev mere overfyldt, var der mindre guld at gå rundt. Anglo-amerikanske minearbejdere blev i stigende grad territoriale over land, de betragtede som beregnet for dem, og tvang andre nationaliteter fra minerne med voldelig taktik. Hvad angår Californiens indfødte, døde hundrede og tyve tusinde indfødte amerikanere af sygdom, sult og drab under guldrusen.

Fading Dreams
Da overfladeguldet forsvandt, fandt individuelle minearbejdere deres drømme om at indbetale guldrusen vokse mere undvigende. Mange mænd gik på arbejde for de større mineselskaber, der investerede i teknologi og udstyr for at nå det guld, der lå under overfladen. I midten af ​​1850'erne var minedrift efter guld blevet mindre en individuel virksomhed og mere et lønarbejde.

Invasiv teknik
De store mineselskaber havde stor succes med at udvinde guld. Ved hjælp af en teknik kaldet hydraulisk minedrift ekstraherede de 170 millioner dollars i guld mellem 1860 og 1880.

I processen ødelagde de landskabet og kvalt floderne med sediment. Sedimentet skyllede nedstrøms og oversvømmede landbrugsjord og ødelagde afgrøder.

En dom afsagde en ende på hydraulisk minedrift i 1884, og landbruget overtog som hovedkraften bag økonomien i Californien.


At overgive eller modstå

Fisher undersøger de korte og langsigtede virkninger af indfødt slaveri i sin undersøgelse og bemærker, at under krigen blev den udbredte frygt for at blive solgt til udlandet som slaver brugt af Philip-allierede indianere som et redskab til at rekruttere indfødte til deres side.

Andre indianere overgav sig, skrev Fisher, enten som reaktion på eksplicitte tilskyndelser fra den engelske, der tilbød barmhjertighed, eller fordi de håbede, at det ville blive forstået som en erklæring om neutralitet. Disse overgivere kan være enkeltpersoner, familier, større bands eller hele lokalsamfund, sagde Fisher.

Nogle indianere tilbød englænderne deres tjenester i krigen, ligesom Awashonks, den kvindelige chef for en sammenslutning af Sakonnet -indianere, der lovede støtte på den betingelse, at Sakonnet -mænd, -kvinder og -børn ikke ville blive dræbt eller sendt ud af landet som slaver, ifølge undersøgelsen.

Især nær krigens slutning, skrev Fisher, indfødte overgav sig i større antal som direkte svar på løfter om mildhed, men "lempelse" havde ingen konsekvent, praktisk betydning.

Engelske myndigheder fokuserede først på at afvæbne indfødte, enten ved at sælge våben, der blev afleveret af overgivere eller forbyde dem at bære våben, skrev Fisher. Engelske samfund protesterede mod at lade indfødte, der overgav sig, simpelthen gå fri, og bolig og fodring af dem var kompliceret, så ofte blev fangede og overgivne indianere simpelthen solgt til slaveri, både i udlandet og i New England, eller tvunget til trældom i begrænsede vilkår inden for engelske husstande. . Derudover blev indfødte samfund bedt om at betale en årlig hyldest på fem skilling pr. Mand "som en anerkendelse af deres underkastelse" til regeringen i Connecticut, ifølge undersøgelsen.


De glemte slaver

R utallige europæiske slavehandlere tømmer landsbyer og tvinger rædselsslagne ofre på skibe på vej mod Atlanterhavet. Linier af lænkede mennesker, der marcherede mod slavemarkeder under bevæbnede vagters vågne øjne. Voldelige slaveejere, der bruger tortur og voldtægt for at tvinge mere arbejde ud af deres fanger.

Disse brændende billeder kan måske tænke på den frygtelige historie om afrikansk slaveri i USA. Men faktisk beskriver de historiske begivenheder i Bahamas, Central Mexico og det amerikanske kontinents vestlige grænse - og slaverne var indianere.

I populærkulturen og i stipendiet har slaveriet et øjeblik. Racestrid i nutiden tiltrækker ny opmærksomhed på den racialiserede uretfærdighed og ulighed i vores fortid. Nylige og roste bøger af Edward Baptist, Sven Beckert og Walter Johnson har belyst de økonomiske beregninger bag plantemishandling og forbindelserne mellem slaveri, kapitalisme og amerikansk ekspansion. Men disse bøger, og film som 12 år en slave, har også forstærket det populære "sort -hvide" billede af slaveri - en uretfærdighed begået af hvide mod afrikanere og deres efterkommere, hovedsageligt i antebellum Syd.

ANMELDELSE

Det andet slaveri: Den afdækkede historie om indisk slaveri i Amerika,
af Andrés Reséndez

(Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)

Dette billede er ved at ændre sig, takket være en lang række værker om indiansk slaveri, et relativt nyt felt, der fik energi fra eksplosionen af ​​interesse for amerikanske indiske studier siden 1980'erne. Nyere forskning har vist os, at de fleste slaver i Amerika før 1700 var indianere, at indianere derefter udgjorde en betydelig andel af den globale slavebefolkning, og at europæere gjorde slaver af slaver fra Quebec til New Orleans og fra New England til Carolinas. Værker som Pekka Hämäläinens Det Comanche Empire (Yale University Press) har undersøgt skiftende traditioner for slaveri i indianersamfund, mens andre forskere, især Alan Gallay og Brett Rushforth, har tacklet indianernes slaveri af franske og engelske kolonister.

Stadig er der store huller i vores forståelse. I hans smukt skrevne (og National Book Award-nominerede) Det andet slaveri: Den afdækkede historie om indisk slaveri i Amerika, Andrés Reséndez tilbyder en tour-de-force-beretning om slaveriet af indianere i den nye verden og udvider i processen vores definitioner af slaveri. En del af udfordringen ved emnet er, at indisk trældom tog mange former, hvilket gjorde ofre svære at identificere i optegnelserne. Reséndez, professor ved University of California i Davis, tilbyder en rummelig, men forsvarlig definition, herunder pioneroprørere, der er dømt til slaveri forældreløse og vandrere bundet til tjenesteofre for mita (en tvangskvote pålagt indiske landsbyer) og tilsyneladende gratis lønarbejdere, hvis arbejdsgivere aldrig betalte dem.

Ved hjælp af denne definition anslår Reséndez antallet af indiske slaver i Amerika til mellem 2,5 millioner og 5 millioner - færre end de cirka 12,5 millioner afrikanere, der var slaver mellem 1400 -tallet og slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet, men ikke desto mindre et svimlende antal. Desuden hævder han, at befolkningstabet på grund af slaveri faktisk var meget større i Amerika end i Afrika. Slaveri, ikke kun epidemisk sygdom, var den primære årsag til de høje dødeligheder på 70 procent til 90 procent, som nogle indiske samfund oplevede.

Ved at afsløre centraliteten af ​​slaveri for kolonisering, Det andet slaveri udgør en sviende anklager om imperium. Begyndende med Christopher Columbus, der fremhævede slaveri som en måde at finansiere imperium, successive bølger af conquistadores og kolonisatorer tjente på handel med mennesker. Nogle, herunder Columbus, eksporterede indianere til den gamle verden i en "omvendt midtergang", men langt størstedelen af ​​slaverne forblev i Amerika.

Reséndez beskriver boomtown-minecentre i Mexico, især Parral, der ansporede en handel med slaver over en radius af tusind kilometer og endda nåede ind i Filippinerne. To hundrede år senere udnyttede California Gold Rush -iværksættere som John Sutter også kvindelig indisk arbejdskraft. Selv euro-amerikanerne var fast besluttet på at undgå indisk slaveri-herunder jesuitmissionærer, mormonerne, Kit Carson og den amerikanske hær-endte med at deltage i det. Missioner i Sonora blev militariseret presidios der gjorde slaver og flyttede tusinder af seriindianere. Brigham Young blev til sidst midlertidig med en lov, der tillod mormoner at "løskøbe" fanger børn og holde dem i trældom i 20 år.

En af Reséndez 'største bidrag er hans forfølgelse af historien om indisk slaveri fra spansk Amerika nord til det 19. og 20. århundrede USA, der viser kontinuiteterne. Ufrivillig trældom fortsatte i Californien og sydvest selv efter borgerkrigen. Reséndez indebærer, at "det andet slaveri" først sluttede langt ind i det 20. århundrede, fordi dets mange former gjorde det svært at stoppe via lov, og fordi for mange grundejere havde en andel i dets fortsættelse.

Bogen ankommer midt i en livlig debat om slaveri og kapitalisme. Mens Eric Williams var 1944 Kapitalisme og slaveri (University of North Carolina Press) foreslog, at den afrikanske slavehandel kapitaliserede britisk industrialisering, Det andet slaveri afslører, at indisk slaveri selv finansierede koloniseringen. Da indisk slaveri blomstrede fra store industrier til små husstande og gårde, åbner Reséndez ’arbejde desuden nye veje til at tænke over, hvordan slaveri gjorde det muligt for mange amerikanere - ikke kun store plantager - at deltage i markedsrevolutionen.

Den lange historie om indisk slaveri taler også om vedholdenheden af ​​ufrit arbejde inden for tilsyneladende kapitalistiske økonomier uden arbejde. Reséndez konkluderer, at nutidens menneskehandel og udnyttelse af immigrantarbejdere er de direkte arvinger til den praksis, han sporer.

Bogen efterlader læseren med dvælende spørgsmål, især vedrørende køn og race. De fleste indiske slaver var kvinder i spansk Amerika, hvor kvinder havde højere priser end mænd. Var dette et vidnesbyrd om betydningen af ​​kvindelig arbejdskraft eller en indikator på, at indiske kvinders seksuelle tjenester var et centralt element i slavehandelen?

Og hvordan indgik indiansk slaveri ind i den nye racerække i Amerika? Da køn og etnicitet helt sikkert spiller en rolle for hvem samfundet er rettet mod misbrug, skal vi bedre forstå, hvordan indisk slaveri formede amerikanernes ideer om race og klasse, og omvendt.

Sådanne spørgsmål er et vidnesbyrd om hvor meget Det andet slaveri har udvidet markens udsigter. En rig, ambitiøs bog, som alle inden for området taler om, Reséndez ’arbejde beviser, at indisk slaveri var en væsentlig del af den amerikanske historie fra begyndelsen. Det sætter det i hjertet af vores fortsatte samtale om arven fra slaveri i Amerika, i selskab med Michelle Alexanders Den nye Jim Crow (The New Press) og Ava DuVernays dokumentarfilm 13., værker, der undersøger andre former for frihed.

Indiske slaver hjalp med at bygge Amerika til en forfærdelig pris. Deres historie fortjener at blive fortalt.

Margaret Ellen Newell er professor i historie ved Ohio State University og forfatter til Brethren by Nature: New England indianere, kolonister og oprindelsen til amerikansk slaveri (Cornell University Press, 2015).


Klaverede indianere fra Californien før USA's periode

Der er en lang historie med indfødt slaveri og tvangsarbejde i Californien, der går tilbage til de tidlige spanske missionærer (1769-1821), senere Californio (lang tid mexicanske kolonister) ranchere og andre tidlige euro-amerikanske immigranter. [21]

California -indianere, der boede langs Stillehavskysten fra San Diego nord til San Francisco -bugten, var de første, der blev udnyttet til deres arbejde af franciskanske missionærer. I 1805 faldt indre stammer underlagt periodisk militær og missionær "rekruttering" for at forsyne raske arbejdere og erstatte de syge og hurtigt svindende mission indianere. [22]

Det er svært at tro, hvad vores folk gennemgik i missionerne. Jeg husker, hvad bedstemor (Filicad Calac Molina) fortalte os for mange år siden. Hendes mor fortalte hende om Mission San Luis Rey. Faderen der havde spaniere, der arbejdede indianerne som slaver der, og da de løb væk, kom spanierne til Rincon og hentede babyerne, svingede dem ved armen eller benet og kastede dem ind i kaktusen ... mens babyerne græd, Spanierne ville få forældrene til at fortælle, hvor indianerne gemte sig ... dem, der var løbet væk fra missionen. (Max Mazzetti, stammeformand, Rincon Reservation) [23]

Da den første mexicanske guvernør ankom til Californien i 1825, oplevede indfødte i de spanske indflydelsesområder effektivt handel med spansk med mexicanske mestre. De nye mestre ville være den nye klasse af landbaroner, der ville praktisere sekulært slaveri. Dette skete på trods af, at slaveri var forbudt i hele den mexicanske republik, og indfødte havde fået statsborgerskab i 1824. Dette betød på ingen måde, at indianere kunne stemme eller blive behandlet som ligeværdige. Mexico havde ligesom USA på det tidspunkt begrænsninger i afstemningen baseret på ejendom og en persons erhverv.

På lokalt plan blev indfødte i Californien i den mexicanske periode (1822-1846) tvunget til at arbejde for ingenting og blev betragtet som en underklasse, hvis mestre udnyttede deres arbejde og brugte dem som en form for valuta. I slutningen af ​​1830'erne og begyndelsen af ​​1840'erne brugte euroamerikanske immigranter som Johann August Sutter indianere i sin koloni i Sacramento-dalen som feltarbejde, mens kvinder og børn blev givet til hans mange kreditorer. Talrige såkaldte "vilde indianere" blev rutinemæssigt fanget i kamp og givet til sejrherrerne og deres tropper. [24]

Emigranten over land Jacob Wright Harlan, pelsfangeren James Clyman og John Henry Brown, tilsynsføreren i Fort Sutter -kokken, skrev alle senere om deres observationer af behandlingen af ​​indfødte mennesker på John Sutters fort. Sutter var grundlæggeren af ​​byen Sacramento:

Capt [Sutter] holder 600 eller 800 indianere i en fuldstændig tilstand af slaveri, og da jeg havde dødsforstyrrelsen over at se dem spise, kan jeg give kort beskrivelse – 10 eller 15 trug 3 eller 4 fod lange varer bragt ud af kogerummet og siddende i Broiling sun – ristede alle Lobourers og og små til trugene som nogle svin og fodrede sig selv med deres hænder, så længe trugene endda indeholder en fugtighed. [25]

Slutningen af ​​den mexicansk-amerikanske krig i 1848 udløste heftige debatter i kongressen om udvidelse af slaveri til de nyerhvervede områder, herunder Californien. Beboere i Californien vejede gennem repræsentation af delegerede ind på spørgsmålet under en statslig forfatningskonference i 1849. Delegaterne, der består af nyankomne amerikanske immigranter og mexicanske landholdere, kæmpede med spørgsmål om race. En række af dem havde klart den opfattelse, der afspejles i 15. marts 1848 -udgaven af ​​områdets avis Den californiske, der sagde:

Syvende. Vi ønsker kun en hvid befolkning i Californien, selv indianerne blandt os er, så vidt vi har set, mere gener end fordel for det land, vi gerne vil slippe af med dem. [26]

I sidste ende vedtog Californiens vælgere imidlertid en forfatning i 1849 (før Californien blev en stat), der omfattede et afsnit, der sagde:

Afsnit 18. Slaveri er forbudt. Ufrivillig trældom er forbudt undtagen for at straffe kriminalitet. [27]

Californiens holdning til slaveri med hensyn til afroamerikanere øgede den debat, der rasede i det amerikanske senat på det tidspunkt til dels, fordi det påvirkede balancen mellem stater, der favoriserede slaveri og stater, der var imod det. Debatten blev midlertidigt løst ved kompromiset fra 1850, der indrømmede Californien til at være en fri stat.


Amerikansk erfaring

I august 1852 blev Alta Californien afslørede en bryggeri kamp. San Franciscos mest berømte kinesiske madam planlagde at sagsøge en berygtet kinesisk leder for afpresning. Den smukke Miss Ah Toy hævdede, at Yee Ah Tye havde forlangt, at hendes Dupont Street -prostituerede skulle betale ham en skat. Hun overliste ham straks ved at gøre noget, hun aldrig kunne have gjort i Kina - truet med at føre ham for retten.

Sagsøger og sagsøgte
"Frøken Atoy ved en ting eller to, efter at have boet under stjernerne i tre år og blæste republikanismens luft, og hun kan ikke let falde til sådanne foranstaltninger. Desuden bor hun i nærheden af ​​Politikontoret og ved hvor man kan søge beskyttelse, efter at have været foran optageren som tiltalte mindst femti gange selv. A-Thai må hellere være særlig med hensyn til de beføjelser, han påtager sig, eller han kan finde sin værdighed slettet, da han bliver dumpet i lock-up , "skrev en glad journalist.

Portræt af en kinesisk mand, c1853. Hilsen: Oakland Museum of California

Ledelsesrolle
Et år senere blev Yee Ah Tye faktisk dumpet i lock-up'en, denne gang for overfald og stort larveri. Oprindeligt fra Guangdong havde manden i en avis kaldet en "smålig despot" sejlet til San Francisco på et kinesisk skrammel lige inden guldrusen, da han var cirka 20 år gammel. Han tilbragte den første nat på gaden, sammenklemt i en døråbning. Yee Ah Tye havde lært engelsk i Hong Kong, og inden længe steg han til en lederskabsposition i den magtfulde Sze Yup Association.

Mørk side
Sze Yup og andre sådanne kinesiske organisationer mødte kinesiske tilflyttere til guldrusen ved havnene, gav dem et sted at bo, fandt dem job eller udstyrede dem til miner. De leverede en vigtig service til en gruppe mennesker, der talte lidt engelsk. Men Sze Yup havde også mørke sider, ligesom brugen af ​​brutal kraft. Det San Francisco Herald påståede Yee Ah Tye "pålagde mange af hans mere ydmyge landsmænd alvorlig kropslig straf. Skærede deres ører af, piskede dem og holdt dem lænket i timevis sammen."

Guldbjerget
I 1848, da de første kinesere ankom til San Francisco, havde kineserne allerede et etableret mønster for at forlade Kina for at arbejde i andre dele af verden. Høje skatter efter opiumskrigene havde tvunget mange bønder og landmænd fra deres jord. Flere års oversvømmelser og tørke førte til økonomisk desperation. Så bragte handelsskibe nyheder om Gam Saaneller guldbjerget. Størstedelen af ​​kinesiske mænd, der sejlede til Californien, var analfabeter, men drømte om nye muligheder.

En femtedel af befolkningen
Kinesiske minearbejdere havde en tendens til at bo i grupper og arbejde hævder, at amerikanerne havde forladt. I første omgang fandt amerikanerne de tilflyttere - med deres brede hatte og spisepinde - særegne og ville besøge kinesiske lejre for underholdning. Så, i 1852, et år med alvorlig afgrødefejl i det sydlige Kina, oversvømmede 20.026 kinesere toldhuset i San Francisco. Det foregående år var der kun ankommet 2.716. I slutningen af ​​1850'erne udgjorde kinesiske immigranter en femtedel af befolkningen i de fire amter, der udgjorde de sydlige miner.

Racisme
En Yankee -minearbejder klagede: "Chinamen er ved at være alt for rigelig i dette land." Guvernør John Bigler gav udtryk for offentlig stemning, da han foreslog at dæmme op for den kinesiske immigrations strøm. A Chinese man responded with a letter to the Alta Californien, writing "The effects of your late message has been thus far to prejudice the public mind against my people, to enable those who wait the opportunity to hunt them down, and rob them of the rewards of their toil."

Robberies and Murders
In May 1852 the state imposed a Foreign Miners Tax, the second such tax on non-Americans in two years. This time, a levy of $3 per month was explicitly directed at the Chinese miners. And, as predicted, violence increased. Det Alta Californien reported that 200 Chinese miners had been robbed and four murdered at Rich Gulch. When miner Alfred Doten's camp was robbed, he blamed some convenient Chinese. "We visited our camp on the gulch and found it had been broken into so we went in and kicked up a row with the Chinese and told them we would shoot them if they stole any more."

No Longer Allowed to Testify
In 1854 Ah Toy was no longer able to take her grievances to court. In the case People v. Hall, the California Supreme Court reversed the conviction of George Hall and two other white men who had murdered a Chinese man. Hall and his companions had been convicted based on testimony of some Chinese witnesses. In its reversal the court extended the California law that African Americans and Native Americans could not testify in court to include the Chinese. The reversal made it impossible to prosecute violence against Chinese immigrants.

Business and Servitude
Chinese men moved into other occupations, including the laundry business, domestic service and later railroad building. Yee Ah Tye became a partner in a store called Hop Sing in La Porte. By 1866 it was the richest Chinese store in that town, with a value of $1,500 (about $36,000 in 2005 dollars). Only a few Chinese women came to the U.S. before 1880, but many of those who did served as prostitutes for people like Ah Toy. Upon arrival, they were examined and sold for between $300 and $3,000 to brothel owners or wealthy Chinese seeking a mistress.

Rose-colored Glasses
When Chinese miners sent their gold home, their families quickly assumed a prominent new place. Women married to successful miners were called "gold mountain wives." As they built new houses, they were subject to gossip and envy. Rarely did stories about the hard work and the daily discrimination faced by Chinese in America find their way across the Pacific.

Significant Contributions
By 1870 there were 63,000 Chinese in U.S., 77% of whom were in California. That year, Chinese miners contributed more than $5 million to state's coffers through the Foreign Miners Tax, almost one quarter of state's revenue.

In 1882, Congress enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act, the only American law to specifically bar one group from immigrating to the United States.


COMING TO TERMS WITH GENOCIDE

In today's partisan world of American politics there is a bipartisan consensus on one issue, sweeping the troublesome issue of native American genocide under the rug. There is a reason for this. Any effort to discuss the genocidal origins of America would create two very severe problems. In the first place it would raise questions about the moral authority of the American system at home and the moral authority of American imperialism abroad. A second major problem would be that a frank look at US origins would mandate trillions of dollars in reparations to native Americans.

Meanwhile, the living conditions of native Americans are among the worst in the nations

A particularly amusing aspect of modern America is the hysteria about "illegal immigrants" from Mexico. Who are the real "illegal immigrants". Frank discussion about this is to be avoided at all costs.

However, the past does haunt the future. Karma is powerful force. History is a long term game. There are reasons to fear for America's future if the sins of the past are not recognized. This article to stimulate debate here.

The truth matters. You cannot live a lie.

America has many positive aspects. However, a frank look at the darker aspects of the past really is necessary if we are to build a viable future.


The Enslaved Native Americans Who Made The Gold Rush Possible - HISTORY

S lavery has been practiced since the fall of man. It is not a product of &ldquoracism&rdquo it is not an issue of skin color it is a product of man&rsquos sinful heart. The Lord Jesus Christ described man&rsquos condition with perfect accuracy and uncovered the fundamental issue:

&ldquo And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: All these evil things come from within, and defile the man&rdquo (Mark 7:20-23).

When men believed the devil&rsquos lie and chose sin over God, they became slaves, slaves not only to sin but slaves physically. History is filled with the sad accounts of men being enslaved by their fellow men and treated as mere cattle, from the slaves under the brutal whips of ancient pharaoh to the serfs of 17th century Europe to the dirt poor classes of modern Asia and Africa.

Slavery has been practiced by the white man, the black man, the red man, the yellow man, and every other kind of man.

Slavery was practiced by the Babylonians, the Hittites, the Assyrians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Persians, the ancient Brits, the Danes, the Romans, the African kingdoms, the South American kingdoms, the Chinese, Indians, Mongols, Mughuls, Burmese, Native Americans, the Muslim kingdoms, Spanish, British, and Americans. It is still practiced in some places.

BABYLONIAN king Hammurabi (ruled c. 1792-1750 BC) enslaved multitudes. &ldquoAt the basis of it lay the slave population, the necessary condition of all economic activity in antiquity. Slaves were employed upon the farms, by the manufacturers and in the temples. The sources of the supply were various. War furnished many others had fallen from the position of free laborers still others were purchased from abroad, or were children of native bondsmen&rdquo (George Goodspeed, A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians , 1902, Kindle Locations 876-879).

Ancient EGYPT practiced slavery on a massive scale. Egypt infamously enslaved the entire nation of Israel. The Midianites knew there was a ready market in Egypt for slaves such as Joseph (Ge. 37:28). This type of thing happened continually in ancient times. &ldquoTravellers were easily and often illegally captured in foreign lands where nobody knew them, and sold into slavery and there was often no one they could appeal to for help&rdquo (&ldquoSlavery,&rdquo reshafim.org). Women were purchased for the harems of the Pharaoh and other nobility. Pharaoh Amenhotep III ordered 40 &ldquovery beautiful concubines without blemish&rdquo from Syria. Multitudes became slaves as prisoners of war. Ancient Egyptian monuments describe large numbers of slaves taken in battle. For example, Ramses III wrote, &ldquoI laid low the Meshwesh, the Libyans, the Esbet, the Keykesh, the Shai, the Hes and the Beken. . I carried away those whom my sword spared, as numerous captives, pinioned like birds before my horses, their wives and their children by the ten thousand, their cattle in number like hundred thousands&rdquo (James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt , Part IV). Thutmose III returned from a campaign in Canaan with almost 90,000 prisoners. Many slaves were sent to work in the gold and copper mines of Nubia and Sinai, where they were worked to death under harsh conditions in the terrible heat. Other slaves worked on &ldquothe estates of the pharaohs, the nobility and the priests.&rdquo &ldquoPharaoh Seti I announced on the Wadi Halfa stela how he had endowed Min-Amen&rsquos temple at Buhen, so that his storehouse was filled with male and female slaves from the captivity of his majesty, L.P.H. Ramses III is said to have given 113,000 to the temples during the course of his reign&rdquo (&ldquoSlavery,&rdquo reshafim.org). &ldquoIf a [slave] stole so much as an animal hide he could be whipped with 100 lashes and stabbed five times in the back, and then be sent back to work&rdquo (&ldquoSpear injuries show worker life in ancient Egypt,&rdquo USA Today , Oct. 13, 2015). The wealthy included their slaves in lists of valuable assets. The children of slaves belonged to their masters, and slave families were passed from generation to generation by inheritance.

A large portion of ancient CHINESE society consisted of slaves. Qin Shi Huang, emperor of the Chin Dynasty, castrated captives &ldquoto mark them and make them slaves&rdquo (&ldquoThe 25 most ruthless leaders of all time,&rdquo Business Insider , Feb. 4, 2016). The Great Wall was built largely by slaves and there was no concern for the cost in human lives. It is said that &ldquoevery stone cost a human life&rdquo ( A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations ).

The Phoenician city-state of CARTHAGE gained control over tribes and cities along the African coast and far inland, enslaving the populations.

Slaves formed a large portion of the ancient Greek population. Many were chattel slaves who were called by Aristotle &ldquoan animate or ensouled piece of property.&rdquo Slaves were obtained by warfare, kidnapping, and piracy. They were bought and sold like other pieces of property. The price of the slave depended on his or her education, skill, appearance, and health. &ldquoThe majority of well-to-do Athenians probably owned two or three slaves, whereas the wealthy possessed between ten and twenty. . Nikias, one of the richest men in Athens in the late fifth century BC, owned 1,000 slaves, whom he leased out to fellow citizens at the rate of one obol per slave per day&rdquo (Garland, Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks , s. 70). Slaves had no practical legal rights. They were often starved, beaten, abused, even killed, depending on the whim of the master. &ldquoA runaway slave was branded with a hot iron upon capture.&rdquo

The SPARTANS enslaved an entire large tribe of people, the Helots. They were the property of the state and were assigned to Spartan citizens. There were possibly seven helot slaves for each Spartan. They were forced to do the agricultural and household work and any manual labor, freeing the Spartans to devote themselves to military training. Helot farmers gave half their produce to the Spartans. They had &ldquoan altogether cruel and bitter condition.&rdquo The poet Tyrtaios described the Helots as &ldquoasses worn down with great burdens.&rdquo They were forced to wear a dogskin cap and were beaten each year so they would not forget they were slaves. They were degraded in many ways, such as being forced to get drunk and dance and sing to entertain the Spartans.

PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 BC) razed at least 35 Greek cities to the ground, enslaved women and children by the tens of thousands, killed prisoners taken from defeated armies.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT enslaved hundreds of thousands. He destroyed the great city of Thebes, killing 6,000 of its citizens, selling 30,000 as slaves. When he destroyed Tyre in 332 BC, he sold 30,000 men, women, and children into slavery. He did the same to many others.

In the ROMAN EMPIRE , as many as 35% of the population were slaves, and their condition was often terrible. The city of Rome had a population of one to two million, half of whom were slaves (Henry Burton, The Biblical World , Bind. 3, 1894). After Rome destroyed Jerusalem and Israel&rsquos temple in AD 70, more than a million Jews were killed or sold as slaves. Slaves were considered property and had no legal rights under Roman law. They were called res (a thing, an object) and res mortales (a mortal thing). On the farm, slaves were called instrumentum vocalis (a talking tool). Farm slaves were branded on the forehead, chained together in teams of ten, and guarded by a foreman with a whip. Slaves could not own property or legally marry. They could be punished as the owner pleased, tortured, raped, castrated, prostituted, even executed. Runaways were treated as thieves (having stolen themselves from their masters) and suffered terrible tortures as warnings to others. When the slave revolt under Spartacus was defeated in 71 BC, 6,000 of them were crucified along the Appian Way to Rome and their bodies left to rot on the crosses for months. Children born of slaves were the property of their owners. Many were worked to death under cruel conditions. Consider the Egyptian mines. &ldquoEgypt&rsquos gold and quicksilver mines were worked by slaves, criminals and prisoners of war, including women, elderly men and children. Young men hacked the quartz loose. Older men broke the quartz into fragments. Children dragged the quartz to the grinders, powered by women who like others worked without rest, walking in circles and pushing levers that rotated a shaft. According to the Greek writer Agatharchides, in the mid-100s BCE, relief came only with death, which these miners welcomed&rdquo (&ldquoPrivilege, Poverty and Failed Revolutions,&rdquo Macrohistory and World Timeline , www.fsmitha.com). This description refers to the time of the Greek Empire, but nothing of significance changed under the Romans.

ISLAM was a slaving people since Mohammed, who took one-fifth of the slaves for himself. Muslims turned slavery into a major industry for over a thousand years. It was a &ldquoMuslim gold rush.&rdquo &ldquoSlave taking rapidly burgeoned into a major industry&rdquo (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves , s. 140). Between 698-709, Muslims defeated the black Berber tribes of northwestern Africa, selling 60,000 into slavery. &ldquo Islamic Spain became the hub of a vast new slave-trade. Hundreds of thousands of European slaves, both from Christian territories and from the lands of the pagan Slavs, were imported into the Caliphate, there to be used as concubines (if female) or to be castrated (if male) and made into harem guards or the personal body-guards of the Caliph&rdquo (Emmet Scott, Muhammad and Charlemagne Revisited ). Between 712 and 1193, Muslim armies raided India in subsequent waves of attacks. They demolished temples, robbed, murdered, raped, and enslaved millions. For example, in 1001 AD Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni took 500,000 slaves from Jayapala, including thousands of children. In the days of Mughal ruler Babur (r. 1526-1531), slave markets were set up at Kabul and Qandahar &ldquowhere caravans came from India carrying slaves ( barda ) and other commodities to sell at great profits&rdquo (M.A. Khan, Islamic Jihad , s. 216). Mughal governor Said Khan Chaghtai &ldquopossessed 1,200 eunuch slaves.&rdquo Shah Jahan (builder of the Taj Mahal) had a harem of 5,000 concubines. The magnificent Mughal buildings were constructed largely through slave labor. &ldquo[I]t is the great multitude of enslaved Indians who supplied unconditional labor, with Muslim masters on watch with whips in their hands. . Sultan Alauddin accumulated 70,000 slaves, who worked continuously in building. . Sultan Firoz Tughlaq assembled 180,000 slaves for his services&rdquo (M.A. Khan. Islamic Jihad , pp. 229, 230). The Ottomans were major slavers. An estimated one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves. Most towns and cities had a slave marketplace called an Esir . It is estimated that over 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim world in the past 14 centuries&rdquo (&ldquoA Focus on the African Slaves in the Arab World,&rdquo African Echo , Sep. 18, 2015). Another four million white Europeans were enslaved (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters ). The Ottomans also traded in slaves in the region of the Black Sea. An estimated three million Europeans from this region were enslaved between the 14th to the 17th centuries (Alan Fisher, &ldquoMuscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade,&rdquo Canadian American Slavic Studies , 1972, Vol. 6, pp. 575&ndash594). The Ottomans also purchased white slaves from the Vikings . They lived in North Europe in modern Sweden and Denmark and conducted pirate raids between the eighth to the eleventh centuries. They are called Norse and Scandinavians. They raided throughout the British Isles, western and northern Europe. They traveled east as far as the Volga River in Russia where they sold white European slaves to the Muslims, particularly white women for the harems (M.A. Khan, Islamic Jihad , pp. 322, 323). Beginning in the 8th century, Muslims took over the ancient African slave trade that had existed since the Egyptian pharaohs. &ldquoThe African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth). . Four million slaves were exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean&rdquo (Elikia M&rsquobokolo, &ldquoA Hundred and Fifty Years after France Abolished Slavery,&rdquo Le Monde diplomatique , April 1998). Beginning in the eighth century, Arab traders on the Swahili Coast in east Africa bought Zanj (Bantu) captives from the interior of Africa (present-day Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique) and sold them to Muslims in Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and elsewhere. Eventually tens of thousands of slaves were captured and sold every year. &ldquoA 10th-century caliph of Baghdad had 11,000 slaves at his palace&rdquo (&ldquoHuman Cargo,&rdquo New York Times , Mar. 4, 2001). Slaving continued on the East Coast of Africa until the 19th century. Under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through Zanzibar each year (&ldquoSwahili Coast,&rdquo national geografi , Oct. 17, 2002). Northern Africa became the base for the Muslim Barbary pirates . They operated throughout the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic from their bases in Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. These states were a part of the Ottoman Empire, and the sultans in Constantinople received a portion of the slaves and stolen wealth. They were &ldquothe recognized overlords of the Mohammedan world&rdquo (Brian Kilmeade, Thomas Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates , s. 36). From the 16th to the 19th century, they captured an estimated 1 to 1.25 million white Europeans (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves ). This doesn&rsquot include those captured by Morocco and other raiders. It was called &ldquoChristian stealing.&rdquo Slavery is still practiced widely in Sudan and Mauritania . In the latter, slavery has existed since the Arabs conquered it in the 12th century. Though abolished in 1981, the law is not enforced. Estimates of slaves in Mauritania today &ldquorange from 100,000 to more than a half-million.&rdquo Slaves &ldquoare used for labor, sex and breeding. The property of their masters, they are passed down through generations, given as wedding gifts or exchanged for camels, trucks, guns or money. . According to a Human Rights Watch/Africa report, routine punishments for slaves in Mauritania--for the slightest fault--include beatings, denial of food and prolonged exposure to the sun, with hands and feet tied together. More serious infringement of the master&rsquos rule (in American slave-owning parlance, &lsquogetting uppity&rsquo) can lead to prolonged tortures known as &lsquothe camel treatment,&rsquo in which the slave&rsquos body is slowly torn apart the &lsquoinsect treatment,&rsquo in which tiny desert insects are inserted and sealed into the ear canal until the slave is driven mad and &lsquoburning coals,&rsquo a torture not fit to describe in a family newspaper&rdquo (&ldquoArabs Have Black Slaves Today,&rdquo Israel National News , Mar. 29, 2013).

The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE of the 15th to the 19th centuries was a continuation of this ancient, global practice. In the 1440s, the Portuguese began trading in gold and slaves from the western coast of Africa. The first 200 slaves were brought to Portugal in 1444. This was the beginning of the wretched slave trade which corrupted western nations for four hundred years.

Historically, women were basically slaves in most nations and under most religions. Of Hindu women in India in former times, the Flemish painter Frans Solvyns said, &ldquoWhile their husband lives they are slaves, when he dies they must be ready to resign in the most cruel manner a life of which they never tasted the enjoyments [referring to the practice of wife burning called sati ]&rdquo (Robert Hardgrave, Jr., The Representation of Sati: Four Eighteenth Century Etchings by Baltazard Solvyns ).

Slavery is a fact of man&rsquos wretched history, and it is a reflection of man&rsquos fallen condition.

Sharing Policy: Much of our material is available for free, such as the hundreds of articles at the Way of Life web site. Other items we sell to help fund our expensive literature and foreign church planting ministries. Way of Life's content falls into two categories: sharable and non-sharable. Things that we encourage you to share include the audio sermons, O Timothy magazine, FBIS articles, and the free eVideos and free eBooks. You are welcome to make copies of these at your own expense and share them with friends and family. You may also post parts of reports and/or entire reports to websites, blogs, etc as long as you give proper credit (citation). A link to the original report is very much appreciated as the reports are frequently updated and/or expanded. Things we do not want copied and distributed are "Store" items like the Fundamental Baptist Digital Library, print editions of our books, electronic editions of the books that we sell, the videos that we sell, etc. The items have taken years to produce at enormous expense in time and money, and we use the income from sales to help fund the ministry. We trust that your Christian honesty will preserve the integrity of this policy. "For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward" (1 Timothy 5:18). Questions? [email protected]

Goal: Distributed by Way of Life Literature Inc., the Fundamental Baptist Information Service is an e-mail posting for Bible-believing Christians. Established in 1974, Way of Life Literature is a fundamental Baptist preaching and publishing ministry based in Bethel Baptist Church, London, Ontario, of which Wilbert Unger is the founding Pastor. Brother Cloud lives in South Asia where he has been a church planting missionary since 1979. Our primary goal with the FBIS is to provide material to assist preachers in the edification and protection of the churches.


Idaho - History and Heritage

Prior to the arrival of European and Mexican explorers, roughly 8,000 American Indians, representing two distinct groups, inhabited Idaho: the Great Basin Shoshone and Bannock tribes of the Shoshone-Bannock, the Shoshone Paiute and the Plateau tribes of the Coeur d'Alene, Nez Perce and Kootenai. Today, Idaho's American Indian heritage, their tribes and chiefs are reflected in county names like Nez Perce, Benewah, Shoshone, Bannock and Kootenai counties and the communities of Shoshone, Pocatello, Blackfoot, Nezperce, White Bird, Kamiah, Lapwai, Weippe, Kooskia, Picabo and Tendoy.

Relateret indhold

Spanish explorers made trips west beginning in 1592. Spaniards introduced pigs, horses, domestic fowl, tomatoes, beans, corn and garlic to the American Indians of the Northwest. Lewis and Clark were the first Euro-Americans to set foot on what is now known as Idaho. They encountered Spanish-speaking American Indians as well as those who spoke their tribal language. The expedition was followed by French-Canadian fur trappers resulting in names of communities like Coeur d'Alene (French for "heart of the awl") and Boise (Le Bois-French for "the trees").

Even the impact of Hawaiian Islanders employed as laborers in the Northwest fur trade received recognition through the naming of Owyhee County. Almost the entire staff of Fort Boise from 1834-1844 were from the Hawaiian Islands.

Mountain men, including Spaniards and Mexicans, lived off the land as trappers and hunters. In the 1860s, there were a number of Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) living in the Treasure Valley. By 1863 Mexicans were mining at Spanishtown, a camp near Rocky Bar. Jesus Urquides, one of several successful Mexican businesspeople, came to Boise in 1863, became a prominent Pacific Northwest packer and built the Spanish Village in 1870s to house his Mexican packers. The 1870 census included 60 Mexican-born individuals.

York, William Clark's African American servant, traveled through what is now Idaho in 1805 with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Respected then by the Indians, today York is credited as being of great value to the trip’s success. Some fur trappers, traders and miners who followed were African American, including one who helped build the first mission in the Northwest. Until after the Civil War, only free Black or escaped slaves came West unless brought by their owners. The entry of the railroad through southern Idaho starting in the 1880s resulted in a number of African Americans settling in Pocatello. Four companies of troops from the 24th Regiment (an African American unit) were sent to Idaho 1899 to maintain order during the Coeur d'Alene mining strikes. The 1900 Idaho census listed 940 African Americans.

At one time, during the Gold Rush of the early 1800s, Idaho's population was one-quarter Chinese. By 1870, a majority of all Idaho miners were Chinese.

In the mid-1800s, as with other western states, most early Idaho settlers fled the East to escape what they saw as officially-sanctioned harassment of individuals for their beliefs. This was true of Mormons fleeing persecution and Union and Rebel supporters desperately seeking to flee the Civil War.

During the 1890s, there were several thousand Japanese laborers constructing the railroad through Idaho.

In 1896, Idaho became the fourth state in the nation to give women the right to vote. The territorial legislature had come close to giving women the right to vote as early as 1869. In 1867, the territorial legislature passed a statute making Idaho a community property state. It was not until the turn of the century that women in more than a handful of states had equal rights to family assets. In 1972, Idaho became the first state in the nation to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment.

Between 1900 and 1920 a large number of Basque immigrants came to Idaho from the Pyrenees to work as sheepherders. Today, Boise has the largest Basque community in the United States.

Idaho was the first state in the nation to elect a Jewish governor. Moses Alexander was elected in 1914 and re-elected in 1916.

In 1990, Larry EchoHawk was the first Native American to be elected attorney general of any state in the United States.

Idaho’s American Indian Communities

Coeur d’Alene Tribe
Translated from French, the name "Coeur d’Alene" came from the French fur traders and trappers who first encountered the Schitsu'umish Indians. The term actually means "heart of the awl" referring to the sharpness of tribal member trading skills exhibited in their dealings with fur traders. The nickname stuck. One Frenchman even described the tribe as "the greatest traders in the world."

The Coeur d’Alene’s tribal homeland includes almost five million acres of what are now northern Idaho, eastern Washington and western Montana. Unlike the tribes of the plains, the Coeur d'Alenes were not nomadic. Coeur d'Alene Indian villages were established along the Coeur d'Alene, St. Joe, Clark Fork and Spokane rivers. These tribes traded with neighboring tribes and with many tribes far away on the Pacific coast.

Ancient trade routes connected the Coeur d'Alenes with the Nez Perce, the Shoshones and the Bannocks to the south and southeast. To the east were the tribes of the Great Plains and the vast herds of buffalo. With the coming of horses, young Coeur d'Alene men journeyed east to hunt buffalo. However these journeys were not necessary for survival. They were viewed as adventures and even rites of passage for youth who would emerge into manhood and into leadership roles. All ancient tribal trade routes and paths remain today. In fact, those very same routes are still used all across the country and are called interstate highways.

Duck Valley Shoshone-Paiute Tribes
The Duck Valley Indian Reservation is home to approximately 900 of 1,700 tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute. Located 96 miles north of Elko on the high desert in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho, a mix of Western Shoshone, Northern and Malheur Paiute Indians represent the tribe. Total acreage includes 289,819 acres of tribal land 144,274 acres in Elko County, Nev. and 145,545 acres in Owyhee County, Idaho. There are also 3,981.68 acres of public land at Wildhorse Reservoir.

While a large portion of land is dedicated to agriculture, the tribe's primary source of income is from the sale of fishing permits in its two large reservoirs. The operation of a marina on one of its lakes and the sale of grazing permits for its 260,000 acres of range land provide additional income for the tribe. Other limited employment available for residents can be found at several small, tribal-owned businesses including a laundromat, general store, café and gas station.

Nez Perce Tribe
Nez Perce is a misnomer given to the tribe by French-Canadian fur trappers. The French translate it as "pierced nose." Even though the Nez Perce didn't pierce their noses, the name remained and today it is pronounced "Nezz Purse". Ni Mii Pu (Ni-MEE-Poo) is what tribal members call themselves. It means "The People."

When the weary and hungry Lewis and Clark Expedition encountered the Nez Perce on the Weippe Prairie in 1805, the Ni Mii Pu chose to help the explorers survive. They fed and refreshed them, helped build canoes and provided directions to the Pacific Ocean.

Today the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho totals about 138,000 acres. Approximately 1,800 of the 3,100 enrolled tribal members live on the reservation itself. The nine-member Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee is the governing body for the reservation.

Shoshone and Bannock Tribe
In eastern Idaho along Interstate 1-15 and 1-86 lies the 544,000-acre Fort Hall Indian Reservation on a small part of the land that the Shoshone and Bannock Indians have lived on for more than 10,000 years.

Before recorded history, the Shoshone and Bannock originally roamed the areas of what are now the states of Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and Idaho. In their search for food they hunted, gathered and fished for salmon. Horses introduced in the early 1700s allowed some groups to travel great distances in pursuit of buffalo.

A Presidential Executive Order established the 1.8 million acre reservation in 1867 but a survey error reduced the size of the Reservation to 1.2 million acres in 1872. Later, encroachments reduced the reservation to its present size.

The first white men to explore the West were the trappers and explorers. Sacajawea, a Lemhi Shoshone, accompanied Lewis and Clark to the Pacific Ocean in 1805 and back in 1806. Visit the Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural and Education Center in Salmon and the Fort Hall Museum in Fort Hall, ID.

Salish Tribe
The Flathead Indian Reservation (1,244,000 acres) is home to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. In this confederation the Salish and Pend d'Oreilles members formed one tribe and the Kootenai another. The tribal headquarters are in Pablo, Mont.

The traditional Salish and Kootenai hunted buffalo on the Great Plains as well as deer, elk and other wild game in western Mont. A variety of plant foods such as bitterroot, camas, moss, wild onions, Indian potatoes and serviceberries were gathered during their seasons and preserved for later use.

North Central Idaho
Idaho’s history is deeply intertwined with the American Indians who first inhabited this land. Experience the history of Idaho’s American Indians by visiting the Nez Perce National Historical Park and Trail. The historical park and museum pays tribute to the lives and legacy of the people of the Nez Perce Tribe. Originally developed as a Nez Perce mission location, two years after missionaries Henry and Eliza Spalding settled on Lapwai Creek in 1836, today this site serves as National Park Service headquarters and contains a major interpretive center to explain Nez Perce history. The park consists of 38 sites scattered across four states and is the only national park that celebrates a people instead of a place. It contains over 5,000 historic photographs and 24 historic sites that tell the story of the Nez Perce people. Visitors can also view a movie about the Nez Perce culture and history.

For a truly all-encompassing history of Idaho, stop along the Lewis and Clark Trail. Relive the steps of the historic Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Riverside Tepee and Canoe Camp where you will enjoy Lewis and Clark history, Native American historical and cultural activities, expedition re-enactments, special events and hands-on activities with American Indian staff. Experience longboat river tours, guided fishing trips, kayaks and canoes.

Silver Valley Mining History
Northern Idaho is filled with history and stories from the days of the big mining era. Experience this look back in time with a trip to the Silver Valley inklusive Wallace, Murray, Prichard and Kellogg.

Until recently, mining was the lifeblood of Wallace. Established in 1892 Wallace served as supply center for one of the largest silver producing areas in the world in the late 1800s. Today the entire town is on the National Register of Historic Places. The Northern Pacific Depot - an architectural gem - and the Coeur d'Alene District Mining Museum serve as interpretive centers for regional history. The Oasis Bordello Museum provides a more "colorful perspective" of the town's past and the Sierra Silver Mine gives a good feel for the life of an underground miner.

Located near Wallace in the Idaho Panhandle, Murray and Prichard also feature the history of the early mines that put Idaho on the map. Travel to Murray to see the famous Spragpole Museum Restaurant & Bar along with the Bedroom Gold Mine Bar.

Next, travel southwest to Kellogg where kids will enjoy panning for their own gold on the Crystal Gold Mine Tour. This 30-minute tour takes visitors deep inside this old mine which, after miner Tom Irwin blasted the mountain away to hide the mine’s entrance in 1882, lay hidden to the world for more than 100 years. Visitors experience a time gone by witnessing Tom’s old mine car and tools inside. Paved walking paths make it easy for all ages to get around.

Southeastern Idaho
For a history trip the kids will not forget, a tour of southeastern Idaho is a must. Start out at Fort Hall in Pocatello, a replica of the historic facility that served pioneer travelers along the Oregon Trail. Enter the massive wooden gates and wander through Company Hall, Frontier Room, Indian Room, Blacksmith, and Carpenter's Room. A covered wagon and tepee enhance the outdoor exhibit. Web: www.forthall.net or 208-234-1795.

If the kids are ready for a break, travel southeast to Lava Hot Springs. For centuries many Indian tribes called these natural hot water springs "healing waters." Geologists theorize the water has been a consistent 110 degrees for at least 50 million years. Today the State of Idaho maintains this world-famous resort complex year-round, offering hot mineral baths at 110 degrees Fahrenheit that are sulfur and odor-free. In addition to the hot pools there is a free form Olympic-size swimming and diving pool for summer fun.

Continuing southeast to Montpelier, stop at The National Oregon/California Trail Center which offers an excellent, structured educational experience about the largest mass migration in American history, the Oregon Trail. Ride in a computer-controlled covered wagon. Journey the trails with experienced guides in period costumes.

Finally if your family is a Napoleon Dynamite fan, visit the movie location site in Preston and check out specific places and items such as Napoleon’s house, Preston High School and Uncle Rico’s van.

Sacajawea Heritage Days celebrates the assistance Sacajawea, a native of the Lemhi valley, gave to the Lewis and Clark Expedition as it passed through the Lemhi Valley. The event features the annual Great Salmon Valley Balloonfest with hot air balloons, arts and crafts reminiscent of the period, breakfast, cattlemen's barbeque, a concert, talent stage, Lewis & Clark artifact replicas, tribal dancing and an ice cream social.


Effects of the California Gold Rush

No one could have imagined the far-reaching implications of the discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in Northern California.

On 24 January 1848, James Wilson Marshall found the first few pieces of gold in Coloma, California. It did not take long for more than 300 000 people, men and women alike, to migrate west in the hopes of making their fortune panning gold. The effects of the California Gold Rush are many and far-reaching they did not cease to be felt when the furor finally died down, but continue to be felt to this day

California Becomes a State

Though California was a Mexican possession when the year began, the land was ceded to the United States early in 1848. Though initially content to change nothing about the system of law or government in place in the region, it soon became evident that something had to be changed – little could be done to maintain roads, oversee education, or provide other essential services.

Though Congress was given recommendations to designate California as a US territory, nothing was done in this regard before the Gold Rush. However, once gold was discovered and the Californian economy began to really take off, it did not take long for the government officials to recognize the advantages of allowing California to join the union, and in 1850 it was accepted as a free state.

Effects of the Gold Rush on Settlements

As forty-niners poured into California, the towns and villages quickly filled up, resulting in the growth of already established cities, such as San Francisco, and the creation of new hastily-developed settlements. While many of these settlements developed into permanent cities still surviving today, many were abandoned at the close of the Gold Rush. Today, numerous ghost towns dating from the Gold Rush can be found scattered across California.

Farming settlements were also greatly affected by the California Gold Rush. On the one hand, the newly created settlements encroached on the farmland, and mining practices compromised the quality of the land. On the other hand, however, many farming communities enjoyed increased economic prosperity during the Gold Rush, thanks to the large number of miners who could not produce food for themselves.

Natives and the California Gold Rush

When gold was first discovered in California, the Native Americans of the area did not oppose the mining, and did not feel strong negative effects. At first, the white miners hired the Native Americans to pan the gold for them (though some did work independently). However, as news of the discovery spread and miners began to arrive from other regions, particularly Oregon, relations between the miners and the natives began to sour. Hostilities were soon opened, and the two groups openly attacked each other.

Furthermore, the excitement created by the discovery of gold, and the sheer volume of immigrants to the area, led to complete disregard for prior treaties and land reservations. It did not take long for the newcomers to push their way into the natives’ land, forcing them to move. Many of those who did not move faced further hostilities. In the end, thousands of natives were killed or forced out of California, leaving only a few in a region that at one point had had one of the largest populations of Native Americans in the United States.

Other Effects of the California Gold Rush

These are by no means the only short- or long-term effects of the 1848 Gold Rush. The creation of mines and settlements led to widespread destruction of habitat and, consequently, the destruction of thousands of animals. (This, of course, played a role in the destruction of Native Americans, as these animals were a major food source.) The need to transport people and products to and from the newly settled region led to the creation of infrastructure, particularly transportation routes, previously unknown in California. This helped to reaffirm the United States’ east-west ties.

There was no way for the first participants in the California Gold Rush to know what was going to happen in the years to come. The prosperity it initiated helped convince those in power to admit California to the Union settlements grew while others were created and subsequently abandoned and Native Americans faced almost total annihilation. Like any major event in history, the California Gold Rush had both its positive and negative effects, and these have been felt by thousands of people, even to this day.


Se videoen: Skvělá technika na snížení horečky a zrychlení procesu uzdravení


Kommentarer:

  1. Valen

    I mean, you allow the mistake. Jeg kan bevise det.

  2. Samugor

    Helt rigtigt! Så.

  3. Aldfrith

    du den abstrakte person



Skriv en besked