Pandavas

Pandavas


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Pandavas var de fem magtfulde og dygtige sønner af Pandu, kongen af ​​Hastinapur og hans to koner Kunti og Madri. Hastinapur sidestilles med den nuværende moderne indiske delstat Haryana, syd for New Delhi. Pandavaerne - Yudhistira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula og Sahadeva - er hovedpersonerne i det mest bifaldte epos i hinduismen, Mahabharata. Brødrene var berømt involveret i Kurukshetra -krigen med deres fætre Kauravas om, hvem der ville kontrollere tronen i Hastinapur, og i sidste ende sejrede.

Pandavasens fødsel spores angiveligt tilbage til 3229 fvt, da Yudhistira blev født, og til 3226 fvt, da Nakula og Sahadeva blev født. Pandavas mest engagerende historie kan aldrig skilles fra dannelsen af ​​sociale strukturer og politiske beslutninger i det nuværende Indien på grund af den indflydelse, den har haft på måden at fungere og arve værdierne af Dharma, der blev fastlagt under deres regeringstid. Historien om Pandavas påvirker mange kulturer, især i Indien, i den måde mange hinduistiske husstande træffer beslutninger, vurderer og implementerer de moralske konklusioner af deres handlinger.

Pandavas fødsel

Historien om deres fødsel er ret interessant og ud over de generelle forestillinger om tro. Pandu havde to koner, Kunti og Madri. En konge fik lovligt lov til at have flere koner i disse tider. Interessant nok, mens han jagtede i skoven i Hastinapur, ramte Pandu tilfældigt med en pil et kopulerende hjortepar, der faktisk var mennesker forklædt som hjorte for at nyde at elske i det fri. Hanhjorten var Rishi Kidamba, der efter at have været gennemboret af pilen kastede en forbandelse over Pandu om, at han ville dø i det øjeblik, han avancerede til at være intim med en kvinde. Dette påvirkede alvorligt de to koner, der dengang ikke var i stand til at føde et biologisk barn af sig selv gennem Pandu. Pandu opgav derefter sit kongerige og levede i skoven som en asket efter at have givet tronen til sin fætter/bror Dhritarashtra, faderen til de 100 Kauravas, med hvem pandavaerne senere ville føre en krig.

Alle fem Pandavas arvede guddommelige kvaliteter fra deres himmelske fædre.

Overraskende nok havde Kunti modtaget en velsignelse i sin tidlige voksenalder fra en hård og berømt Rishi Durvasa, som hun kunne kalde enhver af de guddommelige guder og føde et barn. Dette viste sig at være meget nyttigt, og ved brug af mantraer givet til hende af Durvasa opfordrede Kunti Yama, Dødens og Dharma's Gud, gennem hvem hun fødte Yudhistira. Hun påkaldte derefter Vindguden, Vayu, gennem hvem hun bragte Bhima til verden, senere kaldte hun Indra, der gav hende Arjuna som en anden Pandava. Hun følte derefter medlidenhed med Madri, som ellers ikke ville have et barn, hvis hun ikke hjalp hende, så med hjælp fra mantraerne kaldte Madri på tvillingerne Ashvins, der bar hende Nakula og Sahadeva. Således blev de fem Pandavaer født gennem forbandelsens kombinerede nåde over Pandu, velsignelsen til Kunti og gudernes komme, der hjalp de to koner med at få fem børn. Alle Pandavas arvede guddommelige kvaliteter fra deres himmelske fædre.

Konkurrence for Draupadi

Pandavaerne var menneskelige i naturen, men havde guddommelige kvaliteter, som de nærede og byggede ved hjælp af deres præceptor Guru Drona, en brahmin Rishi, som var overlærer for al deres uddannelse sammen med de af de 100 Kauravaer, fætrene til Pandavas. Lord Krishna, der var søn af Kuntis bror, spiller en lige så central rolle i at støtte Pandavaerne under deres eksil pålagt listigt af Kauravas. Under Pandavas eksil organiserede kongen af ​​Drupada en konkurrence, kaldet Swayamvar, hvor hans datter, Draupadi, ville gifte sig med den, der vandt konkurrencen. Konkurrencen skulle ramme øjet på de cirkulært roterende fisk på himlen - en imaginær konstruktion - med en sløjfe og snor ved at se ned på billedet af fisken i en vanddam nedenfor. For at tilføje en overraskelse var der en sjette Pandava, Karna, der var født, da Kunti, mens han var single, havde kaldt solguden Surya for at teste mantraet, der gav hende denne storslåede søn. Men da hun var single og for at redde hendes identitet fra at blive maligneret, måtte Kunti modvilligt opgive Karna, der blev hentet af et barnløst par, der arbejdede som vognmand i Hastinapur. Karna var uovertruffen i kraft, viden, gerninger, velgørenhed og færdigheder af enhver art. Arjuna var den eneste kamp for ham. Karna mødte også op til konkurrencen, men efter at have været nægtet adgang fra Draupadi for at være søn af ukendte forældre og søn af en vognmand, var Arjuna den eneste, der udførte bedriften og vandt konkurrencen.

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Yudhistira

Yudhistiras navn indikerer altid standhaftighed, selv i krig, når tingene er sværest. Da han var søn af Yama, var han den mest retfærdige og standhaftige, en tilhænger af Dharma i alle samfundslag og skinnede som den strålende sol i viden om lov, etik og moral. Han var den mest retfærdige af brødrene, der aldrig havde talt løgn i sit liv, undtagen under den sidste krig, hvor han blev tvunget til at undertrykke den høje sandhed gennem neutralitet. Han var en så standhaftig mand med retfærdige gerninger, at hans vogn under bevægelse ville forblive et par centimeter over jorden. På grund af denne forkærlighed for retfærdighed blev han desværre narret under et terningspil med Kauravas for at gamble hans kone Draupadi og mistede hende. Hans gerninger er enorme, og han er det eneste af to eksempler (det andet er Lord Rama) fra praksis med retfærdighed i alle livsstil og betingelser, selvom det betød at dræbe sig selv.

Bhima

Bhima var søn af Wind God Vayu, hvilket angav den voldsomme kraft og modighed, som han arvede. Han var den mægtigste af brødrene, både i fysisk dygtighed og i dygtighed og hurtighed. Han var glad for at spise og tog ofte størstedelen af ​​Pandavasens fælles måltider. Han var glad for at lave mad, var en god kok og ansatte sig selv som chefkok i det sidste år af Pandavas -eksil, hvor de skulle undertrykke deres identitet og leve ukendt for verden. Det var ham, der aflagde ed for at dræbe de 100 Kauravas som et resultat af at tabe terningespil og se hjælpeløst deres eneste kone, Draupadi, blive forstyrret af Dushashana, yngre bror til Duryodhana.

Arjuna

Arjuna var den mægtigste i færdigheder, mageløs i viden, færdigheder og hellig humør, besat af guddommelige våben, og det store ansvar for at vinde Kurukshetra -krigen blev givet ham, da han havde Lord Krishna som sin vognmand og rådgiver. Hans guddommelige våben besejrede, når de blev brugt, selv den mest berømte og dygtige kriger. Han var Lord Krishnas bedste ven, og modtageren af ​​den guddommelige viden fra Krishna, ofte kaldet Bhagavad Gita. Under deres eksil udholdt han de alvorligste stramninger og ofre og glædede Lord Shiva for at dukke op, som villigt forærede ham et guddommeligt våben til hans krig.

Nakula

Nakula, som var søn af Ashvinerne, var den dygtigste med dyr, især heste og elefanter. Han blev sammenlignet med Kærlighedens Herre (Amor) Kamadeva, da han så smuk ud og var en kvinde-charmer. Han var standhaftig i sin adfærd, havde overlegent kendskab til sundhed og kur mod mange af livstruende sygdomme. Han reddede sammen med Sahadeva Karas liv under krigen på Kuntis anmodning, da Karna donerede sit brystvåben til Indra, Arjunas far i en velgørende handling. Han var en fremragende sværdkæmper, udstyret med den bedste viden om videnskab, krigsførelse og usædvanlige våben.

Sahadeva

Sahadeva var Ashvins og Madri's anden søn, og han var Pandavas klogeste og mest mystiske karakter. Mens Pandu lå på sit dødsleje, bad han ham om at spise sit kød, så han kunne få al sin viden, og dermed var Sahadeva i stand til at forudse fremtiden med formindsket klarhed og reddede Pandavas -liv ved mange lejligheder. Han var den bedste inden for forebyggelse af kvæg og deres vækst, var en stor sværdkæmper som Nakula og havde erhvervet al nødvendig viden om Dharma og retfærdighed.

Karna

Karna var den ældste af Pandava -brødrene og den sjette Pandava, der først blev opdaget ved hans dødsleje i krigen af ​​sine yngre brødre. Han var mageløs i dygtighed, våben, velgørenhed og kunne forblive ubesejret selv af guderne. Han tog sin uddannelse fra Lord Parasurama, en hård brahmin og den sjette inkarnation af Lord Vishnu. Karna var søn af solguden og var ligeledes mest genial og fremragende, både inden for viden og krig. Han var den eneste, der kunne se igennem solen i timevis uden forstyrrelser, idet han var hans søn. Han kunne have været ubesejret i krigen, men kun Lord Krishnas snedige råd til Arjuna om at dræbe ham, mens han blev afvæbnet, bragte hans liv til ophør. I hele sit liv blev han kaldt a Suta putra eller et barn med ukendte forældre, og Radha adopterede ham, da han voksede op. Han var uforlignelig i velgørenhed og gav engang også hele sit palads væk for at blive brændt ned for at hjælpe borgerne i hans rige. Sådan var hans fortjeneste, at hans magt til giveaway aldrig forsvandt, og velstand aldrig forlod ham.


Pandavas - Historie

I Mahabharata en hinduistisk episk tekst er Pandavaerne Pandus fem anerkendte sønner af hans to koner Kunti og Madri. Deres navne er Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva og Yudhisthira. Alle fem brødre var gift med den samme kvinde, Draupadi. (Hver bror havde også flere andre koner.)

Historien begynder med introduktionen af ​​brødrenes forældre. Blandt den primære fjende var Duryodhana, den ældste af Kauravas og Pandavas 'fætter. Han var den ældste af de 100 brødre kendt som Kauravas, der blev født af den blinde konge af Hastinapura Dhritarashtra og hans dronning Gandhari (prinsesse af Gandhara).

Pandavaerne blev født af Kunti og Madri efter Pandus frivillige afkald på kongelig liv for at gøre nadver for ved et uheld at have dræbt vismanden (Rishi) Kindama og hans kone. Efter Pandus død bragte Kunti Pandavaerne tilbage til Hastinapura. Som børn legede Kauravas og Pandavas ofte sammen. Imidlertid var Bhima (en af ​​Pandaverne) altid i modstrid med Kauravaerne, hovedsageligt Duryodhana, der nægtede at acceptere Pandavaerne som hans slægtning. Dette førte generelt til stor spænding mellem fætrene. Usikker og jaloux havde Duryodhana ekstremt had til de fem brødre gennem hele sin barndom og ungdom, og efter onde råd fra hans morbror Shakuni planlagde han ofte at slippe af med dem for at rydde sin vej til herredømme over Kuru -dynastiet.

Denne planlægning tog en afgørende vending, da Dhritarashtra måtte overgive sig til massernes vilje og med rette udpegede sin nevø Yudhisthira til kronprins. Dette stred imod både far og søns personlige ambitioner (Dhritarashtra og Duryodhana) og drev Duryodhana i en sådan vrede, at han ivrigt gik med til en ond plan af Shakuni om at myrde Yudhisthira. Shakuni bestilte opførelsen af ​​et palads i Varnavata, hemmeligt bygget ved at inkorporere brandfarlige materialer i strukturen, især lak, kendt som Lac. Dette palads var kendt som Lakshagraha.

Duryodhana lobbyede derefter med succes med Dhritarashtra for at sende Yudhisthira til at repræsentere det kongelige hus i Varnavata under fejringerne af Shiva Mahotsava. Planen var at tænde paladset i løbet af natten, mens Yudhisthira sandsynligvis ville sove. Da Yudhisthira forlod Varnavata, ledsaget af sine fire brødre og mor Kunti, heldigvis for Pandavas, blev planen opdaget af deres farbror Vidura, som var meget loyal over for dem og en yderst klog mand. Derudover var Yudhisthira blevet advaret om dette plot af en ensom person, der kom til ham og talte om en forestående katastrofe. Vidura sørgede for, at der i hemmelighed blev bygget en tunnel, så Pandaverne sikkert kunne undslippe vokspaladset, da det blev sat i brand.

Efter deres flugt fra vokspaladset boede de fem brødre i skoven i nogen tid, i masken af ​​brahminer. De hørte fra en gruppe omrejsende vismænd om en konkurrence (Swayamvara), der blev afholdt i kongeriget Panchaal, der tilbød prinsessen Draupadis hånd i ægteskab med vinderen. Swayamvara viste sig at stole på bueskydningens færdigheder, og Arjuna, som var en overlegen bueskytte, deltog i konkurrencen og vandt. Da brødrene tog Draupadi for at præsentere hende for deres mor, meddelte de Kunti, at de var ankommet med en fremragende & quotalms & quot. Kunti havde travlt med noget arbejde og svarede uden at vende sig om at se på Draupadi og beordrede brødrene til at dele & quotalms & quot ligeligt mellem de fem af dem. Selv når de blev udtalt unøjagtigt, var deres mors ord det ypperste for Pandavas, som derefter accepterede at & quotshare & citerer prinsessen, som derefter var gift med alle fem brødre.

Da Dhritarashtra hørte, at de fem brødre var i live, inviterede han dem tilbage til kongeriget. Men i deres fravær var det lykkedes Duryodhana at blive kronprins. Ved tilbagevenden af ​​Pandavas blev spørgsmålet om tilbagelevering af Yudhisthiras krone rejst. Dhritarashtra førte de efterfølgende diskussioner til tvetydighed og gik med til en opdeling af kongeriget & quotto gør retfærdighed over for begge kronprinser & quot.

Han beholdt den udviklede Hastinapura for sig selv og Duryodhana og gav Khandavaprastha's golde, tørre og fjendtlige landområder til Pandavaerne. Pandavaerne udviklede med succes deres land og byggede en overdådig og storby, der blev anset for at kunne sammenlignes med himlen, og dermed blev kendt som Indraprastha.

Duryodhanas jalousi og raseri blev yderligere brændt af Pandavas succes og velstand, da han faldt under tabet af halvdelen af ​​landene i hans fremtidige rige. Til sidst fik Shakuni endnu et trick og fik Duryodhana til at invitere Pandavaerne over til sin domstol for et spil terninger (hasardspil). Shakuni var en mester i hasardspil og ejede et par terninger, der magisk gjorde sit bud og frembragte numre, han ønskede. På grund af dette, væddemål efter væddemål, mistede Yudhisthira al sin rigdom og til sidst sit rige i spillet. Han blev derefter lokket af Duryodhana og Shakuni til at placere sine brødre som væddemål. Yudhisthira faldt for det og satte sine brødre på spil og mistede dem også. Han placerede sig derefter som et væddemål og tabte igen. Duryodhana spillede nu et andet trick og fortalte Yudhisthira, at han stadig havde sin kone Draupadi som et væddemål, og hvis Yudhisthira vandt, ville han returnere alt til Pandavas.

Yudhisthira faldt for nøglen og satsede på Draupadi og tabte hende også. På dette tidspunkt beordrede Duryodhan, at Draupadi, der nu var slave for ham, skulle bringes for retten. Duryodhanas yngre bror Dushasana slæbte Draupadi til det kongelige hof, trak hende i håret, fornærmede hendes værdighed og hævdede, at hun ligesom Pandava -brødrene nu var deres tjener. Dette forårsagede enorme kvaler for alle de store krigere, der sad i hoffet, men hver af dem, nemlig Bhishma (klanens oldefar), Dronacharya (læreren/guruen i Kauravas og Pandavas) og andre som Kripacharya og Vidura forblev tavse.

Duryodhana beordrede derefter Dushasana at afklæde Draupadi, før alle som slavepige ikke har menneskerettigheder. De ældste og krigere i publikum var chokerede, men greb ikke ind. Da Dushasana begyndte at trække Draupadis sari af, bad hun stille til Krishna for at beskytte hendes ære, og overraskende, uanset hvor meget af det Dushasana trak af, blev Draupadis sari ved med at vokse i længden, som om stoffet havde ingen ende. Således reddede Krishna Draupadi. Endelig da den blinde konge Dhrithrasthra indså, at denne forlegenhed kunne få Draupadi til at forbande sine sønner, greb han ind og undskyldte Draupadi for sine sønners opførsel og vendte gevinsten i terningspillet tilbage til Pandava -brødrene og frigjorde dem fra trældommen af slaveri.

Duryodhana blev rasende over tabet af alt det, han havde vundet, og truede selvmord og overtalte sin far til at invitere Pandavas til en sidste spillerunde, hvis vilkår var, at taberen ville blive dømt til 12 års eksil i skove og en 13. år, der skal bruges i hemmelighed, og hvis dækslet blæses i løbet af det 13. år, følger en anden cyklus på 13 år. Ved at adlyde deres onkels ordre spillede Pandavas runden og tabte igen for Shakunis snyd. Men denne gang var deres tålmodighed næsten skubbet til kanten. I løbet af de 12 års eksil i skoven forberedte de sig på krig.

Yudhisthira blev kronet, og efter at have regeret fredeligt i mange år forlod Pandava -brødrene og deres kone til himlen og tog en lang rejse gennem Himalaya.

Pandava -brødrene var i fællesskab gift med Draupadi. Ved en lejlighed blev Draupadi kidnappet og kidnappet fra en eremitage i skoven af ​​den umoralske konge Jayadratha. Da hendes ægtemænd fik at vide om forbrydelsen, kom de i jagten. Da han så dem nærme sig, bad Jayadratha Draupadi om at beskrive dem. Vredt sagde Draupadi til kongen, at hans tid var forbi, og at viden ikke ville gøre ham noget. Hun fortsatte derefter med at give beskrivelsen.

Yudhisthira
Ifølge Draupadi besad Yudhisthira en & quot -teint som rent guld, besat af en fremtrædende næse og store øjne og udstyret med et slankt mærke. & Quot Spydets mester. Han var retfærdig, havde en korrekt sans for moral og var medfølende med at overgive rivaler. Draupadi rådede Jayadratha til at løbe til Yudhisthira og tigge om tilgivelse.

Bhima
Draupadi beskrev Bhima som høj og langbevæbnet. I en fremvisning af grusomhed bid han med at "bide på læberne og trække sig i panden for at bringe de to øjenbryn sammen."

Arjuna
Arjuna beundrede hun som den største af bueskytter, intelligent, uden sidestykke & med sanser under fuldstændig kontrol. & Quot Hverken lyst eller frygt eller vrede kunne få ham til at opgive dyd. Selvom han var i stand til at modstå enhver fjende, ville han aldrig begå en grusomhed.

Nakula
Nakula, sagde Draupadi, var "den smukkeste person i hele verden." En talentfuld mester sværdmand, han blev også "citeret i ethvert spørgsmål om moral og fortjeneste" og "blev givet med stor visdom." Han var modigt hengiven til sine brødre, som igen betragtede ham som mere værdifuld end deres eget liv. Navnet Nakula betyder generelt fuld af kærlighed og de mandlige egenskaber, som navnet antyder, er: Intelligens, smukhed, attraktivitet, fokus, hårdt arbejde, sundhed, succes, popularitet, respekt og ubetinget kærlighed.


Pandavaerne hyldede og sørgede over deres sejr efter Mahabharat -krigen samtidigt. Yudhisthira blev kronet til kejser i Indraprastha, og de regerede alle lykkeligt nogensinde ... Ikke? Forkert! Lad os nu lære en lektion i mytologi: Eftervirkningen af ​​den store krig.

Efter krigen regerede Yudhisthira Indraprastha i 36 lange år, og under hans effektive regeringstid etablerede han fred og disciplin i staten.

På den anden side begyndte Gandharis forbandelse at tage sit præg på Krishna. Hans stammænd begyndte at kæmpe indbyrdes og ødelagde langsomt hele Yadava -klanen. Efter at han blev såret af en jægerpil selv, forlod Krishna sit dødelige legeme for sin rejse mod den himmelske bolig.

Efter Krishnas bortgang mistede Pandavas også interessen for livet. Så efter at have kronet Parikshita (deres barnebarn) som konge, forlod de fem brødre med deres kone Draupadi til deres sidste rejse til Himalaya.

Rejsen mod frelse

Da de besteg Himalaya faldt Draupadi ned. Bheem spurgte i fuldstændig chok Yudhisthira:

Hvortil Yudhisthira roligt svarede:

”Hun kan ikke komme ind i himlen med os. Hendes laster trak hende ned. Hun var gift med fem af os, men hun behandlede os aldrig ens. Hun var altid partisk over for Arjun, hun viste ikke kærlighed til dig og begærede efter Karna. Partialitet og lyst er to af de værste laster. Derfor faldt hun. ”

Den næste til at tage faldet var Sahadeva. Bheem kiggede nysgerrigt på Yudhisthira. Yudhisthira smilede bare og svarede:

”Sahadeva var stolt af sin intelligens. Han betragtede hver anden som mindre intelligent end ham. Stolthed er igen en last, der bringer din undergang. ”

Så var det Nakula, der ikke kunne fortsætte stigningen. Denne gang, før Bheem kunne reagere på nogen måde, sagde Yudhisthira:

“Nakula var stolt af sin skønhed. Han syntes, at ingen var så smuk som han er. Stolthed igen. ”

Næste i rækken for at forlade gruppen var Arjun. Denne gang ventede Bheem blot på, at Yudhisthira skulle forklare.

“Bheem, Arjuna var forgæves, og han holdt ikke sit løfte om at dræbe alle de tusinde Kauravaer på en enkelt dag. Han var også enorm stolt over sine bueskydningsevner. En krigers sind bør være fri for forfængelighed. Men hans var ikke. Derfor kan han ikke ledsage os længere. ”

Efter et stykke tid vendte Yudhisthira sig til Bheem og smilede:

"Du er ved siden af ​​at gå ned, min bror."

"Hvad er min vice?" spurgte han med åbne øjne.

”Din last er frosseri. Du spiste og spiste uden at tænke på andres behov eller ønsker. Du tænkte også på dig selv først i alt, hvad du gjorde. Derfor kan du ikke fortsætte rejsen med mig. ”

Dette var de sidste ord, Bheem hørte, før han faldt i dybet af dalen.

Med hensyn til Yudhisthira kom han ind i himlen, da han ikke havde nogen last.

Nå, dette er kun en teori om eftervirkningen af ​​Mahabharat -krigen ud af de millioner derude. Men det lyder sjovt, ikke sandt?


Arjuna fra Mahabharata

Arjuna var en af ​​de fem Pandava -brødre i Mahabharata -eposet. Han blev født af Kunti og og kong Pandu med energien fra Indra, gudernes leder. I en meget ung alder fik han anerkendelse for sin oprigtighed og dygtighed i bueskydning. Han var kendt for sin standhaftighed og enstemmighed i at forfølge sine mål. Han var medvirkende til at vinde Draupadi i en konkurrence for ham selv og sine brødre som deres fælles kone. Han giftede sig også med Subhadra, søster til Krishna og Balarama og beholdt sit venskab med dem for altid. Lord Krishna blev hans mentor og guide resten af ​​sit liv.

Han var kendt under forskellige navne eller rettere titler, såsom Phaalgun, Keerti, Paartha, Savyashachee, Dhanajaya og så videre. Under sine ophold til fjerntliggende steder på subkontinentet giftede han sig med Chitrangada, datter af kongen af ​​Manipur og Ulupi, en naga -prinsesse. To modige krigersønner blev født til ham. De var Abhimnyu gennem Subhadra og Bhabhruvahana gennem Chitrangada. Begge hans sønner spillede en vigtig rolle under Mahabharata -krigen.

Han havde en kraftig bue ved navn Gandiva, som hjalp ham enormt med at dræbe sine fjender. Han fik det fra Varuna, den vediske regngud gennem Agni, ildens gud. Han modtog også en guddommelig gylden vogn fra sidstnævnte som en gave, som hjalp ham med at kæmpe kampe med Indra, hans fadder og senere med Kauravaerne hans fætre.

Under eksil, da alle Pandava -brødrene måtte forlade deres rige og vandre i skovene i tolv år som en del af deres aftale med Kauravas, havde Arjuna et mærkeligt møde med Lord Siva, fra hvem han fik Pasupatha. I samme periode mødtes han med Indra og andre guder i himlen, fra hvem han modtog træning, og hjalp dem også til gengæld ved at dræbe nogle asuraer. Mens han var i himlen, mishagede han Urvashi, den himmelske nymfe, ved at afvise hendes fremskridt. Hun forbandede ham af vrede for at blive til en eunuk i et år i sit liv, som han valgte det.

Bortset fra bueskydning udmærkede han sig også inden for dans, sang og skuespil, hvilket enormt hjalp Pandavas, da de måtte bo i Virat -hoffet i fuld forklædning som en del af deres aftale med Kauravaerne i trettende år af deres eksil . Arjuna udnyttede den forbandelse, han fik fra Urvashi og forvandlede sig til Brihannala, en eunuk og fungerede som dansemester for det kongelige hus, især Uttara, datter af Virat. I slutningen af ​​et års ophold hjalp han kong Virat ved at kæmpe en kamp med Kauravas, der invaderede hans rige. Efter at have indset, at de fem mennesker, der arbejdede i hans hof, faktisk var Pandavas i forklædning, tilbød kong Virat at gifte sig med sin datter med Abhimanyu, søn af Arjuna til gengæld for de tjenester, brødrene ydede, et ægteskab, der viste sig at være afgørende i perioden efter mahabharata da sønnen født uden for ægteskabet var det eneste overlevende medlem af Pandava -klanen.

I kraft af sin indre renhed og hans loyalitet over for Lord Krishna havde Arjuna den lykke at modtage den guddommelige viden om Bhagavad-Gita. I Mahabharata -krigen spillede han en meget afgørende rolle ved at dræbe krigere som Bhishma, Karna, Dronacharya og Jayadhrata. Arjunas karakter symboliserer renhed, integritet, loyalitet og tapperhed. Han havde mange fristelser og dilemmaer i sit liv, men valgte altid at forblive på Guds side og med sine brødre i deres prøvelser og trængsler.

Han kunne have været en stor konge i sig selv, men han forblev loyal over for sin ældre bror Dharmaraj, der besteg Hastinapurs trone i kraft af at være den ældste i familien. Efter slaget ved Mahabharata hjalp han sin bror meget med at udvide deres imperium ved at annektere flere yderkongeriger og besejre krigende stammer. Mærkeligt efter at Lord Krishna døde, glemte han de fleste af sine evner som bueskytter og tilbragte resten af ​​sit liv i ydmyghed og hengivenhed. Arjuna fungerer som et eksempel på et stort menneske, en pligtopfyldende husmand, en loyal bror, en stor kriger, en trofast ægtemand og en oprigtig hengiven gud.


Mahabharata, The

En af de store episke af Indien og det længste digt i verden, Mahabharata er en hellig hinduistisk tekst. Den består af mange sagn og fortællinger, der kredser om konflikterne mellem to grene af en mytisk familie. Historierne - som involverer guder, halvguder, og helte - indeholder elementer af kosmologi, filosofi og religiøs doktrin. En del af det episke kaldet Bhagavad Gita er den vigtigste religiøse tekst i hinduismen.

Oprindelse, indstilling og baggrund. Selvom traditionen hævder, at en gammel vismand, eller klog mand, kaldet Vyasa, skrev Mahabharata, den var næsten helt sikkert komponeret af en række forskellige digtere og derefter samlet i et enkelt værk engang mellem 400 B . C . og EN . D . 200. Eposet nåede sin nuværende form omkring 200 år senere. Den indeholder næsten 100.000 vers og er opdelt i 18 sektioner kaldet parvans.

Det Mahabharata ligger i kongeriget Kurukshetra på de nordlige sletter i Indien langs Ganges -floden. Åbningen parvans forklare hovedpersonernes herkomst og give baggrund for værkets centrale konflikt. Denne konflikt begynder, når den retmæssige arving til tronen i Kurukshetra, en blind prins ved navn Dhritarashtra, bliver forbigået til fordel for sin yngre bror Pandu. I stedet for at tage tronen går Pandu dog til Himalaya -bjergene for at leve som en eremit og efterlader Dhritarashtra trods alt.

Rivaler om magt. Inden Pandu forlod Kurukshetra, fødte hans to koner fem sønner, der blev kendt som Pandavas. De boede på det kongelige hof sammen med deres fætre, de 100 sønner af Dhritarashtra kendt som Kauravas.

Da Pandavas blev myndig, krævede den ældste, Yudhishthira, tronen fra sin onkel og hævdede, at han var den retmæssige arving. Der opstod en fejde mellem de to grene af familien, og Kauravaerne til sidst tvang Pandavaerne til eksil i skoven.

Mens de var i eksil, gik Pandavas ind i en turnering for at vinde hånden på en smuk prinsesse ved navn Draupadi. Kauravaerne deltog også i konkurrencen, men Pandava -broren Arjuna vandt prinsessen, der blev den fælles kone til alle fem Pandavas.

episk langt digt om legendariske eller historiske helte, skrevet i en storslået stil

guddom gud eller gudinde

halvgud en, der er en del mennesker og en del gud

kosmologi sæt ideer om universets oprindelse, historie og struktur

doktrin sæt principper eller overbevisninger accepteret af en gruppe

Efter turneringen kaldte kong Dhritarashtra Pandavaerne tilbage til sit hof og delte riget mellem dem og sine egne sønner. Kauravaerne var utilfredse med dette forlig og udfordrede Pandavaerne til et terningespil og vandt hele kongeriget tilbage ved at snyde. Igen blev Pandavas tvunget i eksil.

Krig og efterspil. Efter mange års vandring vendte pandavaerne tilbage for at genvinde kongeriget, men Kauravaerne nægtede at opgive kontrollen og begge sider forberedte sig på krig. Guden Krishna, en slægtning til både Pandavas og Kauravas, støttede Pandavas. Selvom han ikke deltog i kampene, tjente han som vognmand for Pandava -broren Arjuna og gav ham råd. Deres samtaler udgør afsnittet af Mahabharata kendt som Bhagavad Gita.

Pandavas og Kauravas mødtes i en række kampe på Kurukshetras sletter. Til sidst gik Pandavas sejrrig efter at have dræbt alle deres fætre. Pandavaerne fik riget, og den ældste bror, Yudhisthira, tog tronen.

Pandavaerne regerede fredeligt, selvom deres onkel Dhritarashtra sørgede over tabet af sine sønner og ofte skændtes med sine nevøer. Dhritarashtra gik til sidst for at bo i skoven og døde der. Et stykke tid senere opgav Yudhisthira tronen og gik sammen med sine brødre og deres kone, Draupadi, for at bo på Meru -bjerget, guden Indras himmel.

Andre fortællinger og virkninger. Konflikten mellem Pandavas og Kauravas udgør kun en del af Mahabharata. Værket indeholder mange andre fortællinger om guder og helte og dækker en enorm række emner. Historierne præsenterer komplekse filosofiske ideer, der danner grundlaget for den hinduistiske tro - adfærdskoder, sociale pligter og religiøse principper.

Det Mahabharata blev enormt populær i Indien og i hele Sydøstasien. Værket inspirerede mange gamle kunstværker, såsom indiske miniaturemalerier og de udførlige skulpturer af de gamle templer i Angkor Wat og Angkor Thorn i Cambodja. I dag er Mahabharata forbliver den vigtigste hinduistiske epos og fortsætter med at tjene som fundamentet for religiøs tro og mytologi.


Pandava gotra Jats findes i Gujranwala -distriktet i Punjab. Β ]

Ifølge James Todd Γ ] Oprindelsen af ​​hver familie, uanset om den er øst eller vest, er involveret i fabel. Panduens er berettiget til lige så meget troværdighed som Romulus 'fødsel eller andre stiftere af en race. Pandu, der ikke blev velsignet med afkom, brugte hans dronning en charme, hvormed hun lokkede guderne fra deres sfærer. Til Dharma Raj (Minos) bar hun Yudhishthira   af Pavan (Aeolus) hun havde Bhima   af Indra (Jupiter Coelus) hun havde Arjuna, som blev lært af sin far brugen af ​​stævnen, så dødelig i den store krig &# 160 og Nakula og Sahadeva skyldte deres fødsel til Aswini Kumar (Aesculapius) gudernes læge.

Sådanne traditioner blev sandsynligvis opfundet for at dække en stor skændsel i Pandu -familien og have relation til historien, der allerede er relateret til Vyasa, og forringelsen af ​​denne gren af ​​Harikulas. Accordingly, on the death of Pandu, Duryodhana, nephew of Pandu (son of Dhritarashtra, who from blindness could not inherit), asserted their illegitimacy before the assembled kin at Hastinapura. With the aid, however, of the priesthood, and the blind Dhritarashtra, his nephew, Yudhishthira, elder son of Pandu, was invested by him with the seal of royalty, in the capital, Hastinapura.

Duryodhana's plots against the Pandu and his partisans were

[s. 59]: so numerous that the five brothers determined to leave for a while their ancestral abodes on the Ganges. They sought shelter in foreign countries about the Indus, and were first protected by Drupada, king of Panchala, at whose capital, Kampilanagara, the surrounding princes had arrived as suitors for the hand of his daughter, Draupadi. Drupada was of the Aswa race, being descended from Bajaswa (or Hyaswa) of the line of Ajamidha. But the prize was destined for the exiled Pandu, and the skill of Arjuna in archery obtained him the fair, who " threw round his neck the (barmala) garland of marriage."

The disappointed princes indulged their resentment against the exile  but by Arjuna's bow they suffered the fate of Penelope's suitors, and the Pandu brought home his bride, who became the wife in common of the five brothers : manners decisively Scythic. The manners of the Scythae described by Herodotus are found still to exist among their descendants : "a pair of slippers at the wife's door " is a signal well understood by all Eimauk husbands (Elphinstone's Caubul, vol. ii. p. 251).

The deeds of the brothers abroad were bruited in Hastinapura and the blind Dhritarashtra's influence effected their recall. To stop, however, their intestine feuds, he partitioned the Pandu sovereignty  and while his son, Duryodhana, retained Hastinapura, Yudhishthira founded the new capital of Indraprastha  but shortly after the Mahabharata he abdicated in favour of his grand- nephew, Parikshita, introducing a new era, called after himself, which existed for eleven hundred years, when it was overturned, and Indraprastha was conquered by Vikramaditya Tuar of Ujjain, of the same race, who established an era of his own.

On the division of the Pandu sovereignty, the new kingdom of Indraprastha eclipsed that of Hastinapura. The brothers reduced to obedience the surrounding nations, and compelled their princes to sign tributary engagements <>

Yudhishthira, firmly seated on his throne, determined to

[p.60]: signalize his reign and paramount sovereignty, by the imposing and solemn rites of Asvamedha and Rajasuya.

The Asvamedha. — In these magnificent ceremonies, in which princes alone officiate, every duty, down to that of porter, is performed by royalty.

The ' Steed of Sacrifice ' was liberated under Arjuna's care, having wandered whither he listed for twelve months  and none daring to accept this challenge of supremacy, he was reconducted to Indraprastha, where, in the meanwhile, the hall of sacrifice was prepared, and all the princes of the land were summoned to attend.

The hearts of the Kurus burned with envy at the assumption of supremacy by the Pandus, for the Prince of Hastinapura's office was to serve out the sacred food. Duryodhana, as the elder branch, retained his title as head of the Kurus  while the junior, Yudhishthira, on the separation of authority, adopted his father's name, Pandu, as the patronymic of his new dynasty. The site of the great conflict (or Mahabharata) between these rival clans, is called Kurukshetra, or ' Field of the Kurus.'

The rivalry between the races burst forth afresh  but Duryodhana, who so often failed in his schemes against the safety of his antagonists, determined to make the virtue of Yudhishthira the instrument of his success. He availed himself of the national propensity for play, in which the Rajput continues to preserve his Scythic resemblance. Herodotus describes the ruinous passion for play amongst the Scythic hordes, and which may have been carried west by Odin into Scandinavia and Germany. Tacitus tells us that the Germans, like the Pandus, staked even personal liberty, and were sold as slaves by the winner [Germania, 24]. Yudhishthira fell into the snare prepared for him. He lost his kingdom, his wife, and even his personal liberty and that of his brothers, for twelve years, and became an exile from the plains of the Yamuna.

The traditional history of these wanderers during the term of probation, their many lurking places now sacred, the return to their ancestral abodes, and the grand battle (Mahabharata) which ensued, form highly interesting episodes in the legends of Hindu antiquity.

To decide this civil strife, every tribe and chief of fame, from the Caucasus to the ocean, assembled on Kurukshetra, the field

[s. 61]: on which the empire of India has since more than once been contested and lost. On it the last Hindu monarch, Prithwiraja, lost his kingdom, his liberty, and life.

This combat was fatal to the dominant influence of the " fifty-six tribes of Yadu." On each of its eighteen days' combat, myriads were slain  for " the father knew not the son, nor the disciple his preceptor."

Victory brought no happiness to Yudhishthira. The slaughter of his friends disgusted him with the world, and he determined to withdraw from it  previously performing, at Hastinapura, funeral rites for Duryodhana (slain by the hands of Bhima), whose ambition and bad faith had originated this exterminating war. " Having regained his kingdom, he proclaimed a new era, and placing on the throne of Indraprastha, Parikshita, grandson to Arjuna, retired to Dwarka with Krishna and Baldeva : and since the war to the period of writing, 4636 years have elapsed.(Rajatarangini. The period of writing was A.D. 1740).

Yudhishthira, Baldeva, and Krishna, having retired with the wreck of this ill-fated struggle to Dwarka, the two former had soon to lament the death of Krishna, slain by one of the aboriginal tribes of Bhils  against whom, from their shattered condition, they were unable to contend. After this event, Yudhishthira, with [51] Baldeva and a few followers, entirely withdrew from India, and emigrating northwards, by Sind, to the Himalayan mountains, are there abandoned by Hindu traditional history, and are supposed to have perished in the snows.

Having ventured to surmise analogies between the Hercules of the east and west, I shall carry them a point further. Amidst the snows of Caucasus, Hindu legend abandons the Harikulas, under their leaders Yudhishthira and Baldeva : yet if Alexander established his altars in Panchala, amongst the sons of Puru and the Harikulas, what physical impossibility exists that a colony of them, under Yudhishthira and Baldeva, eight centuries anterior, should have penetrated to Greece ? Comparatively far advanced in science and arms, the conquest would have been easy. When Alexander attacked the ' free cities ' of Panchala, the Purus and Harikulas who opposed him evinced the recollections of their ancestor, in carrying the figure of Hercules as their standard. Comparison proves a common origin to Hindu and Grecian mythology  and Plato says the Greeks had theirs from Egypt and the East. May not this colony of the Harikulas be the Herachdae, who penetrated into the Peloponnesus (according to Volney) 1078 years before Christ, sufficiently near our calculated period of the Great War ? The Herachdae claimed from Atreus : the Harikulas claim from Atri. Eurysthenes was


The story of Draupadi

Drupada had been defeated by Arjuna on behalf of Drona, who subsequently took half his kingdom to humiliate him. To gain revenge on Drona, he performed a great sacrifice to beget a powerful son who could kill him. Having been struck by Arjuna's valour, Drupada also prayed at the sacrifice for an exceptionally beautiful daughter to give to his, as a token of his appreciation. Draupadi thus emerged with Drishtadyumna from the sacrificial fire.

Upon Draupadi's emergence a divine voice said she would be the reason for the destruction of the Kauravas. When Draupadi grew to be a young woman she was considered very beautiful, mainly for her glowing dark skin, large dark eyes and graceful figure.

It is believed that Goddess Kali had given a part of her powers to her, for the destruction of the Kauravas. As Drupada was the ruler of the kingdom of Panchala, Draupadi was also known as Paanchali. She was named by Brahmanas as "Krsnā" due to her radiant dusky skin

Drupada intended that Arjuna alone win the hand of his daughter. Upon hearing of the Pandavaas' supposed death at Varanavata he set up a swayamvar for Draupadi intending to bring Arjuna out into the open. The princes vying for Draupadi's hand had to shoot 5 arrows at a revolving target, while looking only at its reflection in a bowl. Drupada was confident that Arjuna alone could accomplish this task. Arriving with his brothers disguised as brahmins, Arjuna successfully tackles the target. He and his brothers also defeat the other suitors who attack them, enraged at a brahmin winning a Kshatriya princess's hand.

While in exile, Kunti, mother of the Pandavas often advised her sons that they share everything they have (or obtain through Bhiksha i.e. alms) equally amongst themselves. Upon returning home with Draupadi, Arjuna addresses his mother first "Look mother, I have brought Bhiksha (alms)!". Kunti, unmindful of what Arjuna was referring to, unassumingly asked her son to share whatever it is with his brothers. Thus, in order to obey their mother's order all five accepted Draupadi as their wife. This is fraternal polyandry.

According to another source, when Sage Vyasa visits the family, he explains to Draupadi that her unique position as the wife of five brothers results from a certain incident in her previous birth. She had in that lifetime prayed to Lord Shiva to grant her a husband with five desired qualities. Lord Shiva, pleased with her devotion, tells her that it is very difficult to get a husband with all five qualities that she desired. But she sticks to her ground and asks for the same. Then Lord Shiva grants her wish saying that she would get the same in her next birth. Hence she gets married to five brothers each who represents a given quality.

None of the Draupadi's children survive the end of the epic. Parikshit, grandson of Subhadra and Arjuna, is the sole Kuru dynast who survives, at the end of Mahabharata.

Draupadi’s Cheer-Haran, literally meaning stripping of one’s clothes, marks a definitive moment in the story of Mahābhārata. It is the central reason of the Mahābhārata war, the rivalry between Pandavas and Kauravas being the more general cause.

Yudhishthira and his four brothers were the rulers of Indraprastha under the sovereignty of Emperor Dhritarashtra. Dhritarashtra’s son Duryodhana who resided in the capital of the empire Hastinapur was always jealous of his cousins. Together with his brothers, his friend Karna and maternal uncle Shakuni, he conspired to call the Pandavas at Hastinapur and win their kingdoms in a game of gambling. Shakuni was an inveterate gambler and very skilled at winning by unfair means. The idea was that Shakuni will play against Yudhishthira and win at the gambling table what was impossible to win at the battlefield.

As the game proceeded, Yudhishthira lost all his wealth and kingdom one by one. Having lost all material wealth, he went on to put his brothers at stake one by one and lost them too. Ultimately he put himself at stake, and lost again. All the Pandavas were now the slaves of Kauravas. But for the villain Shakuni, the humiliation of Pandavas was not complete. He plods Yudhishthira that he has not lost everything yet. Yudhishthira still has Draupadi with him and if he wishes he can win everything back by putting Draupadi at stake. Yudhishthira walks into the trap and to the horror of everybody present, puts Draupadi as a bet for the next round. Shakuni rolls the dice and gleefully shouts "Look, I have won”. Duryodhana commands his younger brother Dushasana to forcefully bring her into the forum. Dushasana barges into the living quarters of Draupadi who had just finished her bath and was drying her loose hair. Dushasan grabs her by the hair and brings her into the court dragging her by the hair.

Unable to withstand the distress of his wife, an emotional Bhima even threatens to burn up Yudhishthira’s hands with which he placed Draupadi on stake. Arjun tries to help Draupadi but Yudhistira forbids him. Bhima vows to cut off Dushasana's hands one day in battle. Arjun vows to kill Karna for insulting his wife

Now in an emotional appeal to the elders present in the forum, Draupadi repeatedly questions the legality of the right of Yudhishthira to place her at stake when he himself had lost his freedom and as a consequence did not possess any property in the first place. Everybody remains dumbfounded. Bhishma, the patriarch of the Kaurava family and a formidable warrior, has only this explanation to offer to Draupadi - "The course of morality is subtle and even the illustrious wise in this world fail to always understand it.” He now commands the Pandavas to strip themselves in the manner of slaves. They obey by stripping off their upper garments.

Then Kauravas demand the same from Draupadi, who remains crying. Then to the horror of everybody present, Dushasana proceeds to strip Draupadi of her sari. Seeing her husbands unable or unwilling to help her, Draupadi prays to Lord Krishna to protect her modesty. Lord Krishna now works a miracle so that as Dushasana unwraps layers and layers of her sari, her sari keeps getting extended. Seeing Draupadi being violated so brazenly, Bhima in a roaring rage, vows to tear open Dushasana’s breast one day and drink his blood. Finally, a tired Dushasana backs off without being able to strip Draupadi.

Duryodhana repeatedly challenges Yudhishthira’s four brothers to disassociate themselves from Yudhishthira’s authority and take their wife back. No one dares to denounce their loyalty to their eldest brother. In order to provoke the Pandavas further, Duryodhana bares and pats his thigh looking into Draupadi’s eyes, implying her to sit on his thigh. In impotent rage Bhima vows in front of the entire assembly that one day he will break that very thigh of Duryodhan in a battle.

Finally, the blind monarch Dhritarashtra's conscience is stirred, in part fearing the wrath of Pandavas against his sons. He intervenes and asks Draupadi to wish for whatever she desires. Draupadi asks her husbands the Pandavas to be freed from slavery. Dhritarashtra grants her wish and also restores to Pandavas all they lost in the game of dice. Free from the bondage Bhima, hotheaded as ever, immediately proposes to his brothers to slay all Kauravas present then and there itself. Yudhishthira and Arjuna prevent him from taking any rash action. After many words of reconciliation between Pandavas and Dhritarashtra, Pandavas withdraw to their kingdom along with Draupadi and their entourage.

Shakuni, Karna and Duryodhan later convince Dhritarashtra to invite Pandavas for a new game of dice, with modified rules. It was following the defeat in this new game that Pandavas were sent into exile for 12 years.

However, not pledging her, given that the other Pandava brothers had already been pledged and lost, would also not have resolved the dilemma Yudhishthira faced. The lack of a definite way to resolve the conflict is what has led to this passage being extremely controversial. That the elders like Bhishma, Drona, and Dhritarashtra remained silent spectators of the entire episode adds valuable insight to their personalities too. Vidura was the only one who objected to the whole thing but he did not have the authority to stop it. In any case the passage must be seen in the light of the mores of the times of its writing which lay a few millennia ago.

Krishna treats Draupadi as his sister, pledges his friendship to Draupadi and vows to show the world the greatest example of friendship. This is quite possibly why Krishna helps Draupadi when the Pandavas lose her in a gamble.

As per Narada and Vayu Puranas, Draupadi was composite Avatar of Goddesses Shyamala (wife of Dharma), Bharati (Wife of Vayu), Sachi (wife of Indra), Usha (wife of Ashwinis) and hence married their earthly counterparts in form of Five Pandavas. Enraged at a jest by Parvati and the four goddesses, Brahma cursed them to human birth which the solution Parvati brought about was to be born as one woman, Draupadi and hence share the earthly body for a smaller period of time. Draupadi 's characteristic anger and fight against injustice reflects the Parvati or her Shakti, Kali inhabiting Draupadi 's mortal flesh at times. At other times, Draupadi was docile and even waited to be rescued (as in case of Jayadratha and Jatasura) showing the qualities of other goddesses like Sachi and Usha. Other times, she showed cunning and guile to hide their true identity and still use Vayu putra Bhima to kill Keechaka like Goddess Bharati would. Draupadi was also avatar of Goddess Shree or Wealth who was joint wife to five Indras, aka Five Pandavas. She was to be born several times for imprisoning the Indras. First time was as Vedavati who cursed Ravana (here we find yet another goddess Avatar Swaha, wife to Agni). She then came again as Maya-Sita especially to take revenge from Ravana while Agni hid the real Sita. Third one was partial either Damyanti (whos ehusband Nala was equivalent to Dharma, Vayu, Indra just like the Pandavas) and her daughter Nalayani. She married Sage Mudgala. Fifth Avatar was Draupadi herself. So we find in Draupadi, a composite avatar of Kali, Parvati, Sachi, Shyamala, Usha, Bharati, Shree, Swaha, the eight goddesses.

Krishna calls Draupadi his sakhi, or friend. Another story says the reason he helps Draupadi is that she prayed with utmost devotion. When Krishna had cut his finger on the Sudarshan Chakra, she bound it with her Sari, this act being the origin of Rakhi. The another story of origin of Rakhi is Sachi tying thread to Indra. Sachi's avatar is Draupadi.

Also, Krishna is the one who opposes her marriage to Karna and promotes her marriage to Arjuna

Draupadi is the exemplification of bhakti to God. She showed utmost faith to Lord Krishna.


Discourse of Bhagwata Purana

Following this incident, the king handed over throne to his son Janamejaya and spent next seven days listening to the discourses of Sage Śuka dev (son of Ved Vyasa). This book compiled as the Bhagavata Purana.

Having heard the Bhagavata Purana, Parikshit worshipped Sukadeva. He told the sage that he was no longer frightened of being bitten to death by a snake. He had learnt the nature of the atman and the brahman. When Shukadeva left, Parikshit sat down and began to meditate. Takshaka disguised himself as a brahman in order to get near the king. He then bit the king and Parikshit died.


Avial, The Dish Some Say Was Invented By One Of The Pandavas

Highlights

According to food historian K.T. Achaya in his book The Illustrated Foods of India states that "Avial or Aviyal is a vegetable dish of Kerala that uses green bananas, drumsticks, various soft beans and fresh coconut gratings. These are first cooked in coconut milk and then tossed with some aromatic coconut oil and spiced sour curd. The product served as prasadam in the Padmanabhaswami temple in Thiruvananthapuram, does not contain the inauspicious mustard seeds."

There are many stories to the invention of Avial

The Story of the Invention of Avial

There are many stories to the invention of Avial, though the one related to Prince Bhima seems to be most popular. According to Virata Parva, one of the 18 books of The Mahabharata, during the 13th year of their exile, the Pandavas lived in the kingdom of King Virata in disguise to avoid being detected by the Kauravas. As per the terms of the exile, if the Pandavas were detected they would be exiled again for another 12 years. To conceal their true identity, Yudhisthira took the role of a game entertainer to the king, Bhima as a cook called Ballava, Arjun as a eunuch dance and music teacher, Nakula as a caretaker of horses, Sahadeva as a cowherd and Drapaudi as a queen's maid.

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There are various ways in which Avial is preparedAccording to myth, Bhima or Ballava under his new role started carrying out various tasks in the kitchen, such as cleaning and chopping vegetables and helping in the preparation of the meals. One day, after everyone had finished their meal, an unexpected guest arrived at the palace. It was Rishi Durvasa, who was known for his ill temper and the habit of cursing if not offered the best hospitality. Bhima had the task of cooking up a delicious meal for the Rishi to avoid his rage, but there wasn't much food in the kitchen other than a handful of vegetables.

With hardly having any time at hand, Bhima quickly got down to preparing a dish using whatever ingredients that were available in the kitchen and created Avial. Luckily, Rishi Durvasa was immensely pleased with the meal and left the palace satisfied. The dish soon started being raved about, becoming hugely popular in no time.

There are some, however, who do not support this story, and instead give credit to the King of Travancore for instigating the idea of creating Avial. It is said that a grand feast was held by the king for his people, and everyone across the kingdom came for it. Soon the kitchen was running out of food, miscalculating the huge turnout. When the King inspected the kitchen, he found that various parts of vegetables were wasted while chopping. He ordered his cook to collect those pieces and quickly make a curry to serve the people, and thus Avial was invented by his cook.

AvialWhatever maybe the theory, food lovers are grateful that the novel idea struck someone and resulted in creating one of the most nourishing curries in India, which has the power to please one instantly with its simple flavours. Team it with rice and it is soul food.

How to Prepare Avial

There are various ways in which Avial is prepared. A variety of vegetables can be used as per one's linking, such as eggplant, beans, yam, pumpkin, raw banana, drumsticks, gourds, carrots, cucumber, etc. The addition of coconut milk lends to its creamy texture while the tempering of curry leaves adds a distinctive favour to the vegetarian dish. Of course some also like to add in other spices like black pepper, cumin, green chillies, mustard seeds, among others.

If you would like to try your hands at preparing this legendary dish at home, here's a favourite recipe

Recipe by Chef Ambili Kurian

Savour the simple flavours of this traditional dish from Kerala using seasonal vegetables.


Pandavas after Mahabharata war

What happened to Pandavas after the Mahabharata war? It was nothing like Shri Ram ruled Ayodhya after defeating Ravana. But this era was more of Lord Krishna, rather than of Pandavas.

Gandhari’s curse and end of Yadavas

At the end of Mahabharata war, in the Mausala Parva of the epic Mahabharata, Gandhari curses Shri Krishna. This chapter begins with the visit of Lord Krishna to Gandhari. In a fit of grief over the death of her sons and the soldiers of her kingdom, Gandhari curses Krishna with the death of all Yadavas in a manner similar to the death of her sons. She blames Krishna for his inaction and believes that he could have stopped the war if he wanted to. Krishna explains how he had tried many times to mediate peace, how Duryodhana refused even a point of land when all that the Pandavas had expected was five small villages, and how Duryodhana and his uncle had tried many times to destroy the Pandavas. However, the lord also explains that he believes that the Yadavas would be destroyed by internal strife and conflict if left unchecked, so he thanks Gandhari for solving his dilemma and accepts the curse as a blessing.

Hunter Jara and Shri Krishna

In this chapter, death of Shri Krishna is detailed by a hunter Jara. Jara accidentally shoots Krishna in the heel , which he confuses with a deer while Krishna is meditating. Shri Krishna consoles Jara and enters a nearby temple where the deity within him is seen, and so he merges with the image of Lord Vishnu.

Crowning of Parikshit and Pandavas leaving for their journey to heaven

After Shri Krishna (the onset of Kali Yuga), Pandavas lost their interest in worldly matters. They crowned Parikshit (Arjuna’s grandson) and leave for a pilgrimage to various places in India before moving towards heaven.

After the great battle of Kurukshetra, the Pandavas started ruling the kingdom of Hastinapur. They meanwhile decided to renounce everything and proceed for Pilgrimage. In the Mahabharata, an apt description of the five Pandavas leaving for the Himalayas is found. They went clad only in rags and retired to the Himalaya and climbed towards heaven in their bodily form. A stray dog also accompanied them during their travels. Unfortunately while on the journey, one by one, each Pandava and Draupadi met their end however leaving Yudhishtira and the stray dog.

Death of Draupadi and other Pandavas

As each one stumbled, Yudhishtira gave the rest the reason for their fall. Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, whereas Nakula and Sahadeva were proud of their looks, whereas Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively. Yudhishtira did not stumble as he was the only virtuous and righteous person.

Dharmaraja and Yudhisthira

Finally the dog who travelled with Yudhishtira revealed himself to be the god Yama or Yama Dharmaraja.

The God took Yudhishtira to the underworld where he found his siblings and wife. Yama explained Yudhishtira about a test which he had succeeded and took him back to heaven. According to Yama it was necessary to expose Yudhishtira to the underworld for the one lie which he had said during his entire life in the battle field of Kurukshetra. The five Pandava brothers thus came face to face with their doom.

Prior to the incident of their retirement to heaven, five brothers and Draupadi once had to face a similar situation where apparently end of Pandavas was revealed. The event demonstrates a situation that killed all the Pandava brothers except Yudhishtira. While drinking water from a lake. The virtuous Pandava was promised by the Yaksha if he would answer each of his questions. Gradually Yudhishtira satisfied the Yaksha and acknowledging his wisdom the Yaksha helped in reviving the dead Pandavas .

Death of Parikshit

After the end of the Pandavas and their final retirement to heaven, Arjuna’s grandson Parikshita came of age after ruling Hastinapur for quite a long time also faced an eventual end as he was bitten by a snake.

Janamejaya, Parikshita’s son was ferocious and decided to perform a snake sacrifice,in order to destroy the snakes. With an end of Pandavas a curtain was drawn to a significant chapter in Mahabharata.


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