Morrill Act fra 1862

Morrill Act fra 1862


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Morrill Act var en lov vedtaget af kongressen for at opmuntre til landbrugs- og tekniske gymnasier i staterne. Med de bemærkelsesværdige undtagelser fra Cornell og MIT var næsten alle modtagerinstitutionerne offentlige. Det første forsøg på at gennemføre handlingen lykkedes i kongressen, men blev nedlagt veto af præsident Buchanan i 1861. Senator Morrill er også kendt for sit sponsorat af Morrill -tariffen.


Morrill -loven har stadig en enorm indvirkning på USA og verden

2. juli er en vigtig dato i historien om Texas A & ampM University.

Det var dengang, Morrill Act trådte i kraft i 1862, opkaldt efter sin sponsor, Vermont Congressman Justin Smith Morrill. Det gav hver stat mulighed for at sælge op til 30.000 hektar jord og bruge midlerne til at etablere gymnasier, deraf navnet "jordtilskud" -universiteter.

I Texas blev der oprettet to gymnasier - Texas A & ampM University og Prairie View University, men Texas A & ampM holdt ikke sine første klasser før 1876.

Nylige forskere har peget på bidragene fra Matthew Gaines, den første afroamerikanske stats senator og baptistminister fra Washington County, der var medvirkende til den 12. Texas lovgiver vedtagelse af senatforslag 276. Det var med til at oprette Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas ( i dag Texas A & ampM) under Land-Grant College Act fra 1862, også kendt som Morrill Act.

Morrill Act viste sig at være en af ​​de største lovgivninger - og måske den mindst værdsatte - i amerikansk historie. Mange af landets største gymnasier blev grundlagt gennem Morrill Act, og listen over landbevillingsskoler er imponerende. De omfatter universiteterne i Arkansas, West Virginia, Arizona, Florida, Kentucky, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Idaho og Cornell University.

Uden tvivl skylder Texas A & ampM og dets mere end 500.000 tidligere studerende en stor "tommelfinger op" til Morrill, ligesom de andre landbevillingsskoler for de bidrag, de har ydet til verden i de sidste 158 år.

"Den mest fantastiske ting ved Morrill Act er måske, at den blev vedtaget sammen med tre andre revolutionerende lovgivninger (Pacific Railway Act, Homestead Act, USDA) lige midt i borgerkrigen," sagde David Vaught, professor historie ved Texas A & ampM.

”Det republikanske parti og Whigs før dem troede på at bruge den føderale regerings magt til at forbedre økonomien, mens demokraterne troede på, at jo mindre regeringens indblanding var bedre (lige modsat i dag). Men med oprettelsen af ​​konføderationen mistede demokraterne deres flertal i USA og efterlod døren vidt åben for republikanerne - min pointe er, at Morrill Act i sagens natur (og er) en politisk bestræbelse. ”

Vaught sagde fra begyndelsen, at Morrill Act havde til formål at forbedre de videregående uddannelser.

Det afsatte offentlig jord i hver stat - 30.000 hektar for hvert medlem af Senatet og Huset - til landbrugs- og mekaniske gymnasier som Texas A & ampM. Med den føderale finansiering tog staterne et enormt (og dengang revolutionerende) ansvar for at uddanne deres borgere, ” sagde han.

"En anden Morrill-lov i 1890, der hovedsageligt var rettet mod de tidligere konfødererede stater, krævede, at hver stat medtog afroamerikanere i deres ansvar, i høj grad ved at vise, at race ikke var en faktor i optagelseskriteriet-eller som i Texas, ved at udpege en separat grundstøtteinstitution for farverige mennesker. Mange af nutidens historisk sorte gymnasier har deres rødder i denne anden Morrill Act, herunder Prairie View University. ”

Vaught tilføjede, at Morrill Act gjorde hver stat ansvarlig for at uddanne sine borgere.

"Over tid har borgernes sammensætning - etnicitet, køn, klasse, alder - ændret sig i nogle tilfælde dramatisk, og det er staternes ansvar at sikre, at ingen bliver efterladt," sagde Vaught. ”Vores landbevillingsmission i Texas A & ampM kræver således, at vi betjener den hurtigt skiftende demografi af vores stat og studenterpopulationer. Texas A & ampM, omend ufuldkommen, har dedikeret sig til dette forslag, især siden 1960'erne. "


En tanke om & ldquoHistory of the History of the Morrill Land Grant Act & rdquo

Dette historiografiske essay rejser et originalt spørgsmål ved at spørge, hvordan fortolkninger af Land Grant -kollegier ændrede sig fra deres hundredeårige (1962) til sesquicentennial (2012) jubilæum og fremlægger et indsigtsfuldt argument om, at der er flere ligheder end forskelle over tid. Fremragende arbejde med at identificere og fortolke de mest passende kilder. Godt overblik over centrale temaer i værker, der repræsenterer den første periode af Nevin og Eddy (om hvem du har skrevet min yndlingslinje: “Skrevet i forbindelse med den kolde krig, skriger demokratiet til læseren på næsten hver side. &# 8221)

Essayet understøtter overbevisende sit centrale argument om kontinuitet på tværs af tid, men jeg var forvirret over påstanden midtvejs i kroppen, at historikere i 2012 var blevet endnu mere idealiserede og romantiske. ” To afsnit senere forvirrede jeg ’m igen når fortalte, at Eddy ’s “romantiske temaer om demokrati og meritokrati i det store og hele vedholder. ” Mere romantisk eller lige så romantisk? Lighed eller forskel?

En yderligere tanke: Ret mig, hvis jeg tager fejl her, men mit indtryk er, at finansieringen voksede til Land Grant -gymnasier under den økonomiske vækst i slutningen af ​​1950'erne/begyndelsen af ​​1960'erne, men faldt i begyndelsen af ​​2010'erne midt i den store recession. Hvis det er sandt, kan det måske hjælpe med at forklare, hvorfor sidstnævnte gruppe er mere tilbøjelige til at observere en lang periode med stagnation på grund af eksterne faktorer ”?

Samlet set er dette et imponerende stykke historisk videnskab, især i betragtning af at du genererede det på så kort tid, og jeg kunne let forestille mig, at det blev udvidet og revideret til en tidsskriftartikel, hvis du ønskede at gøre det.


En tidlig historie om Tucson og universitetet

Først en kort generel historie om Tucson og årsagen til oprettelsen af ​​universitetet.

Byer og lokalsamfund udvikler sig på grund af særlige omstændigheder. Der er en interessant historie om starten på min hjemby Tucson og University Neighborhood.

I den tidligste begyndelse af bosættelser langs Santa Cruz -floden kunne vi gå mindst ti tusinde år tilbage til de første mennesker, der slog lejr langs floden, da de jagede mammuten. Senere var der dem, der opdrættede i dette område. For nylig, i 1776, blev det spanske Presidio oprettet.

Det sted, der blev valgt til Presidio, var et indfødt folk kaldet "schukson", der betyder "foråret ved foden af ​​den sorte bakke." Tumamoc Hill, et lille bjerg af mørk farvet vulkansk sten vest for floden, er sandsynligvis den bakke. Ved siden af ​​er det Sentinel Peak, også dækket af vulkanske klipper, et godt sted at kigge ud over dalen. I 1916 konstruerede nogle universitetsstuderende et stort bogstav A på den koniske bakke, så nu er det også kendt som "A" -bjerget. Kilderne løber ikke længere, og Santa Cruz -floden har kun vand efter regnvejr.

Presidio i Tucson lå på højt terræn øst for floden. På grund af fjendtlige Apache -razziaer blev der snart bygget en mur omkring præsidiet. Tucson var slutningen på El Camino Real, den nordligste spanske koloni på denne særlige "Royal Road".

Gadsden -købet fra 1853 gav en pålidelig vinterrute til et spor fra det østlige USA til Californien. I 1863 blev loven om oprettelse af territoriet i Arizona underskrevet af præsident Abraham Lincoln. Fra 1867 til 1879 var Tucson den territoriale hovedstad.

I 1885 skulle den territoriale lovgiver, den såkaldte "Thieving Thirteenth" for sine mange udgifter, vælge steder til flere territoriale institutioner. Disse omfattede hovedstaden, et asyl for de sindssyge og et universitet. Tucson sendte advokater C. C. Stevens og Selim Franklin, der fik besked på at returnere hovedstaden tilbage til Tucson eller i det mindste få det sindssyge asyl med sin generøse bevilling af midler.

Borgerne i Tucson var ekstremt vrede, da de erfarede, at Prescott beholdt hovedstaden, der tidligere havde været i Tucson Phoenix, fik asyl og $ 100.000 Yuma, fængslet Tempe fik $ 5.000 for en normal skole til uddannelse af lærere, og Tucson og Pima County blev givet $ 25.000 til at bygge et universitet, hvis fyrre acres som lokation for skolen ville blive doneret inden for et år.

Lige inden året var slut, valgte Jacob Mansfeld, forretningsmand i Tucson og medlem af universitetets første bestyrelsesråd, passende land nordøst for byen. Den lave bakke var den højeste grund i området, så det ville være sikkert for oversvømmelser. Den havde arroyos på hver side og en højderyg, der førte til den. Det lykkedes ham og Selim Franklin at overtale ejerne til at donere 40 acres.

Det næste problem var finansiering af universitetet. Territorial guvernør John Goodwin mente, at universel uddannelse og selvstyre var uadskillelige, og at der skulle etableres fælles (grammatik) skoler, gymnasier og et universitet. Han fortalte lovgiverne, at Arizona var berettiget til en donation i henhold til Morrill Act fra 1862 til en jordtilskudsskole.

Den amerikanske kongres vedtog Hatch Act (1887), der gav $ 15.000 til en landbrugsforsøgsstation på enhver landbrugsskole ved en jordtilskudsinstitution, så en School of Agriculture blev oprettet på papir i juli 1889. Den anden Morrill Act (1890) gav en anden $ 15.000.

Ser sydvest 1889 mod den ufuldstændige hovedbygning, Tucson og Sentinel
Peak og den presbyterianske kirke-sponsorerede Tucson Indian Training School. Det her
billede af W. P. Haynes er berømt, da det er det første billede af den nye skole. Yderst til højre
i horisonten er domstolens kuppel. Foto høflighed Special Collections, University
fra Arizona Library Gamle Main, N-114. Foto af W.P. Haynes, 1889.

Da minedrift kunne være en kilde til midler, blev School of Mines etableret. School of Mines er det oprindelige navn på hovedbygningen efter 1927 kaldes det officielt Old Main, navnet brugt i denne bog.

Illustration, der viser Old Main, Indian School, downtown Tucson,
og Retshuset i forhold til ovenstående fotografi.

I oktober 1887 blev byggeriet startet på School of Mines -bygningen designet af James Miller Creighton, men penge løb tør, før bygningen havde tag og vinduer. Fire år senere gav lovgiver nok penge til at afslutte dem.

Da den eneste Regent med en universitetsgrad var Selim Franklin, blev han udnævnt til den første professor i landbrug og direktør for eksperimentstationen for den foreslåede institution. Dette forslag så godt nok ud på papir til at få $ 30.000, penge nok til at ansætte to betalte fakultetsmedlemmer. Så med Frank Gulley, der havde en landbrugshøjskoleeksamen, Theodore Comstock, dekan for mineskolen og fire fakultetsmedlemmer åbnede universitetet 1. oktober 1891. Den første indskrivning var seks college freshmen og 26 forberedende studerende, navnet givet til gymnasieeleverne.

På det tidspunkt var der ikke en gymnasium i hele Arizona. I de næste femogtyve år var de forberedende studerende, især i de første år, langt større end universitetsstuderende. De boede i de samme sovesale og deltog fuldt ud i aktiviteter såsom band- og universitetssport. Det er grunden til, at mange af de studerende ser så unge ud på de tidlige universitetsbilleder. Nogle af prep -eleverne var imidlertid voksne, der vendte tilbage for at få en gymnasial uddannelse, derefter en college -grad.

I 1898-99, universitetet Tilmeld opført to kandidatstuderende, syvogtyve kollegiale og 132 forberedende studerende. De to kandidatstuderende var Mark Walker og Louise Henriette Foucar. Louise ville blive ved med at bygge et universitetskvarter. Dette er historien om hendes kvarter og mit.


Ny database om Morrill Act & tyveri af indfødt jord

Forsiden af ​​webstedet Landgrabu.org, som er den første database til at sammensætte alt det land, der blev taget fra indfødte til universiteter.

Af Hannah Broadbent

I 1862 vedtog Abraham Lincoln Morrill Act. Denne lov gav stater offentlige arealer, så de kan sælges eller bruges til fortjeneste. Disse indtægter blev brugt til at etablere gymnasier, der skulle specialisere sig i landbrug og mekanik. I hele landet havde 52 gymnasier fordel af denne lov. Skoler som Cornell University, Penn State, Texas A & ampM og University of Minnesota var alle modtagere.

Spørgsmålet er, hvor kom jorden fra? Morrill Act tog landet fra stamme nationer gennem beslaglæggelse, uratificerede traktater og traktater.

I 1851 blev University of Minnesota oprettet, samme år underskrev fire Dakota -bands traktater, der opgav næsten hele Dakota, Mni Sota Makoce, territorium. I juli 1862 blev Morrill Act underskrevet. I august samme år begyndte "Dakota -krigen". I december 1862 blev 38 Dakota -mænd hængt og mindre end 5 uger senere var Gov.

Alexander Ramsey vedtog Morrill Act i Minnesota, og University of Minnesota blev klassificeret som den er i dag.

Minnpost.com offentliggjorde en artikel i 2012, der annoncerede universitetets nyeste udstilling, der fejrer 150 år siden Land Grant Agricultural Act. Universitetet sagde dette om loven, "Morrill Act kom i 1862, på et tidspunkt, hvor denne institutions fremtid så særligt dyster ud." ”Universitetet blev lukket, det var dybt gældsbelagt, og dets ene bygning blev kun delvist færdiggjort. Handlingen var en livline, der hjalp universitetet med at overleve de svære tider. ”

I staten Minnesota afstod 20 stamme nationer over 1 million hektar jord. Medewakanton- og Wahpekute -stammerne leverede 630.122 hektar jord, der indsamlede $ 1.081.467 til 32 universiteter. Sissteon, Wahpeton Bands havde flest acres taget på 631.370 acres, hvilket skaffede $ 1.082.859, svarende til over $ 20 millioner dollars i dag.
På grund af Tristan Ahtone, en undersøgende journalist og redaktør ved High Country News (CO) og Robert Lee, en lektor i amerikansk historie ved University of Cambridge - samt et team af historikere, journalister og mange andre - kender vi nu historien om denne handling.

"Det er en temmelig stor handling i amerikansk historie, problemet med det er at forstå dets indflydelse." Sagde Ahtone. "Hvor landet kom fra vides stort set ikke."

I løbet af de sidste to år har Ahtone, Lee og deres team fundet mere end 99% af alle Morrill Act-hektarerne, identificeret deres oprindelige indfødte indbyggere og omsorgspersoner og undersøgt rektor, der blev rejst fra deres salg i slutningen af ​​det 19. og 20. århundrede .

Med disse oplysninger oprettede de Landgrabu.org. Det er et interaktivt websted, der giver brugerne mulighed for at søge i hver pakke jord, der blev taget, og se, hvilket college det gavner. Han sagde, at det drivende ønske bag forskningen var besiddelse af oprindelige folk og deres jord. Forbundsregeringen opregnede tid og sted for hver jord, der blev solgt for hver acre, men fortalte tilsyneladende ikke nogen, hvor de fik den.

“Dette er den første database, der faktisk er i stand til at se på fodaftrykket for denne lovgivning. At finde hvert stykke jord, der blev erhvervet og solgt gennem denne handling, var en ny ting, som vi kunne bringe til bordet. Også at knytte det til, hvilke stammefolk der blev påvirket, ”sagde Ahtone.

Cirka 250 stamnationer i hele landet, 11 millioner hektar indfødt land og over 160 beslaglæggelser og voldsbaserede traktater gik til finansiering af 52 universiteter-Land-Grab Universities.

I 2019-2020 er den samlede tilmelding af Alaskan/indianerstudenter ved disse universiteter 0,5% ifølge webstedet.

Denne forskning betragtes som afgørende for at forstå kilden til nogle af landets rigeste universiteter. Det rejser også spørgsmålet om erstatninger, som kollegier skylder de oprindelige samfund.

"I erkendelse af dens betydning har vi gjort al vores forskning tilgængelig for brugerne til at udforske online og hjælpe os med at afdække historierne, der er skjult på landet."

Kollegier drager ikke kun fordel af jord i deres stat, men af ​​jord over hele landet. Landet Medewakanton og Wahpekute kom skoler til gode så langt som Virginia State University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology og University of New Hampshire.

Ifølge landgrabu.org er University of Minnesota den eneste skole i staten, der nyder godt af disse jordtilskud. De modtog 94.631 acres og indsamlede $ 579.430, over $ 10.6 millioner i dag. Ifølge Minnesota Department of Education's Under-
kandidatdemografi mindre end 1% studerende identificerer sig som indianere.

I University of Minnesota skolesystem er Morris den eneste campus, der tilbyder gratis undervisning til indianere. De oplyser på deres websted, at årsagen til denne politik skyldes grundlæggelsen af ​​campus: “Morris American Indian Boarding School blev etableret på stedet, der nu er University of Minnesota, Morris af Sisters of Mercy, en ordre fra Den romersk -katolske kirke i 1887. ”

"Ved at offentliggøre dette forsøger vi at sikre, at alle i det væsentlige kan springe over det store trin i at undersøge det, og du kan bare hoppe direkte ind i dataene og få en meget hurtig forståelse af, hvad der foregår her og derefter gå derfra," Sagde Ahtone.

Ahtone siger, at de nåede ud til universiteterne og de fleste hævdede ikke at vide noget om, hvordan jorden blev erhvervet. Han siger, at mange slet ikke kommenterede eller svarede, men selv i denne tid sender de forskningen til disse universiteter og vil fortsætte med at gøre det.

“Det ser ud til, at universiteterne bare ignorerer oplysningerne, men det er svært at sige på grund af Covid. At lære historien om, hvorfor de eksisterer i første omgang eller beskytte deres elever mod en pandemi, men om de engagerer sig i informationen eller ej, er svært at vurdere lige nu, ”sagde han.

Ahtone mener, at dette ikke er en sag, som én person eller enhed kan løse. Det er bestemt ikke noget, der skal overlades til universiteterne alene, stammeregeringer og lokalsamfund skal tænke over de potentielle ting, der kan komme fra dette.

"Jo flere mennesker, der ser og udforsker og forstår grundlaget for Land Grant -universiteter, jo bedre egnede samfund er at gå ind for enhver form for dommer, hvis de tror, ​​der er nogen former, der kan være," sagde Ahtone.

Landgrabu.org giver besøgende mulighed for at se på et interaktivt kort, der kan organiseres af universiteter, nationer og lande. Oversigten over Morrill Act og de publicerede artikler af Ahtone og hans team kan også findes på webstedet.

"Dette er et encyklopædi om bortskaffelse, og jeg tror, ​​at vi har meget klare aktører i dette, især når det kommer til disse universiteter, har vi meget, meget klare aktører, der har nydt godt af disse tidligere handlinger med bortskaffelse og ekspropriation," sagde Ahtone.


Morrill Act fra 1862

En handling, der donerer offentlige arealer til flere stater og territorier, som kan tilbyde gymnasier til gavn for landbruget og den mekaniske kunst.

Uanset om det blev vedtaget af Senatet og Repræsentanternes Hus i Amerikas Forenede Stater i kongressen, at der til de forskellige stater til formål i det følgende nævnes en mængde offentligt areal, der skal fordeles til hver stat en mængde, der er lig til tredive tusinde hektar for hver senator og repræsentant i kongressen, som staterne henholdsvis har ret til ved fordelingen under folketællingen på atten hundrede og tres, forudsat at ingen mineralområder må vælges eller købes i henhold til bestemmelserne i denne lov.

Og være det endvidere vedtaget, at ovennævnte jord efter at have været undersøgt skal fordeles til flere stater i sektioner eller underafdelinger af sektioner, ikke mindre end en fjerdedel af en sektion og når der er offentlige arealer i en stat, der er genstand for salg ved privat indgang til en dollar og femogtyve cents pr. acre vælges den mængde, som staten har ret til, fra sådanne jorder inden for denne stats grænser, og indenrigsministeren pålægges hermed at udstede til hver af de stater, hvor der ikke er mængden af ​​offentlige arealer, der kan sælges ved privat indgang til en dollar og femogtyve cents pr. acre, som denne stat kan have ret til i henhold til denne lovs bestemmelser, jordskrive til beløbet i acres for mangel på dens fordelingsandel skal scripten sælges af staterne og provenuet deraf anvendes til de anvendelser og formål, der er foreskrevet i denne lov, og til ingen anden brug eller formål, der under alle omstændigheder forudsætter, at det under ingen omstændigheder må y Stat, hvortil der kan udstedes landskrifter, får lov til at lokalisere det samme inden for grænserne for enhver anden stat eller et hvilket som helst område i USA, men deres overdragere kan således lokalisere landskrifterne på en hvilken som helst af de uegnede arealer i USA er underlagt salg ved privat indgang til en dollar og femogtyve cent eller mindre pr. Acre Og forudsat yderligere, at højst en million acres ikke skal placeres af sådanne overdragere i nogen af ​​staterne og forudsat yderligere , At ingen sådan placering må foretages før et år efter denne lovs vedtagelse.

Og være det endvidere vedtaget, at alle udgifter til forvaltning, tilsyn og skatter fra datoen for udvælgelsen af ​​de nævnte jorder før deres salg og alle udgifter i forbindelse med forvaltning og udbetaling af de penge, der kan modtages heraf, skal betales af de stater, de kan tilhøre, ud af staternes statskasse, således at hele provenuet fra salget af de nævnte arealer skal anvendes uden nogen formindskelse, uanset formålene i det følgende nævnt.

Og det skal endvidere vedtages, at alle penge, der stammer fra salget af de jorder, der er nævnt i de stater, hvortil jorderne er fordelt, og fra salget af jordskema, der er forudset herom, skal investeres i lagre i USA eller staterne eller andre sikre aktier, der ikke mindst giver fem procent af pålydende værdi af de nævnte aktier, og at de således investerede penge udgør en evig fond, hvis kapital forbliver for evigt uformindsket, (undtagen for så vidt findes i afsnit femte i denne retsakt), og hvis renter skal hævdes ukrænkeligt af hver stat, der kan tage og kræve fordel af denne handling, til begavelse, støtte og vedligeholdelse af mindst et kollegium, hvor den førende formålet skal være uden at udelukke andre videnskabelige og klassiske undersøgelser, herunder militær taktik, at undervise i de læringsgrene, der er relateret til landbrug og mekanik, på samme måde som lovgiverne i Staterne kan henholdsvis foreskrive for at fremme den industrielle klassers liberale og praktiske uddannelse i de mange sysler og erhverv i livet.

At alle penge, der stammer fra salg af jorde, der er nævnt af de stater, hvortil jorder er fordelt, og fra salg af jorder, der er fastsat i det foregående, skal investeres i lagre i USA eller i staterne eller i andre sikre bestande eller det samme kan investeres af de stater, der ikke har statslige aktier, på anden måde efter lovgivningen i sådanne stater har givet deres samtykke hertil og engageret sig i, at sådanne midler ikke skal give mindst fem procent af det investerede beløb, og at hovedstolen heraf for altid forblive uforstyrret Forudsat, at de penge, der investeres eller lånes på den måde, udgør en evig fond, hvis kapital for evigt forbliver uindskrænket (undtagen i det omfang, der er fastsat i denne lovs paragraf fem), og hvis renter skal være ukrænkeligt bevilget af hver stat, der kan tage og kræve fordel af denne handling, til begavelse, støtte og vedligeholdelse af mindst et kollegium, hvor de førende objekter skal være, uden at udelukke andre videnskabelige og klassiske undersøgelser, herunder militær taktik, for at undervise i sådanne læringsgrene, der er relateret til landbrug og mekanik, på den måde, som staternes lovgivere henholdsvis kan foreskrive for at fremme det liberale og praktiske uddannelse af industriklasserne i de mange sysler og erhverv i livet.

At alle penge, der stammer fra salg af jorder, der er nævnt af de stater, hvortil jorder er fordelt og fra salg af jordskema, der er fastsat før, skal investeres i obligationer i USA eller i staterne eller andre sikre obligationer eller det samme kan investeres af de stater, der ikke har nogen statsobligationer på nogen måde, efter at lovgivningen i sådanne stater har givet deres samtykke hertil og engageret sig i, at sådanne midler skal give et rimeligt og rimeligt afkast, der skal fastsættes af statslovgiverne, og at hovedstolen heraf for evigt forbliver uforstyrret: Forudsat at de penge, der investeres eller lånes på den måde, udgør en evig fond, hvis kapital forbliver for evigt uformindsket (undtagen for så vidt det er fastsat i § 5 i denne lov), og hvis renter skal være ukrænkeligt bevilget af hver stat, der kan tage og kræve fordel af denne lov, til begavelse, støtte og vedligeholdelse af mindst ét ​​kollegium, hvor hovedformålet skal være, uden at udelukke andre videnskabelige og klassiske undersøgelser og herunder militær taktik, til at undervise i sådanne grene af læring, der er relateret til landbrug og mekanik, på den måde, som staternes lovgivere henholdsvis kan foreskrive for at fremme den liberale og praktiske uddannelse af industriklasserne i de mange sysler og erhverv i livet.
Og det bliver yderligere vedtaget. At bevilling af jord og jordskripte herved godkendes skal ske på følgende betingelser, hvortil samt de bestemmelser, der er indeholdt ovenfor, skal de flere staters tidligere samtykke betegnes ved lovgivningsmæssige retsakter:

Først. Hvis en del af den investerede fond, som angivet i det foregående afsnit, eller en del af renterne på den, ved enhver handling eller uforudsete skyld formindskes eller tabes, erstattes den af ​​den stat, den tilhører, således at fondens kapital forbliver for evigt uformindsket, og de årlige renter anvendes regelmæssigt uden formindskelse til de formål, der er nævnt i denne lovs fjerde afdeling, bortset fra at et beløb, der ikke må overstige ti procent af det beløb, der modtages af enhver

Stat i henhold til bestemmelserne i denne lov kan bruges til køb af jord til lokaliteter eller forsøgsbedrifter, når det er tilladt af de respektive lovgivere i de nævnte stater.

Sekund. Ingen del af fonden eller renterne dertil, direkte eller indirekte, under nogen forudsætning, skal anvendes på køb, opførelse, bevarelse eller reparation af en bygning eller bygninger.

Tredje. Enhver stat, der kan tage og kræve fordelene ved denne lovs bestemmelser, skal inden for fem år stille mindst et kollegium til rådighed, som beskrevet i denne akts fjerde afsnit, eller tilskuddet til denne stat skal ophøre og sige Staten er forpligtet til at betale USA det modtagne beløb for eventuelle tidligere solgte arealer, og at ejendomsretten til købere under staten skal være gyldig.

Fjerde. Der skal udarbejdes en årlig rapport om hvert kollegiums fremskridt, hvor alle forbedringer og eksperimenter, der er foretaget, registreres med omkostninger og resultater og andre spørgsmål, herunder statslige industrielle og økonomiske statistikker, som man formoder er nyttige, og hvoraf en kopi skal sendes pr. post gratis, af hver, til alle de andre kollegier, der kan være udstyret med bestemmelserne i denne lov, og også et eksemplar til indenrigsministeren.

Femte. Når landområder skal vælges blandt dem, der er hævet til at fordoble minimumsprisen, som følge af jernbanetilskud, beregnes de til staterne til maksimumsprisen, og antallet af hektar reduceres forholdsmæssigt.

Sjette. Ingen stat, der befinder sig i en tilstand af oprør eller oprør mod USA's regering, har ret til fordel ved denne handling.

Syvende. Ingen stat har ret til fordelene ved denne retsakt, medmindre den inden to år efter datoen for formandens godkendelse af formanden har givet udtryk for sin accept af lovgiveren.

Og hvad det endvidere bliver vedtaget: Denne landscrip, der er udstedt i henhold til denne lovs bestemmelser, må først placeres efter den første januar i januar, tusind otte hundrede tre og tres tre.

Og være det endvidere vedtaget, at landbetjentene skal modtage de samme gebyrer for lokalisering af scrip udstedt i henhold til bestemmelserne i denne lov, som det nu er tilladt for lokalisering af militære bounty land warrants i henhold til eksisterende love, forudsat at deres maksimale kompensation ikke skal være derved øget.

Og det skal endvidere vedtages, at guvernørerne i de flere stater, som der skal udstedes scrip til i henhold til denne lov, årligt skal rapportere til kongressen alt salg, der foretages af et sådant scrip, indtil det samlede er disponeret, det beløb, der modtages for samme , og hvilken bevilling der er foretaget af provenuet.


Hvordan påvirkede Morrill Acts fra 1862 og 1890 højere læreanstalter?

Morrill Act of 1862 tilbød stater jord at danne gymnasier, der omfattede landbrug, teknik og militær taktik i deres kurstilbud. Det førte til oprettelsen af ​​mange universiteter og åbnede døren til offentlig collegeuddannelse i Amerika.

For det andet, hvad var Morrill Acts fra 1862 og 1890? Det Morrill Land-Grant Handlinger er statutter i USA, der tillod oprettelse af landbevillingshøjskoler i amerikanske stater ved hjælp af provenuet fra føderalt jordsalg. Det Morrill Act fra 1862 (7 U.S.C. blev vedtaget under den amerikanske borgerkrig og Morrill Act af 1890 (Landbrugsskolen Handling af 1890 (26 Stat.

Efterfølgende kan man også spørge, hvilke skoler der blev startet som følge af Morrill Act?

Jorden var derefter solgt af staterne og provenuet brugt til at finansiere offentligheden gymnasier der fokuseret på landbrug og den mekaniske kunst. Niogtres gymnasier var finansieret af disse jordtilskud, herunder Cornell University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology og University of Wisconsin i Madison.

Hvorfor er Morrill Act fra 1890 vigtig?

1890 Jordtilskud Historie. I 1862 vedtog USA's kongres den første Morrill Act som gav mulighed for oprettelse af en Land-Grant institution i hver stat til at uddanne borgere inden for landbrug, husøkonomi, mekanisk kunst og andre nyttige erhverv.


Lov fra 1862 Donering af landområder for landbrugsskoler og mekanisk kunst (First Morrill Act)

Det blev vedtaget af Senatet og Repræsentanternes Hus i Amerikas Forenede Stater i kongressen som samlet, at der til de forskellige stater til formålene i det følgende nævnes en mængde offentligt areal, der skal fordeles til hver stat en mængde lig med tredive tusinde hektar for hver senator og repræsentant i kongressen, som staterne henholdsvis har ret til ved fordelingen under folketællingen på atten hundrede og tres Forudsat, At der ikke skal vælges eller købes mineraljord i henhold til bestemmelserne i denne lov.

Sek. 2. Og være det endvidere vedtaget, at ovennævnte jord, efter at det er blevet undersøgt, skal fordeles til flere stater i sektioner eller underafdelinger af sektioner, ikke mindre end en fjerdedel af en sektion, og når der er offentlige arealer i en stat, der er genstand for salg at private entry at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, the quantity to which said State shall be entitled shall be selected from such lands within the limits of such State, and the Secretary of the Interior is hereby directed to issue to each of the States in which there is not the quantity of public lands subject to sale at private entry at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, to which said State may be entitled under the provisions of this act, land scrip to the amount in acres for the deficiency of its distributive share: said scrip to be sold by said States and the proceeds thereof applied to the uses and purposes prescribed in this act, and for no other use or purpose whatsoever: Provided, That in no case shall any State to which land scrip may thus be issued be allowed to locate the same within the limits of any other State, or of any Territory of the United States, but their assignees may thus locate said land scrip upon any of the unappropriated lands of the United States subject to sale at private entry at one dollar and twenty-five cents, or less, per acre: And provided, further, That not more than one million acres shall be located by such assignees in any one of the States: And provided, further, That no such location shall be made before one year from the passage of this act.

Sek. 3. And be it further enacted, That all expenses of management, superintendence, and taxes from date of selection of said lands, previous to their sales, and all expenses incurred in the management and disbursement of the moneys which may be received therefrom, shall be paid by the States to which they may belong, out of the treasury of said States, so that the entire proceeds of the sale of said lands shall be applied without any diminution whatever to the purposes hereinafter mentioned.

Sek. 4 [original]. And be it further enacted, That all moneys derived from the sale of the lands aforesaid by the States to which the lands are apportioned, and from the sales of land scrip hereinbefore provided for, shall be invested in stocks of the United States, or of the States, or some other safe stocks, yielding not less than five per centum upon the par value of said stocks and that the moneys so invested shall constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain forever undiminished, (except so far as may be provided in section fifth of this act,) and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.

Sek. 4 [as amended March 3, 1883]. That all moneys derived from the sale of lands aforesaid by the States to which lands are apportioned, and from the sales of lands scrip hereinbefore provided for, shall be invested in stocks of the United States or of the States, or some other safe stocks or the same may be invested by the States having no State stocks, in any other manner after the legislatures of such States shall hive assented thereto, and engaged that such funds shall yield not less than five per centum upon the amount so invested and that the principal thereof shall forever remain unimpaired: Provided, That the moneys so invested or loaned shall constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain forever undiminished (except so far as may be provided in section five of this act), and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading objects shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.

Sek. 4. [as amended April 13, 1926]. That all moneys derived from the sale of lands aforesaid by the States to which lands are apportioned and from the sales of land scrip hereinbefore provided for shall be invested in bonds of the United States or of the States or some other safe bonds or the same may be invested by the States having no State bonds in any manner after the legislatures of such States shall have assented thereto and engaged that such funds shall yield a fair and reasonable rate of return, to be fixed by the State legislatures, and that the principal thereof shall forever remain unimpaired: Provided, That the moneys so invested or loaned shall constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain forever undiminished (except so far as may be provided in, section 5 of this Act), and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this Act, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be , without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.

Sek. 5. And be it further enacted, That the grant of land and land scrip hereby authorized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as to the provisions hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the several States shall be signified by legislative acts:

First. If,any portion of the fund invested, as provided by the foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall, by any action or contingency, be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund shall remain forever undiminished and the annual interest shall be regularly applied without diminution to the purposes mentioned in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum, not exceeding ten per centum upon the amount received by any State under the provisions of this act, may be expended for the purchase of lands for sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective legislatures of said States.

Sekund. No portion of said fund, nor the interest thereon, shall be applied. directly or indirectly, under any pretense whatever, to the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or buildings.

Tredje. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of the provisions of this act shall provide, within five years, at least not less than one college, as described in the fourth section of this act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State shall be bound to pay the United States the amount received of any lands previously sold. and that the title to purchasers under the State shall be valid.

Fjerde. An annual report shall be made regarding the progress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments made, with their cost and results, and such other matters, including State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed useful one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, to all the other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior.

Femte. When lands shall be selected from those which have been raised to double the minimum price, in consequence of railroad grants, they shall be computed to the States at the maximum price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished.

Sjette. No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the Government of the United States shall be entitled to the benefit of this act.

Syvende. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its legislature within two years from the date of its approval by the President.

Sek. 6. And be it further enacted, That land scrip issued under the provisions of this act shall not be subject to location until after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three.

Sek. 7. And be it further enacted, That the land officers shall receive the same fees for locating land scrip issued under the provisions of this act as Is now allowed for the location of military bounty land warrants under existing laws Provided, That their maximum compensation shall not be thereby increased.

Sek. 8. And be it further enacted, That the governors of the several States to which scrip shall be issued under this act shall be required to report annually to Congress all sales made of such scrip until the whole shall be disposed of, the amount received for the same, and what appropriation has been made of the proceeds.


Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862

During the Civil War, the Thirty-Seventh Congress was responsible for a striking amount of landmark legislation. The Homestead Act, the Enrollment Act, and the Internal Revenue Act were passed in a matter of months. Equally important, this energetic Congress also passed the Morrill Land Grant Act (MLGA). The MLGA transformed higher education and was responsible for the establishment of numerous colleges across the country. In this legislation, championed in the Congress by Justin Smith Morrill, the federal government took, for the first time, a leadership role in higher education in the United States.

Morrill, a representative from Vermont, was the most important proponent providing federal assistance for state colleges in Congress before the Civil War. Morrill, the son of a blacksmith, was unable to attend college because his father could not afford the tuition for all of his sons. Leaving school at fifteen, Morrill became a prosperous owner of a general store. He became active in public life and was elected in 1855 as a Whig to the House of Representatives before becoming a leader of the new Republican Party in Vermont. In Congress he rose to a position on the powerful Ways and Means Committee and became one of the most outspoken advocates for the democratic ideal that a college education should be available, at low cost, to all who desired one.

Morrill's thinking was heavily influenced by Jonathan Turner of Illinois College, who had long argued for the establishment of state agricultural colleges through the use of federal land grants. Morrill proposed plans for land grant colleges as early as 1857, and a plan of his passed the House in 1858. The bill faced opposition in the Senate from Southerners objecting to the increased federal role in dictating the course of higher education within the states. Morrill's bill eventually passed the Senate in 1859 in the midst of an economic downturn. President James Buchanan, however, vetoed the bill for both constitutional and economic reasons.

With a new president and the departure of the Southern congressional delegations, Morrill was able in the first Civil War Congress to finally steer his bill to passage. Under the terms of MLGA, the federal government distributed land proportionately to the states, which then sold it. The proceeds of the land sales supported colleges in the instruction of "agriculture and the mechanical arts." Some states used the money from the sale of land to aid existing schools, and other states used the money to establish new colleges and universities. Each state was given 30,000 acres of land for each senator and representative it had in the Congress. Most of the land given to the states was in the West, where the vast bulk of unsold federal land remained. Additionally, the most populous eastern states, such as New York and Pennsylvania, received a larger share of western land than the western states themselves. This provoked some opposition from western delegations in the Congress, but the simultaneous passage of the Homestead Act secured the support of enough western Republicans to pass the act on July 2, 1862. Although first applied in the Union states, after the Civil War, the MLGA was extended to the former Confederate states.

The passage of this legislation in the midst of war is emblematic of the dynamism and creativity of this Congress, even on nonmilitary matters. President Lincoln, consumed with the day-to-day fighting of the war, gave Congress a remarkably free hand in social and economic legislation. The Morrill Land Grant Act remains one of the great legislative achievements of the Civil War Congress, and countless Americans went to college as a direct result of this law. Through this legislation the state universities of Wisconsin, Illinois, California, Minnesota, and Ohio, as well as dozens of other state institutions were created or expanded. State universities from Maryland to Nebraska to Washington have a Morrill Hall on campus. Morrill was elected to the Senate in 1866, where he remained until he died in office in 1898.


The 1862 Morrill Act

[In 1862,] Rutgers College accepted the added commitment as a land-grant institution with the passage of the Morrill Act. This act specified that the annual income derived from the sale of public lands which had been allotted on the basis of 30,000 acres for each senator and representative in Congress, should be paid to the Trustees of Rutgers College. This money, a little more than $5,000 in annual payments, was a "nest egg" and with supplemental state and federal appropriations for faculty, equipment, buildings, and land.

Besides making provisions for resident instruction and research, the Morrill Act charged the Board of Trustees to provide at least one free lecture about agriculture in each county every year.

Willing as they were to comply, the trustees found that taking the college to the people put some severe strains on the resident teaching staff. As the lectures sharpened farmers' appetites for more knowledge, they were supplemented with bulletins, reports, and new articles.

Those early professors with the Extension vision channeled their information through meetings of county boards of agriculture, farmers' institutes, and later by agricultural trains bearing exhibits and lectures that went from town to town.

These statewide activities proved a serious drain on the time of resident professors. The volume of knowledge kept expanding and so did the requests for help from farmers.

About two years before the passage of the New Jersey Farm Demonstration Act, the farmers of Sussex County got together with the Lackawanna Railroad and the local chamber of commerce, to form the first formal Cooperative Extension program in this state [in 1912]. Read more about RCE's history in New Jersey (295k PDF) .

(Excerpted from the RCE Policy Handbook, 2000)


How did the Morrill Act of 1862 affect American Education?

How did the Morrill Act of 1862 affect American Education?IntroductionThis paper is meant to give a brief introduction to the Morrill Act of 1862 and it’s effect to American Education.

The Morrill Act of 1862 is more commonly known as the Land-Grant College Act of 1862. It is still known by such a moniker today because of the many colleges that were built and sustained through the Morrill Act of 1862 and the subsequent Morrill Act of 1890. The Morrill Act of 1890 that will also be touched upon by this paper was a subsequent act that supplemented funding to the Colleges built by the Land-Grant College Act.

This paper will first discuss the Morrill Act of 1862 and how it came about.

It will touch upon the subsequent Morrill Act of 1890 as well. The succeeding sections after such an introduction will focus on the effect of the Morrill Act to American Education. More specifically, it will focus on the immediate effects of the Morrill Act after its passage and the long term effects which the Morrill Act had on American Education today.

Morrill Act of 1862The Morrill Act of 1862 was a significant piece of legislation passed during the Civil War Congress.

It is still a significant piece of legislation today because of its effects and the continuing legacy it has left to modern day America in the field of higher education.How the Morrill Act of 1862 came aboutThe Morrill Act follows the namesake of its main legislator. It follows the name of Justin Smith Morrill. Morrill was a Vermont politician that defied easy characterization.

During his time in the Civil War Congress, Morrill was regarded as a conservative. He opposed the eight-hour workday, women’s suffrage and even direct election of the president and the senators.Today, his most notable accomplishment is his role in the passage of the Land-Grant College Act. The effects of this Act have been tremendous and far-reaching.

These effects would be elaborated further later on. A key premise to any successful introduction as to the far reaching effects of the Act would be an understanding of the situation leading up to the passage of the Act namely the situation in 1862. Also, a key understanding of the man and what motivated the man in the person of Justin Morrill to pioneer such an act is essential to any relevant discourse on the subject matter.First, we discuss the man behind the legislation.

Two published biographies have been written about the man who made the Land Grant Colleges Act a reality. William B. Parker’s The Life and Public Services of Justin Smith Morrill, published in 1924[1] and more recently Coy F. Cross’s excellent Justin Smith Morrill: The Father of the Land-Grant Colleges, published in 1999.

[2]This sketch of Morrill and his legacy relies on both of those works, as well as several of the hundreds of scholarly essays concerning the Land-Grant Act itself, from the politics sur-rounding its creation to the technical aspects of land distribution and revenue management under the law. Not surprisingly, there was a large volume of work and commentary in and around 1962, on the centennial of the act’s passage.More recently, commentary and scholarship have focused on the unfinished agenda of the land-grant concept, particularly with regard to educational opportunity for minorities and the policy implications of Morrill’s idea, both in the nineteenth century and today, as public higher education faces new technological, financial, demographic, and pedagogic challenges to its historic mission.Justin Morrill was born in Strafford, Vermont, on April 14, 1810.

He had no formal education beyond secondary school. He had wanted to attend college but his father could not afford to send both him and his brothers, so elected to send none of them.[3]Nonetheless, by the time Morrill was elected to Congress in 1854 he had enjoyed a successful career dealing in dry goods in Vermont and also in Maine. Politics was a second career.

Morrill had retired from business at the age of thirty-eight, in 1848, and settled down to build his gentleman’s farm in Strafford.[4]Morrill was not a political novice when the Vermont Whig Party nominated him for the state’s second congressional district in July 1854, though his experience was limited to New England, and he won his office narrowly—by a total of fifty-nine votes.[5]He came to office at a fortuitous time, given the legislation that would become his legacy. The United States had acquired 500,000 square miles of new territory in the 1848 treaty with Mexico.

This would be the land that would spur the fulfillment of an idea to fund lower-cost education and make such higher education more affordable to every American.The impetus for Morrill to institute reforms in higher education both came from his own tribulations and the opportunity of the times.Morrill regretted his own lack of formal education. As a Vermonter, he saw the need for practical education in agriculture and mechanics for the working people with whom he identified.

This key fact is a basic premise to understanding the events that followed which will be discussed as our second topic.The events leading up to the passage of the Act proved as key to helping its passage.The Civil War America was an agricultural based society. People lived and ate off the land that they toiled.

However, during the Civil War time of Morrill, the production in agriculture was severely inefficient. Farmers who toiled their land made just enough for the consumption of the household that they were sustaining.Agricultural societies had formed in the United States after the Revolutionary War and they pushed for agricultural colleges that would improve farming methods and productivity.All of these schools suffered from a lack of quality teachers and curricula and shaky finances, but they provided fertile ground for the idea that Morrill would carry to the House floor.

Not coincidentally, the farmers and workers whom Morrill championed were the same people who, by 1862, were dying by the thousands in places like Bull Run, Shiloh, and Cold Harbor.Speaking in Congress in 1858, Morrill decried the fact that such people had to “snatch their education, such as it is, from the crevices between labor and sleep. They grope in twilight. Our country depends upon them as its right arm to do the handiwork of the nation.

Let us, then, furnish the means for that arm to acquire culture, skill, efficiency.”[6]A Discussion of the Act The mechanics of the 1862 act were straightforward. Western states that still had public land to sell would actually select parcels of land that they could either sell immediately or hold until prices went up. Eastern states with no federal public land remaining within their borders (which was most of them) were given scrip, which they then had to sell to assignees to prevent any state from owning land in another.

Assignees could redeem the scrip for land. States were then to invest the proceeds from sales into the “stocks of the United States or of the States, or some other safe stocks, yielding not less than five per centum.”This fund was to remain untouched, and the income was to pay for the “endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college” in each state.[7]States had their own role to play in this, since the interest from the land-grant funds was not to pay for buildings, but only for books, supplies, instruction, and so on.

The states themselves had to provide the land and the buildings, though the law provided that as much as 10 percent of the capital could be used for the purchase of sites.[8]Even with the passage of the Act in 1862, states still had little money for buildings, few qualified teachers, and not many applicants.Morrill tried repeatedly—first in 1872 and eleven more times through 1890—to win additional land grants or financial support for the colleges, and by 1890 he could boast that forty-eight colleges had been created as a result of his 1862 legislation.That year he succeeded: President Benjamin Harrison signed the second Land-Grant Act into law on August 30, 1890, granting states an additional $15,000 a year initially, and rising to $25,000 per year.

[9]This is the Morrill Act of 1890 that won additional funding for States. More significantly, it forced states to open their doors to colored students on the penalty of not receiving the funding if they did not do so. To quote the Morrill Act of 1890:That said colleges may use a portion of this money for providing courses for the special preparation of instructors for teaching elements of agriculture and the mechanic arts:(1) Provided,(2) That no money shall be paid out under this act to any State or Territory for the support and maintenance of a college where a distinction of race or color is made in the admission of students… (Morrill Act of 1890)(emphasis supplied) Effects to American EducationThe Morrill act extended the possibility of higher education to the masses and included previously disenfranchised groups in the scope of higher education. It solidified the early role of the federal government in the field of higher education within states.

By focusing on giving equal opportunity to low-income households to be able to send their young to these colleges, it gave new meaning to democracy and equal opportunity in the post-Civil War period. It gave intellectual force to the human and economic development of the states, and thus of the nation.[10]The social and economic impact of the Morrill Act and related legislation is impossible to measure, but a few quantitative measures are suggestive. Today the largest of the Land-Grant programs is the University of California, which enrolls approximately 150,000 students on its nine campuses the smallest is Kentucky State University, with about 2,500 students.

All together the Land- Grant colleges enroll about three million students annually and award about 500,000 degrees each year, including one-third of all bachelor’s and master’s degrees, 60 percent of all doctoral degrees, and 70 percent of the nation’s engineering degrees. Since 1862 they have awarded more than twenty million degrees.[11]For Morrill, we know his intended effect for the Act he passed. He had hoped the land-grant colleges would have benefited “those at the bottom of the ladder who want to climb up, or those who have some ambition to rise in the world but are without the means to seek far from home a higher standard of culture.

”[12] This we know by virtue of his many speeches given on the occasion of the act’s passage.The colleges made higher education available to women and to blacks, both of whom had traditionally been excluded from educational opportunity.As previously pointed out, the 1890 act denied funds to any school “where a distinction of race or color is made in the admission of students,” and essentially required Southern states to open their land-grant facilities to blacks or open separate institutions for them. Of course, the schools chose the funding and granted equal access.

Most recently, it is Native Americans who have benefited from the land- grant program. Recent legislation has authorized a $23 million endowment, to be built up over a five-year period, to support twenty-nine tribal colleges on Indian reservations throughout the United States.[13]There were other, less immediately obvious or even foreseeable benefits of the 1862 law. The Morrill Act helped separate religious doctrine from higher education.

It also proved invaluable in the Second World War.The nonsectarian foundations of the Morrill Act helped to separate religious doctrine from higher education. This was particularly true in the period after World War II. After World War II, huge numbers of returning servicemen swelled the rolls of land-grant colleges.

This phenomenon helped to establish research as a core function of the American university.Even at the start of the war, the act’s provision for military training at the land-grant institutions was instrumental in meeting the demands of mobilization. Morrill had presumably included the provision in response to the woeful record of Union officers in the Civil War, particularly as compared to the performance of the Confederate officer corps. However even with such purpose, it was World War II where the land-grant military training program proved invaluable.

The U.S. military was very small when the war began. It relied on about fifty thousand Reserve Officer Training Corps officers from the land-grant colleges and universities to train hundreds of thousands of civilians over a very short time.

As Army chief of staff General George C. Marshall put it, “Just what we would have done . . .

without these men I do not know.” [14]ConclusionIn the end, Justin Morrill himself could not have foreseen the many effects of his landmark legislation. He could not have foreseen that the institutions he established would in time become the preeminent system of higher education in the world.However, the function which Morrill hoped to effect American Education is still true today.

He hoped it would make higher education available to those who otherwise would not be able to obtain one. Today, we need to constantly remember such an aspiration. The beginnings of such an ideal was started no less than two centuries ago. The challenges of affordable and efficient education are still worthwhile problems that we cannot forget about.

The challenge that Morrill took on has benefited generations of Americans after him. We must continue answering that challenge in the spirit of ingenuity and nationalism that Morrill has exemplified.BIBLIOGRAPHYMorrill Act of 1862Morrill Act of 1890Parker, William B. The Life and Public Services of Justin Smith Morrill.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1924.Cross II, Coy F. Justin Smith Morrill: Father of the Land-Grant Colleges.

East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press, 1999.Morrill, Justin Smith. Speech on the Bill Granting Lands for Agricultural Colleges.

United States House of Representatives, April 20, 1858. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Globe Printing Office, 8.

Andrews, Ben F. The Land Grant of 1862 and the Land-Grant Colleges. Washington DC.

: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1918, 10.LaMay, Craig L. “Justin Smith Morrill and The Politics of the Land-Grant College Acts” in A Digital Gift to the Nation: Fulfilling the Promise of the Digital and Information Age,, ed. Lawrence K.

Grossman and Newton N. Minnow, pages. 73-95. Washington, D.

C.: The Century Foundation, April 2001.National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act of 1994.Allen, Herman R.

Open Door to Learning: The Land-Grant System Enters its Second Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963, 171–72.[1] William B. Parker.

The Life and Public Services of Justin Smith Morrill. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1924.[2] Coy F.

Cross II. Justin Smith Morrill: Father of the Land-Grant Colleges. East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press, 1999.

[3] Cross, 5.[4] Ibid., 10-12.[5] Ibid.

, 26.[6] Justin Smith Morrill. Speech on the Bill Granting Lands for Agricultural Colleges. United States House of Representatives, April 20, 1858.

Washington, D.C.: Congressional Globe Printing Office, 8.[7] Morrill Act of 1862.

[8] Ben F. Andrews. The Land Grant of 1862 and the Land-Grant Colleges. Washington, D.

C.: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1918, 10.[9] Cross, 86.[10] Craig L.

LaMay, “Justin Smith Morrill and The Politics of the Land-Grant College Acts” in A Digital Gift to the Nation: Fulfilling the Promise of the Digital and Information Age,, ed. Lawrence K. Grossman and Newton N. Minnow, pages.

73-95. Washington, D.C.: The Century Foundation, April 2001.

[11] Cross, 88-89.[12] Morrill, Speech on the Educational Bill. 4.[13] National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act of 1994.

[14] Herman R. Allen. Open Door to Learning: The Land-Grant System Enters its Second Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963, 171–72.


Se videoen: Administration - Past: Brief Historical Context - The Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 and 1890


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