Sadat kommer til Jerusalem - historie

Sadat kommer til Jerusalem - historie


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I november ankom den egyptiske præsident Anwar Sadat til Lod Lufthavn og blev den første arabiske leder til at besøge Israel. Sadats besøg tjente til at bryde den psykologiske barriere, der syntes at have forhindret arabiske ledere i at slutte fred med Israel. I løbet af sit besøg besøgte Sadat Yad Vashem (Israels Holocaust -mindesmærke), Moskeen i Omar og talte til Knesset (Israels parlament). Sadat's besøg markerede begyndelsen på en proces, der endelig sluttede den 30-årige krig mellem Israel og Egypten.

Anwar Sadat

Vores redaktører vil gennemgå, hvad du har indsendt, og afgøre, om artiklen skal revideres.

Anwar Sadat, fuldt ud Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat, Stavede Sadat også Sādāt, el-Sadat, eller al-Sadat, (født 25. december 1918, Mīt Abū al-Kawm, Al-Minūfiyyah Governorate, Egypten-død 6. oktober 1981, Kairo), egyptisk hærofficer og politiker, der var præsident i Egypten fra 1970 til hans attentat i 1981. Han indledte alvorlige fredsforhandlinger med Israel, en præstation, som han delte Nobelprisen for fred i 1978 med den israelske premierminister Menachem Begin. Under deres ledelse sluttede Egypten og Israel fred med hinanden i 1979.

Sadat tog eksamen fra Cairo Military Academy i 1938. Under anden verdenskrig planlagde han at udvise briterne fra Egypten ved hjælp af tyskerne. Briterne arresterede og fængslede ham i 1942, men han slap to år senere. I 1946 blev Sadat anholdt efter at have været impliceret i attentatet på den pro-britiske minister Amin Othman, han blev fængslet indtil sin frifindelse i 1948. I 1950 sluttede han sig til Gamal Abdel Nassers Free Officers-organisation, han deltog i dets væbnede kup mod det egyptiske monarki i 1952 og støttede Nassers valg til præsidentposten i 1956. Sadat havde forskellige høje embeder, der førte til hans tjeneste i næstformandsposten (1964–66, 1969–70). Han blev fungerende præsident ved Nassers død den 28. september 1970 og blev valgt som præsident i en folkeafstemning den 15. oktober.

Sadat's indenrigs- og udenrigspolitik var delvist en reaktion mod Nassers og afspejlede Sadat's bestræbelser på at komme ud af sin forgængers skygge. Et af Sadat's vigtigste indenlandske initiativer var den åbne dør-politik, kendt som infitāḥ (Arabisk: "åbning"), et program for dramatiske økonomiske ændringer, der omfattede decentralisering og diversificering af økonomien samt bestræbelser på at tiltrække handel og udenlandske investeringer. Sadat's bestræbelser på at liberalisere økonomien kom til betydelige omkostninger, herunder høj inflation og en ujævn fordeling af rigdom, uddybning af ulighed og føring til utilfredshed, der senere ville bidrage til madoptøjer i januar 1977.

Det var i udenrigsanliggender, at Sadat gjorde sin mest dramatiske indsats. I følelsen af, at Sovjetunionen gav ham utilstrækkelig støtte i Egyptens fortsatte konfrontation med Israel, udviste han tusinder af sovjetiske teknikere og rådgivere fra landet i 1972. Desuden blev egyptiske fredsåbninger mod Israel indledt tidligt i Sadats præsidentembede, da han meddelte sin villighed til at nå en fredelig løsning, hvis Israel vendte tilbage til Sinai-halvøen (erobret af dette land i seksdages [juni] -krigen i 1967). Efter mislykket af dette initiativ iværksatte Sadat et militært angreb i koordinering med Syrien for at genere området, hvilket udløste den arabisk-israelske krig i oktober 1973. Den egyptiske hær opnåede en taktisk overraskelse i sit angreb den 6. oktober på de tilsyneladende uigennemtrængelige israelske befæstninger langs Suez -kanalens østbred, og selvom Israel afværgede ethvert fremskridt fra Egypten for at generobre Sinai -halvøen, led det store tab og tab af militært udstyr. Sadat kom ud af krigen med stærkt øget prestige som den første arabiske leder, der rent faktisk havde taget noget territorium tilbage fra Israel. (Se Arabisk-israelske krige.)

Efter krigen arbejdede Sadat mod fred i Mellemøsten. Han aflagde et historisk besøg i Israel (19. - 20. november 1977), hvor han rejste til Jerusalem for at lægge sin plan for et fredsforlig for det israelske Knesset (parlament). Dette indledte en række diplomatiske bestræbelser, som Sadat fortsatte på trods af stærk modstand fra det meste af den arabiske verden og Sovjetunionen. Amerikanske præs. Jimmy Carter formidlede forhandlingerne mellem Sadat og Begin, der resulterede i Camp David -aftalerne (17. september 1978), en foreløbig fredsaftale mellem Egypten og Israel. Sadat og Begin blev tildelt Nobelprisen for fred i 1978, og deres fortsatte politiske forhandlinger resulterede i, at den 26. marts 1979 underskrev en fredsaftale mellem Egypten og Israel - den første mellem sidstnævnte og ethvert arabisk land.

Mens Sadat's popularitet steg i Vesten, faldt det dramatisk i Egypten på grund af intern modstand mod traktaten, en forværret økonomisk krise og Sadat's undertrykkelse af den deraf følgende offentlige uenighed. I september 1981 beordrede han en massiv politiangreb mod sine modstandere og fængslede mere end 1.500 mennesker fra hele det politiske spektrum. Den følgende måned blev Sadat myrdet af medlemmer af den egyptiske islamiske jihad under militærparaden for de væbnede styrkers dag til minde om den arabisk-israelske krig i oktober 1973.

Sadats selvbiografi, På jagt efter identitet, udkom i 1978.

Redaktionen af ​​Encyclopaedia Britannica Denne artikel blev senest revideret og opdateret af Adam Zeidan, assisterende redaktør.


JERUSALEM-SPØRGSMÅL IGEN VENDER SOM ET TILBAGESTILLET MØDE

Med kun fire dage tilbage før mødet mellem egyptiske og israelske ledere i Sinai, har det berørte spørgsmål om Jerusalem igen sløret forholdet mellem de to lande.

I en meddelelse til den Kairo-baserede liga for arabiske og islamiske folk bekræftede præsident Anwar el-Sadat Kairos støtte til det palæstinensiske folk 's ' ' evige, nationale og religiøse rettigheder ' ' til Jerusalem.

Hr. Sadat sagde også, at det var uretfærdigt at have byen ' ' garnet af besættelse ' ' og opfordrede muslimer overalt til at samarbejde, så bannerne for frihed, retfærdighed og fred vil blive løftet over Jerusalem. ' '

Nogle vil aflyse mødet

I reaktion på talen sagde hard-liners, at premierminister Menachem Begin skulle aflyse torsdagens møde og blive i Jerusalem med sit kabinet for at genvurdere beslutningen om at afslutte evakueringen af ​​Sinai inden april i overensstemmelse med den egyptisk-israelske fredsaftale.

Men ministre på kabinetsmødet i Jerusalem i morges besluttede en lavmælt reaktion. Efter at have stødt fra mødet læste premierminister Begin dystert en kommunikation, der gentog Israels holdning om, at Jerusalem er hovedstaden i Israel, en by, udelelig. ' '

Meddelelsen tilføjede, at israelsk lov, der var gældende siden krigen i 1967, da israelske styrker erobrede Østjerusalem fra jordanske styrker, havde garanteret fri adgang til hellige steder af medlemmer af alle religioner. Emne er ikke på dagsordenen

Mr. Begin nægtede at udvide kabinetserklæringen, men vicepremierminister Yigael Yadin sagde, at siden præsident Sadat 's første besøg i Jerusalem havde embedsmænd været enige om at være uenige om Jerusalem, et af de mest følelsesmæssige spørgsmål, der deler de to lande.

Han sagde, at emnet ikke var på dagsordenen til torsdagens møde, som vil behandle regionale problemer. Kabinetsmødet behandlede i dag det kommende møde, og øverste hær- og luftvåbnets officerer bar kort ind i kabinetssessionen, hvilket tyder på, at ministrene også diskuterede missilkrisen med Syrien.

En foreløbig tidsplan for torsdag 's møde viser, at de to ledere vil bruge seks timer sammen. Tidsplanen indeholder også en statslig reception i Ofira lufthavn, frokost og en rundvisning i området på den sydlige spids af halvøen, hvor israelerne har udviklet flådefaciliteter og et feriested. ---- Sadat svor troskab til traktaten

CAIRO, 31. maj (AP)-På trods af stærke sammenstød over Jerusalem fortalte præsident Anwar el-Sadat i dag besøgende israelske lovgivere, at der ikke ville være nogen vej tilbage ' ' under nogen omstændigheder ' ' fra den egyptisk-israelske fredsaftale.

Han fortalte en delegation fra det israelske parlament, at alle forskelle mellem de to nationer kunne løses, ifølge Cairo 's Middle East News Agency.

Sadat fortalte den israelske delegation under mødet i byen Alexandria i Middelhavet, at Jerusalem -spørgsmålet skulle løses på en måde, der var tilfredsstillende i forhold til påstande fra kristne, jøder og muslimer, som alle anser det for en hellig by . ' '


Fredsprocessen ‘: En kort historie

Da den israelsk-palæstinensiske konflikt uden tvivl ikke er tættere på at blive løst, end det var for et årti siden, må man undre sig over: Er den meget berømte fredsproces, og#8221 hyldet af amerikanske præsidenter fra begge parter, blevet en charade? Sætningen ’s lange historie antyder, at der har været meget mere proces end fred. Nu, da arabiske oprør forvandler Mellemøsten og israelere og palæstinensere går hver til sit, kan det være på tide at vælge et nyt modeord: dødvande. –Uri Friedman

1967
Efter seksdageskrigen opfordrer FN's Sikkerhedsråds resolution 242 til, at Israel trækker sig tilbage fra de besatte områder mod at afslutte fjendtlighederne og respekten for suveræniteten i alle stater i området. Det upræcise sprog neutraliserer opløsningen, men formlen land-for-fred vil informere — eller hjemsøge — fredsindsats derefter.

1973
Egypten og Syrien iværksætter koordinerede overraskelsesangreb på Israel i Sinai og Golanhøjderne på Yom Kippur. Det amerikansk-sovjetiske brinkmanship over krigen og den arabiske olieembargo fremhæver konfliktens geopolitiske dimensioner, og USA bruger flere diplomatiske muskler til at løse det.

1973-1975
I det, medierne kalder “ shuttle -diplomati, ” holder USA's udenrigsminister Henry Kissinger bilaterale samtaler med krigsførere fra Yom Kippur -krigen, der hjælper med at afbøde den umiddelbare krise. Kissinger og hans rådgivere omtaler disse diplomatiske bestræbelser som en “forhandlingsproces ” og derefter, som det politiske klima i regionen optøer, en “fredproces. ” Processen går i stå, da USA's præsident Richard Nixon træder tilbage og Six- Dagkrigshelt Yitzhak Rabin overtager magten i Israel.

1974
Arabiske ledere anerkender Palestina Liberation Organization (PLO) som den eneste legitime repræsentant for det palæstinensiske folk, og#8221 forvandler det palæstinensiske spørgsmål fra flygtninges rettigheder til et af nationalistiske ambitioner. Jeg er kommet med en olivengren og en frihedskæmperpistol, ” PLO -formand Yasir Arafat underretter FN's generalforsamling en måned senere. “ Lad ikke olivengren falde fra min hånd. ”

1975
En indflydelsesrig Brookings Institution-undersøgelse bryder med Kissinger's inkrementelle fredsproces, der går ind for en “ omfattende ” arabisk-israelsk løsning, der ville omfatte, at Israel trak sig tilbage til sine grænser før 1967 og støtte palæstinensisk selvbestemmelse til gengæld for diplomatisk anerkendelse og fred med sine arabiske naboer.

1977
USA's præsident Jimmy Carter bringer flere forfattere af Brookings -rapporten ind i sin administration og beslutter at forfølge en mere ambitiøs fredsproces, der overrasker selv hans nærmeste rådgivere ved åbent at opfordre til et palæstinensisk hjemland. ” Israel ’s Menachem Begin og Egypt &# 8217'erne Anwar Sadat udtrykker en appetit på fred, og Sadat bliver den første arabiske leder til at besøge Israel.

1978-1979
Sadat og Begin mødes med Carter, der producerer Camp David-aftalerne og et år senere en egyptisk-israelsk fredsaftale, hvor Egypten anerkender Israel og Israel trækker sig tilbage fra Sinai. Traktaten inviterer Israels andre naboer til at deltage i fredsprocessen med Israel. ” Ingen takers.

1982
Efter Sadat's attentat og israelske angreb på PLO i Libanon opfordrer USAs præsident Ronald Reagan til en ny start, og#8221 opfordrer Jordan til at arbejde sammen med palæstinenserne for at opnå selvstyre. Målet bliver urealiseret.

1985
Dennis Ross, der ville rådgive fem amerikanske præsidenter i Mellemøsten, argumenterer for, at USA forsigtigt bør lette diplomati i regionen, mens han tålmodigt afventer reel bevægelse fra de lokale partier. ”

1987
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin stifter Hamas midt i udbruddet af den første Intifada, et palæstinensisk oprør mod israelsk kontrol over Vestbredden og Gaza. Gruppens charter fra 1988 opfordrer til Israels ødelæggelse og oprettelsen af ​​en islamistisk palæstinensisk stat gennem voldelig jihad.

1991
Den amerikanske præsident, George H.W. Bush co-sponsorer sammen med Sovjetunionen en konference i Madrid mellem Israel og Jordan, Libanon, Syrien og palæstinenserne, der mødes med israelske forhandlere for første gang. Dialogen opnår lidt, men den skaber en ramme, der længe mangler, for samtaler.

1993-1994
Hemmelige Israel-PLO-samtaler i Norge giver den første aftale mellem de to sider, Oslo-aftalen. De genkender hinanden og udarbejder en femårsplan for, at Israel skal afstå kontrollen med territorierne til en ny palæstinensisk myndighed og palæstinensiske ledere for at slå ned på terrorisme inden en endelig fredsaftale. Rabin og Jordans kong Hussein underskriver endnu en fredsaftale et år senere.

1995
Den jødiske ekstremist Yigal Amir myrder Rabin, der i sin anden periode var blevet en stærk fortaler for en tostatsløsning. Fredsprocessen i Oslo spruter.

2000
USA's præsident Bill Clinton indkalder Arafat og den israelske premierminister Ehud Barak på Camp David for at tage fat på Oslo's mest tornede spørgsmål: grænser, sikkerhed, bosættelser, flygtninge og Jerusalem. Men forhandlingerne kollapser, og den anden Intifada eksploderer i vold.

2001
En maj -rapport fra den tidligere amerikanske senator George Mitchell advarer om, at den største fare i Mellemøsten er, at fredskulturen, der er næret i løbet af det foregående årti, bliver knust. ” Efter angrebene den 11. september , Nævner præsident George W. Bush ikke fredsprocessen i sin tale om Unionens tilstand i 2002.

2002-2003
Da USA opbygger en koalition for at gå i krig i Irak, bliver Bush den første amerikanske præsident, der eksplicit opfordrer til en uafhængig palæstinensisk stat. Saudierne præsenterer en fredsplan godkendt af den arabiske liga, og den såkaldte kvartet — USA, EU, Rusland og FN — afslører et “ vejkort ” for fred, der sætter sikkerheden foran en politisk aftale.

2007
Mens pessimismen når nye dybder (“Fredprocessen har intet tøj, ” skriver Mideast-analytiker Nathan J. Brown), afholder Bush en konference i Annapolis mellem Israel og dets arabiske naboer, der forankrer tostatsløsningen. Hamas, der har taget magten i Gaza og splittet med sin rivaliserende palæstinensiske fraktion, Fatah, er ikke inviteret.

2008
En israelsk militær offensiv i Gaza udrydder dialogen mellem Israels Ehud Olmert og Den Palæstinensiske Myndigheds Mahmoud Abbas.

2009-2010
USA's præsident, Barack Obama, træder ind i sit embede og lover at aktivt og aggressivt søge varig fred. ” Efter at have sikret en hårdt vundet, 10 måneders forligsfrysning fra den israelske premierminister Benjamin Netanyahu, er Obama vært i ansigt til ansigt-samtaler, men mislykkes at opnå materielle indrømmelser.
Undersøgelseskilde: Gallup

Obama raser Netanyahu ved at foreslå, at nye forhandlinger starter fra grænserne før 1967 med landbytninger, mens palæstinenserne forfølger statslige led i FN i stedet for forhandlinger. Da 2012 begynder, husker Mideast -forhandleren Ross, hvad den israelske embedsmand Dan Meridor engang fortalte ham, “ ‘Fredsprocessen er som at cykle: Når du holder op med at pedalere, falder du af. '” Israelerne og palæstinenserne, siger Ross , “ er stoppet med at pedalere. ”
Undersøgelseskilde: hebraisk universitet i Jerusalem og palæstinensisk center for politik og undersøgelsesforskning

Da den israelsk-palæstinensiske konflikt uden tvivl ikke er tættere på at blive løst, end det var for et årti siden, må man undre sig over: Er den meget berømte fredsproces, og#8221 hyldet af amerikanske præsidenter fra begge parter, blevet en charade? Sætningen ’s lange historie antyder, at der har været meget mere proces end fred. Nu, da arabiske oprør forvandler Mellemøsten og israelere og palæstinensere går hver til sit, kan det være på tide at vælge et nyt modeord: dødvande. –Uri Friedman

1967
Efter seksdageskrigen opfordrer FN's Sikkerhedsråds resolution 242 til, at Israel trækker sig tilbage fra de besatte områder mod at afslutte fjendtlighederne og respekten for suveræniteten i alle stater i området. Det upræcise sprog neutraliserer opløsningen, men formlen land-for-fred vil informere — eller hjemsøge — fredsindsats derefter.

1973
Egypten og Syrien iværksætter koordinerede overraskelsesangreb på Israel i Sinai og Golanhøjderne på Yom Kippur. Det amerikansk-sovjetiske brinkmanship over krigen og den arabiske olieembargo fremhæver konfliktens geopolitiske dimensioner, og USA bruger flere diplomatiske muskler til at løse den.

1973-1975
I det, medierne kalder “ shuttle -diplomati, ” holder USA's udenrigsminister Henry Kissinger bilaterale samtaler med krigsførere fra Yom Kippur -krigen, der hjælper med at afbøde den umiddelbare krise. Kissinger og hans rådgivere omtaler disse diplomatiske bestræbelser som en “forhandlingsproces ” og derefter, som det politiske klima i regionen optøer, en “fredproces. ” Processen går i stå, da USA's præsident Richard Nixon træder tilbage og Six- Dagkrigshelt Yitzhak Rabin overtager magten i Israel.

1974
Arabiske ledere anerkender Palestina Liberation Organization (PLO) som den eneste legitime repræsentant for det palæstinensiske folk, og#8221 forvandler det palæstinensiske spørgsmål fra flygtninges rettigheder til et af nationalistiske forhåbninger. Jeg er kommet med en olivengren og en frihedskæmperpistol, ” PLO -formand Yasir Arafat underretter FN's generalforsamling en måned senere. “ Lad ikke olivengren falde fra min hånd. ”

1975
En indflydelsesrig Brookings Institution-undersøgelse bryder med Kissinger's inkrementelle fredsproces, der går ind for en “ omfattende ” arabisk-israelsk løsning, der ville omfatte, at Israel trak sig tilbage til sine grænser før 1967 og støtte palæstinensisk selvbestemmelse til gengæld for diplomatisk anerkendelse og fred med sine arabiske naboer.

1977
USA's præsident Jimmy Carter bringer flere forfattere af Brookings -rapporten ind i sin administration og beslutter at forfølge en mere ambitiøs fredsproces, der overrasker selv hans nærmeste rådgivere ved åbent at opfordre til et palæstinensisk hjemland. ” Israel ’s Menachem Begin og Egypt &# 8217'erne Anwar Sadat udtrykker en appetit på fred, og Sadat bliver den første arabiske leder til at besøge Israel.

1978-1979
Sadat og Begin mødes med Carter, der producerer Camp David-aftalerne og et år senere en egyptisk-israelsk fredsaftale, hvor Egypten anerkender Israel og Israel trækker sig tilbage fra Sinai. Traktaten inviterer Israels andre naboer til at deltage i fredsprocessen med Israel. ” Ingen takers.

1982
Efter Sadat's attentat og israelske angreb på PLO i Libanon opfordrer USAs præsident Ronald Reagan til en ny start, og opfordrer Jordan til at arbejde sammen med palæstinenserne for at opnå selvstyre. Målet bliver urealiseret.

1985
Dennis Ross, der ville rådgive fem amerikanske præsidenter i Mellemøsten, argumenterer for, at USA forsigtigt bør lette diplomati i regionen, mens han tålmodigt afventer reel bevægelse fra de lokale partier. ”

1987
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin stifter Hamas midt i udbruddet af den første Intifada, et palæstinensisk oprør mod israelsk kontrol over Vestbredden og Gaza. Gruppens charter fra 1988 opfordrer til Israels ødelæggelse og oprettelse af en islamistisk palæstinensisk stat gennem voldelig jihad.

1991
Den amerikanske præsident, George H.W. Bush co-sponsorer sammen med Sovjetunionen en konference i Madrid mellem Israel og Jordan, Libanon, Syrien og palæstinenserne, der mødes med israelske forhandlere for første gang. Dialogen opnår lidt, men den skaber en ramme, der længe mangler, for samtaler.

1993-1994
Hemmelige Israel-PLO-samtaler i Norge giver den første aftale mellem de to sider, Oslo-aftalen. De genkender hinanden og udarbejder en femårsplan for, at Israel skal afstå kontrollen med territorierne til en ny palæstinensisk myndighed og palæstinensiske ledere for at slå ned på terrorisme inden en endelig fredsaftale. Rabin og Jordans kong Hussein underskriver endnu en fredsaftale et år senere.

1995
Den jødiske ekstremist Yigal Amir myrder Rabin, der i sin anden periode var blevet en stærk fortaler for en tostatsløsning. Fredsprocessen i Oslo spruter.

2000
USA's præsident Bill Clinton indkalder Arafat og den israelske premierminister Ehud Barak på Camp David for at tage fat i Oslo's mest tornede spørgsmål: grænser, sikkerhed, bosættelser, flygtninge og Jerusalem. Men forhandlingerne kollapser, og den anden Intifada eksploderer i vold.

2001
En rapport fra maj fra den tidligere amerikanske senator George Mitchell advarer om, at den største fare i Mellemøsten er, at fredskulturen, der er næret i løbet af det foregående årti, bliver knust. ” Efter angrebene den 11. september , Nævner præsident George W. Bush ikke fredsprocessen i sin tale om tilstanden i Unionen i 2002.

2002-2003
Da USA opbygger en koalition for at gå i krig i Irak, bliver Bush den første amerikanske præsident, der eksplicit opfordrer til en uafhængig palæstinensisk stat. Saudierne præsenterer en fredsplan godkendt af den arabiske liga, og den såkaldte kvartet — USA, EU, Rusland og FN — afslører et “ vejkort ” for fred, der sætter sikkerheden foran en politisk aftale.

2007
Mens pessimismen når nye dybder (“Fredprocessen har intet tøj, ” skriver Mideast-analytiker Nathan J. Brown), afholder Bush en konference i Annapolis mellem Israel og dets arabiske naboer, der forankrer tostatsløsningen. Hamas, der har taget magten i Gaza og splittet med sin rivaliserende palæstinensiske fraktion, Fatah, er ikke inviteret.

2008
En israelsk militær offensiv i Gaza udsletter dialogen mellem Israels Ehud Olmert og Den Palæstinensiske Myndigheds Mahmoud Abbas.

2009-2010
USAs præsident, Barack Obama, træder ind i sit embede og lover at aktivt og aggressivt søge en varig fred. ” Efter at have sikret en hårdt vundet, 10-måneders forligsfrysning fra Israels premierminister Benjamin Netanyahu, er Obama vært i ansigt til ansigt-samtaler, men mislykkes at opnå materielle indrømmelser.
Undersøgelseskilde: Gallup

Obama raser Netanyahu ved at foreslå, at nye forhandlinger starter fra grænserne før 1967 med landbytninger, mens palæstinenserne forfølger statslige led i FN i stedet for forhandlinger. Da 2012 begynder, husker Mideast -forhandleren Ross, hvad den israelske embedsmand Dan Meridor engang fortalte ham, “ ‘Fredsprocessen er som at cykle: Når du holder op med at pedalere, falder du af. '” Israelerne og palæstinenserne, siger Ross , “ er stoppet med at pedalere. ”
Undersøgelseskilde: hebraisk universitet i Jerusalem og palæstinensisk center for politik og undersøgelsesforskning

Uri Friedman er viceadministrerende redaktør i Foreign Policy. Inden han kom til FP, rapporterede han til Christian Science Monitor, arbejdede på virksomhedsstrategi for Atlantic Media, hjalp med at lancere Atlantic Wire, og dækkede internationale anliggender for stedet. En stolt indfødt i Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, studerede han europæisk historie ved University of Pennsylvania og har boet i Barcelona, ​​Spanien og Genève, Schweiz. Twitter: @UriLF


Indhold

Anwar Sadat blev født den 25. december 1918 i Mit Abu El Kom, Monufia, Egypten af ​​en fattig familie, en af ​​13 brødre og søstre. [10] En af hans brødre, Atef Sadat, blev senere pilot og blev dræbt i aktion under oktoberkrigen 1973. [11] Hans far, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat var en øvre egypter, og hans mor, Sit Al-Berain , var sudanesisk fra sin far. [12] [13]

Han tog eksamen fra Royal Military Academy i Kairo i 1938 [14] og blev udnævnt til Signal Corps. Han kom ind i hæren som anden løjtnant og blev sendt til Sudan (Egypten og Sudan var et land dengang). Der mødte han Gamal Abdel Nasser, og sammen med flere andre juniorofficerer dannede de de hemmelige Free Officers, en organisation, der var forpligtet til at udvise den britiske tilstedeværelse fra Egypten og fjerne kongelig korruption. [15]

Under anden verdenskrig blev han fængslet af briterne for sine bestræbelser på at få hjælp fra aksemagterne til at udvise de besættende britiske styrker. Anwar Sadat var aktiv i mange politiske bevægelser, herunder Det Muslimske Broderskab, det fascistiske Unge Egypten, den pro-palace jernvagt i Egypten og den hemmelige militærgruppe kaldet Free Officers. [16] Sammen med sine andre friofficerer deltog Sadat i militærkuppet, der lancerede den egyptiske revolution i 1952, som styrtede kong Farouk den 23. juli samme år. Sadat fik til opgave at meddele nyheden om revolutionen til det egyptiske folk over radionetværk.

Under formandskabet for Gamal Abdel Nasser blev Sadat udnævnt til statsminister i 1954. Han blev også udnævnt til redaktør for det nystiftede dagblad Al Gomhuria. [17] I 1959 tiltrådte han stillingen som sekretær for National Union. Sadat var præsident for Nationalforsamlingen (1960–1968) og derefter vicepræsident og medlem af præsidentrådet i 1964. Han blev genvalgt som vicepræsident igen i december 1969.

Nogle af de store begivenheder i Sadat's formandskab var hans "korrigerende revolution" for at konsolidere magten, bruddet med Egyptens mangeårige allierede og bistandsgiver i Sovjetunionen, oktoberkrigen i 1973 med Israel, Camp David-fredsaftalen med Israel, " åbning "(eller Infitah) af Egyptens økonomi, og endelig hans attentat i 1981.

Sadat efterfulgte Nasser som præsident efter sidstnævntes død i oktober 1970. [18] Sadat's formandskab forventedes bredt at blive kortvarig. [19] Da Nassers tilhængere i regeringen anså ham for at have været lidt mere end en marionet af den tidligere præsident, besluttede de sig for Sadat som en, de let kunne manipulere. Sadat overraskede alle med en række skarpe politiske tiltag, hvorved han var i stand til at beholde præsidentposten og fremstå som en leder i sin egen ret. [20] Den 15. maj 1971 meddelte [21] Sadat sin Korrigerende revolution, rensning af regeringen, de politiske og sikkerhedsmæssige institutioner for de mest ivrige nasserister. Sadat opmuntrede til fremkomsten af ​​en islamistisk bevægelse, som var blevet undertrykt af Nasser. Da han troede, at islamister var socialt konservative, gav han dem "betydelig kulturel og ideologisk autonomi" i bytte for politisk støtte. [22]

I 1971, tre år inde i udmattelseskrigen i Suezkanalzonen, godkendte Sadat i et brev fredsforslagene fra FN-forhandleren Gunnar Jarring, der syntes at føre til en fuld fred med Israel på grundlag af Israels tilbagetrækning til dets præ- krigsgrænser. Dette fredsinitiativ mislykkedes, da hverken Israel eller USA accepterede vilkårene som diskuteret dengang. [23]

Korrigerende revolution

Kort efter tiltrædelsen chokerede Sadat mange egyptere ved at afskedige og fængsle to af de mest magtfulde skikkelser i regimet, vicepræsident Ali Sabri, der havde tætte forbindelser med sovjetiske embedsmænd, og Sharawy Gomaa, indenrigsminister, der kontrollerede det hemmelige politi. [19] Sadat's stigende popularitet ville accelerere, efter at han havde reduceret magterne hos det forhadte hemmelige politi, [19] udvist sovjetisk militær fra landet [24] og reformeret den egyptiske hær til en fornyet konfrontation med Israel. [19]

Yom Kippur -krigen

Den 6. oktober 1973, i forbindelse med Hafez al-Assad i Syrien, lancerede Sadat oktoberkrigen, også kendt som Yom Kippur-krigen (og mindre almindeligt som Ramadan-krigen), et overraskelsesangreb mod de israelske styrker, der indtog den egyptiske Sinai-halvø , [25] og de syriske Golanhøjder i et forsøg på at genvinde disse respektive egyptiske og syriske territorier, der havde været besat af Israel siden seksdageskrigen seks år tidligere. Den egyptiske og syriske præstation i de indledende faser af krigen overraskede både Israel og den arabiske verden. Den mest markante præstation (Operation Badr, også kendt som The Crossing) var det egyptiske militærs fremrykning cirka 15 km ind på den besatte Sinai -halvø efter at have trængt ind og stort set ødelagt Bar Lev -linjen. Denne linje blev populært antaget at have været en uigennemtrængelig defensiv kæde.

Efterhånden som krigen skred frem, havde tre divisioner af den israelske hær ledet af general Ariel Sharon krydset Suez -kanalen og forsøgte først at omringe den egyptiske anden hær. Selvom dette mislykkedes, foranlediget af en aftale mellem USA og Sovjetunionen, vedtog FN's Sikkerhedsråd resolution 338 den 22. oktober 1973 og opfordrede til øjeblikkelig våbenhvile. [26] Selvom der blev aftalt, blev våbenhvilen straks brudt. [27] Alexei Kosygin, formanden for USSR Ministerråd, aflyste et officielt møde med den danske premierminister Anker Jørgensen om at rejse til Egypten, hvor han forsøgte at overtale Sadat til at underskrive en fredsaftale. Under Kosygins to dage lange ophold er det uvist, om han og Sadat nogensinde mødtes personligt. [28] Det israelske militær fortsatte derefter deres kørsel for at omringe den egyptiske hær. Omslutningen blev afsluttet den 24. oktober, tre dage efter at våbenhvilen blev brudt. Denne udvikling foranledigede spændinger fra stormagten, men en anden våbenhvile blev pålagt kooperativt den 25. oktober for at afslutte krigen. Ved afslutningen af ​​fjendtlighederne var israelske styrker 40 kilometer fra Damaskus og 101 kilometer fra Kairo. [29]

Fred med Israel

De indledende egyptiske og syriske sejre i krigen genoprettede populær moral i hele Egypten og i den arabiske verden, og i mange år efter var Sadat kendt som "Crossing Hero". Israel anerkendte Egypten som en formidabel fjende, og Egyptens fornyede politiske betydning førte til sidst til at genvinde og genåbne Suez -kanalen gennem fredsprocessen. Hans nye fredspolitik førte til indgåelsen af ​​to aftaler om frakobling af styrker med den israelske regering. Den første af disse aftaler blev underskrevet den 18. januar 1974 og den anden den 4. september 1975.

Et stort aspekt af Sadat's fredspolitik var at opnå en vis religiøs støtte til hans indsats. Allerede under sit besøg i USA i oktober – november 1975 inviterede han den evangeliske præst Billy Graham til et officielt besøg, som blev afholdt et par dage efter Sadats besøg. [31] Ud over at dyrke forholdet til evangeliske kristne i USA, byggede han også et vist samarbejde med Vatikanet. Den 8. april 1976 besøgte han Vatikanet for første gang og modtog en meddelelse om støtte fra pave Paul VI om at opnå fred med Israel for at inkludere en retfærdig løsning på det palæstinensiske spørgsmål. [32] Sadat forlod på sin side en offentlig invitation til paven til at besøge Kairo. [33] [ mislykket verifikation ]

Sadat brugte også medierne til at promovere sine formål. I et interview gav han til den libanesiske avis El Hawadeth i begyndelsen af ​​februar 1976 hævdede han, at han havde hemmelig forpligtelse fra den amerikanske regering til at lægge pres på den israelske regering for en større tilbagetrækning i Sinai og Golanhøjderne. [34] Denne erklæring vakte en vis bekymring for den israelske regering, men Kissinger benægtede, at et sådant løfte nogensinde blev givet. [35]

I januar 1977 protesterede en række 'Bread Riots' Sadat's økonomiske liberalisering og specifikt et regeringsdekret om at ophæve priskontrollen på grundlæggende nødvendigheder som brød. Optøjerne varede i to dage og omfattede hundredtusinder i Kairo. 120 busser og hundredvis af bygninger blev ødelagt alene i Kairo. [36] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls. [37] [38] During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West. [19]

The United States and the Soviet Union agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East. [19] Syria continued to resist such a conference. [19] Not wanting either Syria or the Soviet Union to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel. [19]

On 19 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision". [39]


Historie

State of Israel established when the Israeli Declaration of Independence is proclaimed. The text declares the State of Israel open for Jewish immigration and that the state will “ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants” regardless of religion, race, or sex.

David Ben-Gurion (center) reading Israel’s Declaration of Independence, May 14, 1948 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

The United States recognizes the provisional government of Israel. (Read more in America’s relationship to Israel.)

Expulsion and exodus of Jews from Arab countries begins the first wave lasts through 1951. With the establishment of the State of Israel, Jews leave Arab countries by the thousands.

Yemenite Jewish family walking through the desert, 1949 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

May 15

Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invade Israel. Additional troops come from Saudi Arabia, under Egyptian command.

Altalena Affair: a confrontation between Israel Defense Forces and the Irgun. Sixteen Irgun fighters and three IDF soldiers are killed. The event is significant because it shows that David Ben-Gurion is prepared to fight other Jews to establish a single authority for the new state.

December

UN passes Resolution 194, affirming the right of return of Palestinian refugees.

First elections in Israel: The first Knesset is elected, with the Labor Zionist Mapai winning the majority of votes. David Ben-Gurion forms the first government. (Read more about how Israeli politics work here.)

David Ben-Gurion speaking in Knesset, July 1949 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

Armistice signed with Egypt in February, and in the months that follow, Israel signs armistice agreements with Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria.

Israel admitted to UN a little under a year after the state is established.

Operation Magic Carpet starts was the operation to airlift Yemenite Jews to Israel. 49,000 Jews come to Israel between 1949 and 1950 as a result of this program.

Yemenite Jews en route to Israel (Wikimedia Commons)

Jordan formally annexes the West Bank, a move that gives the residents of the West Bank Jordanian citizenship.

Law of Return passes, stating “Every Jew has the right to immigrate to the country,” sparking an influx of Jewish immigrants.

King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated while visiting al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem by a Palestinian nationalist who views his cooperation with Israel as a betrayal.

Operation Ezra & Nehemia airlift more than 100,000 Jews from Iraq through Iran and Cyprus between 1951 and 1952. The operation is named after Ezra and Nehemiah, who led the Jewish people out of Babylonian exile (poetic!).

Immigrants from Iraq arriving in Israel, May 1951 (National Photo Collection of Israel)

Gamal Abdul Nasser comes to power in Egypt under Nasser the Arab League puts the Gaza Strip under Egyptian control officially.

Nasser waving to crowds, Mansoura, Egypt, 1960 (Bibliotheca Alexandrina)

King Hussein comes to power in Jordan at age 17, increasing problems with the Palestinians living in Jordan who are angry at their inferior status.

King Hussein with Jordanian troops, March 1957 (Wikimedia Commons)

German reparations agreement: Israel signs a reparations agreement with West Germany. This is a controversial move, with some Israeli political figures claiming that it amounts to taking blood money.

Lavon Affair: a failed Israeli false-flag operation in Egypt (lasts through 1955) wherein Egyptian Jews are recruited to foment instability in Egypt by planting bombs and blaming the Muslim Brotherhood.

Nasser nationalizes the Suez canal: This move eventually leads to the Suez Crisis, which erupts after Israel, with backing from Britain and France, invade Sinai on October 29, 1956, as a pretext for those countries to intervene to protect the canal zone.

Suez Canal, during the initial Anglo-French assault on Port Said, November 5, 1956 (Imperial War Museum)

Kafr Qasim massacre: Israeli border police kill 48 Arab civilians deemed in violation of an Israeli-imposed curfew.

Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula in March, officially ending the Suez Crisis.

Fatah formed by Yasser Arafat and three others in the Gulf as a Palestinian nationalist movement. (Read more about Palestinian politics here.)

Adolf Eichmann is captured in Argentina by the Mossad, brought to Israel, and eventually tried and executed.

Operation Yakhin (Yachin) helps Moroccan Jews emigrate to Israel about 97,000 Moroccan Jews leave by plane and ship between 1961 and 1964.

Dimona Nuclear Reactor: Israel’s nuclear reactor (in Dimona, Israel) begins operations. Israel has never formally acknowledged that it has nuclear weapons capacity.

PLO Founded in Cairo: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) calls for the liberation of Palestine and the destruction of Israel through armed struggle, as well as the establishment of an “independent Palestinian state” between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. (Read more about the PLO here.)

Yasser Arafa (center) in Amman, Jordan, June 1970 (Al Ahram Weekly)

Egypt escalates regional tensions, closes the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, and expels the UN peacekeepers from the Sinai Peninsula.

June 5 — 10

Six-Day War: To preempt Egyptian strikes, Israel launches air strikes against Egypt, taking Egypt by surprise and destroying nearly its entire air force within 24 hours. By the end of the war, Israel controls the Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Eastern Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights.

After the Six-Day War, Israel controlled the Sinai, Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Golan Heights

The new territories will completely alter the political conversation in Israel (and outside it). Israel considers offering the majority of the land in exchange for peace.

September

First West Bank Settlement established in Kfar Etzion, an Israeli community in the West Bank. (Read more about settlements here.)

Khartoum Resolution: The Arab League meets in Khartoum, Sudan and adopts the Three No’s:

  1. No peace with Israel
  2. No recognition of Israel
  3. No direct negotiations with Israel

November

UN Resolution 242 adopted, calling for Israel to withdraw from territories occupied during the Six-Day War. This formula, known as the “land for peace,” would form the basis for all subsequent efforts to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict. (Read more about attempts to solve the conflict here.)

War of Attrition begins: Egypt launches this against Israel after the Six-Day War basically, artillery shelling into the Sinai, aerial warfare, and raids. Ends with a ceasefire in 1970.

Golda Meir elected Prime Minister.

Black September: King Hussein declares military rule and expels Arafat from Jordan. The Palestinian leadership flees to south Lebanon.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine fighters, Jordan, 1969 (Thomas R. Koeniges/Look Magazine)

Munich Olympic Massacre: Palestinian terrorists kidnap and murder 11 Israeli athletes (and one West German police officer) during the Summer Olympics. Five terrorists are killed, and the Mossad launches Operation Wrath of God to assassinate those involved.

Yom Kippur War: Arab forces from Egypt and Syria lead surprise attacks on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year, hoping to gain back territories lost in 1967. Even though Israel eventually prevails, it’s considered a diplomatic and military failure.

Arafat addresses the UN, in a famous speech: “Today I come bearing an olive branch in one hand, and the freedom fighter’s gun in the other. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand. I repeat, do not let the olive branch fall from my hand.”

Civil War breaks out in Lebanon: The PLO initially try and stay out of the conflict, but they eventually team up with the leftist Lebanese forces.

UN Resolution 3379 calls Zionism “a form of racism and racial discrimination.”

Land Day protests: the first Arab general strike in Israeli history to protest Israeli expropriation of Arab land in the Galilee. “Land Day” on March 30 becomes an annual day of protest and commemoration.

Entebbe Rescue Operation: In July, an Air France plane, flying from Tel Aviv to Paris, is hijacked by a faction of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine alongside German terrorists. Mossad mounts a rescue operation and rescues most of the hostages. One Israeli — Benjamin Netanyahu’s older brother, Yonatan — is killed.

Likud comes to power (this is called the Mahapakh or “Upheaval”): Menachem Begin, leader of Likud, is elected, ending Labor’s dominance. The first time a right-wing party is in power in Israel.

Egyptian President Anwar Sadat addresses Knesset, signaling his willingness to make peace between Israel and Egypt.

Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat come together at Camp David with U.S. President Jimmy Carter to negotiate a peace treaty, the first ever between Israel and an Arab country. Israel agrees to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for peace (#LandForPeace). Begin and Sadat receive the Nobel Peace Prize.

L-R: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, Camp David, September 1978 (U.S. Government Archives)

Basic Law on Jerusalem (also known as the “Jerusalem Law”) passed by the Knesset, declaring Jerusalem, “complete and united,” the capital of Israel.

Sadat is assassinated by a member of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, mainly over discontent over signing the Camp David Accords and the peace treaty.

Israel annexes the Golan Heights, a move not recognized by the international community.

Lebanon War: Israel invades southern Lebanon after skirmishes on the border between the PLO and the IDF.

An Israeli tank, June 1982 (Wikimedia Commons)

Sabra & Shatila Massacre: Christian Phalangists (allied with the IDF) murder Palestinian refugees in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camp in Beirut. An investigation finds that Israeli military personnel failed to stop this massacre and therefore bore responsibility. Defense Minister Ariel Sharon resigns.

Hezbollah founded: Muslim clerics, funded by Iran, form Hezbollah in response to the Israeli attack on Lebanon.

Great Synagogue of Rome attack: Palestinian militants attack Rome’s Great Synagogue, killing one and injuring 37.

Israel withdraws from most of Lebanon in August but maintains a “security zone” in southern Lebanon.

Operation Moses: the secret evacuation of Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel/Falashas) from Sudan over 8,000 Jews are brought to Israel.

Ethiopian Jewish children, January 1985 (Israeli Government Press Office)

Israel bombs PLO headquarters in Tunis, in retaliation for the murder of Israeli tourists on a yacht off the coast of Cyprus earlier that year.

Hezbollah releases its manifesto, with the central goal of destroying Israel.

Hamas founded, as an offshoot of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, after PLO begins to seek a negotiated solution with Israel. Founded by Sheik Ahmed Yassin and others, Hamas is a Sunni fundamentalist group that sought to liberate Palestine and place it under Muslim rule. (Read more about Hamas here.)

First Intifada begins, lasting through 1991. The first intifada includes riots, Molotov cocktail attacks, assaults with guns, and explosives along with other forms of non-violent resistance.

Hussein gives up Jordan’s claim on the West Bank, with the exception of guardianship over Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem.

Hamas charter issued, defining Palestinian nationalism as a struggle against Islam’s enemies. Hamas calls for a rooting out of the “Zionist invasion” and “to raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine.”

PLO Declaration of Independence signed in Algiers, Algeria. The Palestinian National Council (PNC) votes to endorse UN resolution 242, which some understand as implicit recognition of Israel.

Arafat (center) with the Palestinian National Council (PNC)

Post-Soviet aliyah: After Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev opens the borders of the Soviet Union, thousands of Soviet Jews flee. About 979,000 make aliyah to Israel between 1989 and 1991.

Scud Missile Attacks: Iraq attacks Israel with 39 Scud missiles in the course of the Gulf War.

Operation Solomon: Israel secretly airlifts nearly 15,000 Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) to Israel in a 36-hour period.

Madrid Peace Conference: The U.S. and Soviet Union jointly organize a meeting between Israeli and Palestinian leaders (and leaders from Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria).

President Bush addresses the conference, Royal Palace in Madrid, Spain, October 1991 (David Valdez/National Archives and Records Administration)

Yitzhak Rabin elected prime minister.

Oslo Accords signed: After secret negotiations in Oslo, Norway, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat sign the accords on the White House lawn. Oslo has three key components: mutual recognition between Israel and the PLO the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the division of the West Bank into Israeli and Palestinian spheres of authority. (Read more about trying to solve the conflict here.)

Arafat, Clinton, and Rabin at the White House

Cave of the Patriarchs Massacre: Baruch Goldstein, an American-born Jew, walks into the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron and kills 29 Muslim worshippers and injures 125 before he is beaten to death. The massacre is one of the deadliest terror attacks in the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty: Jordan becomes the second Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat, which they win for the Oslo Accords.

L-R: Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin receiving the Nobel Peace Prize

Rabin assassinated: Yigal Amir, a Jewish extremist and Israeli ultra-nationalist, kills Yitzhak Rabin after a rally for peace. Amir believed Rabin’s peace policies endangered Jewish lives. Rabin’s assassination has disastrous effects on the peace process.

Mourning for Rabin, November 1995 (Israel PikiWiki Project)

Suicide bombing wave begins: Three suicide bombings on buses and a mall prompt a severe military crackdown by Israel and erode public faith in the peace process.

Operation Grapes of Wrath: a campaign by IDF to attempt to end Hezbollah’s attacks on northern Israel.

Netanyahu elected: Benjamin Netanyahu (Likud) comes to power for the first time.

Wye River Memorandum signed by Netanyahu and Arafat, agreeing on steps to implement Oslo II.

Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister.

Lebanon withdrawal: Israel withdraws completely from southern Lebanon in May.

Barak-Arafat peace talks at Camp David, aimed at reaching a “final status” agreement, breaks down before that happens.

Second Intifada begins after Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount in September, sparking riots and protests.

Sharon visits the Temple Mount (AP Photo)

This intifada (lasting until 2005) sees Israel shaken by suicide bombings, rocket attacks, and other types of attacks. Israel meets this with deadly force. In over five years, around 1,000 Israelis and 3,000 Palestinians are killed. Skepticism around the peace process grows.

Barak resigns in December.

Ariel Sharon elected, defeating Ehud Barak.

Arab League peace proposal: the Arab League meet in Beirut and call for unilateral Israeli withdrawal from Arab territories and a “just settlement” of the Palestine refugee problem, in exchange for normalized relations between Arab nations and Israel. Israel never officially responds.

Passover Massacre: A Hamas suicide attack on a Passover seder kills 30 the deadliest attack during the Second Intifada.

Operation Defensive Shield: a military operation in the West Bank conducted during the Second Intifada, with the goal of thwarting terror attacks.

Security barrier planned: Israel begins construction of a security barrier between the West Bank and Israel. Palestinians refer to it as an “apartheid wall.” (Read more about the use of “apartheid” here.)

Arafat dies at age 75 in Paris, after undergoing medical treatment. The circumstances surrounding his death are still unclear. He’s succeeded as head of the PLO by Mahmoud Abbas.

Arafat Funeral (Abbas Momani/AFP)

Gaza withdrawal, ordered by Sharon, where nearly 10,000 Jewish settlers are removed from Gaza and the Israeli army withdraws from inside the Gaza Strip. (Read more here.)

Hamas wins Palestinian legislative elections for the first time. Ismail Haniyeh becomes Prime Minister.

Hamas election rally, Ramallah, West Bank, 2006 (Wikimedia Commons)

Hamas captures an Israeli soldier: Gilad Shalit is captured by Hamas during a cross-border raid.

July — August

Second Lebanon War: Hezbollah initiates the war with a cross-border raid on July 12 that kills three soldiers and captures two. Israel then attacks Hezbollah targets in Lebanon and launches a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. The conflict ends with a UN ceasefire.

Hamas controls Gaza: Hamas fighters take over the Gaza Strip and remove all Fatah officials. (Read more here.)

Abbas-Olmert peace talks: They ultimately fail, but it’s probably the closest the two sides have ever gotten to peace.

Operation Cast Lead: 22 days of fighting, beginning in December 2008 and ending in January 2009. Israeli goal is to stop Hamas rockets launching from Gaza into southern Israel Hamas says its rockets are a response to Israeli military actions.

Gaza flotilla raid: Israel raids the Gaza Freedom Flotilla, six ships intended to break the Israeli blockade of Gaza nine activists are killed.

One of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla ships (Free Gaza Movement/Flickr)

Abbas submits a request to the UN to recognize Palestine, in an effort for the State of Palestine to be internationally recognized.

Shalit freed and prisoner exchange: Hamas and Israel reach a deal in which Gilad Shalit is freed in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.

Operation Pillar of Defense launched in Gaza in an effort to stop Hamas rocket attacks. A week after operation begins, a ceasefire (mediated by Egypt) is agreed upon.

Three Israeli teens are kidnapped in the West Bank, resulting in a massive IDF operation to find them. Their bodies are later found near Hebron. In retaliation, a Palestinian teen is kidnapped, beaten, and burned alive by Jewish extremists.

The 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, also called “Operation Protective Edge,” begins, again with the aim of stopping rockets from Gaza into Israel and destroying Hamas tunnels. A ceasefire is agreed upon in late August.

Duma Firebombing: A Jewish extremist firebombs a Palestinian family home in Duma, killing an 18-month-old and his parents.

“Stabbing Intifada” begins Palestinians try (and sometimes succeed) to kill Israeli civilians with knives.

U.S. Embassy opens in Jerusalem, a move hailed in Israel and by some American Jewish groups, while drawing criticism from many other governments and fueling massive Palestinian protests. (Read more here.)

Palestinian activist Ahed Tamimi released. (Read more here.)

Netanyahu elected (again). (Read more here.) (Actually, now there will be a new election. Read more here.)

The Suez Crisis refers to the invasion by Israel of Egypt in 1956, in coordination with France and England.

Known to Israelis as Operation Protective Edge, this was a military campaign launched by Israel in 2014 in response to the kidnapping and murder of three Jewish teenagers by Hamas.

Jihad is an Arabic word meaning “struggle” that can refer both to holy war against nonbelievers and personal moral struggle.

Fatah is the political party of Yasser Arafat.

Black September refers both to a conflict fought between Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization and to the terrorist group that carried out the massacre of 11 Israeli atheletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972.

The Palestine Liberation Organization was a group founded in 1948 to liberate Palestinian territories through force. Israel considered the PLO a terrorist group prior to the 1994 Oslo Accords.

The Palestinian Authority is a Palestinian governing body established for the purposes of Palestinian self-government by the 1994 Oslo Accords.

The Second Intifada was a period of Israeli-Palestinian violence sparked by the visit of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in 2000.

The First Intifada was a Palestinian uprising against Israel that began in 1987 and lasted for several years.

The Oslo Accords were a series of agreements signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization aimed at achieving a peace treaty between the sides and a final resolution of the conflict.

The Camp David Accords were a 1978 agreement between Egypt and Israel, negotiated under the auspices of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, which paved the pay for an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty the following year, the first such agreement between Israel and an Arab state.

The Six-Day War was a war between Israel and multiple Arab states in 1967 that resulted in Israel vastly expanding the territory under its control, including the disputed territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Yasser Arafat was the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and, following the Oslo Accords, the president of the Palestinian Authority. Han døde i 2004.

The Knesset is Israel’s parliament.

The Al-Aqsa Mosque is the name of the religious shrine that sits atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The mount is the site from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to heaven and where the two Jewish temples once stood.

The Golan Heights is a plateau captured by Israel from Syria in the 1967 war. It was effectively annexed by Israel in 1981.

The Yom Kippur War was a 1973 conflict fought between Israel and a coalition of Arab states. It began with a surprise Arab attack on the Jewish Day of Atonement.

David Ben-Gurion was the first prime minister of the State of Israel.

The West Bank is the territory captured from Jordan by Israel in 1967. It remains the core piece of disputed territory between Israelis and Palestinians.

The Gaza Strip is a coastal territory bordered by Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea. The strip was occupied by Israel following the 1967 war and returned to Palestinian control in 2005.


I Didn’t Come Back to Jerusalem To Be in a War

Photo by STF/AFP/Getty Images.

I’m in Jerusalem on book leave and everyone keeps asking me to write about all this mess. I keep saying that I don’t ever write about things I can’t fully understand. It’s why I like the law—it’s tidy. I don’t have much to say about what is happening all around me here in Israel. But maybe I can share a memory.

Thirty-five years ago, I spent a year with my family in Jerusalem. I was 10, and my dad was on an academic sabbatical at Hebrew University. My best friend and I danced to Europop in the living room every afternoon. It was the best year of my life.

And 35 years ago this week, Anwar Sadat addressed the Israeli Knesset in an unprecedented and historic move toward establishing peace between Israel and Egypt. My little brother and I stayed up half the night making an enormous Egyptian flag. We colored it in with pencils and crayons and trekked up to the Knesset with it, where we stood on the sidewalk with throngs of Israelis, waiting for his mortorcade to arrive. Our flag was so huge, we took up three feet of sidewalk.

My indelible memory of that day—in the pale greens and reds of the late ‘70s—is that President Sadat smiled and waved at the two kids with the massive Egyptian flag as he drove past, and then we probably went home for ice cream. Sadat said in his remarks that Israel had a right to exist. We really believed he had made history that day. We had the flag to prove it. (Here is Daniel Gordis’ lovely piece on his memories of that same day.)

I didn’t come back to Jerusalem to be in a war. I didn’t come to Jerusalem to write about Middle East politics either. I came because I needed to take some time away to write my book about the Supreme Court (thank you, it’s going fine) and because my parents live here in Israel and we wanted to spend a year with them. I came because we desperately wanted to give our sons—who are seven and nine—a year in which their world became bigger and more complicated, since everything in their lives up until now had been measured out in equal units of comfort and Lego.

I don’t really want to write a heartbreaking account of the sirens in Jerusalem Friday night, or the touching and innocent commentary offered up by our boys as they told us they were scared and wanted to go home. I am just not sure how such accounts help us move forward. I am fully aware that innocent children on either side are being traumatized by growing up in this way.

I don’t know how to talk about what is happening here but it’s probably less about writers’ block than readers’ block. It says so much about the state of our discourse that the surest way to enrage everyone is to tweet about peace in the Middle East. We should be doing better because, much as I hate to say it, the harrowing accounts of burnt-out basements and baby shoes on each side of this conflict don’t constitute a conversation. Counting and photographing and tweeting injured children on each side isn’t dialogue. Scoring your own side’s suffering is a powerful way to avoid fixing the real problems, and trust me when I tell you that everyone—absolutely everyone—is suffering and sad and yet being sad is not fixing the problems either.

One good lesson I am learning this week is to shut up and listen. Because the only way to cut through the mutual agony here is to find people who have solutions and to hear what they have to say. Bombing the other side into oblivion is no more a solution than counting your dead children in public. The best thing about shutting up and listening? You eventually lose the impulse to speak.

Please don’t judge. Work toward solutions. Because everyone on every side of this is desperate. This isn’t a way to live and we all know it. Last night I was at a study session with a group of women in Jerusalem. A teenage girl was crying and I assumed it was over a guy. It’s always a guy. But it wasn’t. She was headed to the army today.

Friday night when the air raid sirens sounded here in Jerusalem, my husband Aaron was on a Skype conference call with a bunch of students in London describing his ten-years-in-the-making white flags installation. As I typed these words, Ynet’s live blog flashed this: “17:09: Hamas’s armed wing, the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, says it’s launched ‘two M75 homemade missiles towards Jerusalem.’ ” And there was Aaron’s disembodied voice from the next room, explaining that in the end we are all part of a single human family destined to the same fate. And I was typing, “But I don’t want to die this way.” And my boys were watching Ice Age 4—which was blessedly louder than the sirens Friday night. They told us they would like to go home now.

You want to hear about what it’s like here? It’s fucking sad. Everyone I know is sad. My kids don’t care who started it and the little boys in Issawiya, the Arab village I see out my window, don’t care much either. I haven’t met a single Israeli who is happy about this. They know this fixes nothing. The one thing we learned this week is how quickly humans can come to normalize anything. But the hopelessness seeps right into your bones as well.

I am worried about our friends here who are being called up. I am worried about my friends here who are war correspondents. I am worried about terrified children in Gaza. I am also worried about how I will explain to my sons why we are staying, but I’m more worried about what I would tell them if we left. I am crazy-worried about my parents who live in the south, where 1400 rockets have been fired since January. I am worried about how this can possibly ever end if just tweeting about peace is an international act of aggression.

So tonight I will tell my kids about Sadat’s visit 35 years ago, just as we told them last month about Yitzhak Rabin. I hope they understand what I am trying to tell them, because—forgive me—what they think matters more to me than what you all think right now. People who tell me you can’t teach children about peace in a war zone are wrong. We have nothing but peace left to talk about.


Remembering Anwar Sadat’s legacy

From left: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, President Jimmy Carter, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin clasped hands in 1979 after Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty. Bob Daugherty/Associated Press/File

Forty years ago — on Nov. 19, 1977 — Egyptian President Anwar Sadat embarked on a groundbreaking visit to Jerusalem. The 1979 peace treaty he later signed with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin set in motion the unmistakable dynamic of the Israeli-Arab rapprochement we witness today.

Prior to Sadat’s visit, Bahrain’s king, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, would have never openly expressed his opposition to the Arab boycott against Israel, and Israeli flags would have never flown openly throughout the streets of Iraqi Kurdistan. Today, Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli emergency response teams participate in joint exercises on our soil, while Israeli high-tech firms hire engineers from Gaza and our military teams and doctors treat refugees on the Syrian border.

But even with such progress, there is no room for complacency Israel must remain vigilant. Iran and its jihadist proxies in Hezbollah and Hamas are committed to our destruction and will go to the ends of the earth to see it through.

There are other — albeit less threatening — signs that Sadat’s vision has not yet reached fruition. Take the scandal that surrounded this year’s Judo Grand Slam in Abu Dhabi. The International Judo Federation and the United Arab Emirates made a mockery of the very essence of sport when they refused to fly the Israeli flag, play our national anthem, and properly deliver the medals to the five Israeli athletes who earned them.

What made the snub all the more frustrating was that Israel opened an official mission to the International Renewable Energy Agency in the UAE in 2015.

Yet even here lies a silver lining. In a meeting following the Judo competition, officials from the Judo Federation, Israel and the UAE met to discuss the events that took place. The UAE apologized for the athletes who had refused to shake hands with their Israeli competitors and even congratulated our team on its success.

Danny Danon, Israel’s ambassador to the UN, refers to matters of the like as delicate “balancing acts.” Recalling the moment he was elected to chair the UN Legal Committee, Danon stated: “When I put my name in I had to listen to the ambassadors from Iran, Yemen and Syria say why Israel could not hold this position, but it was a secret ballot.” He won 109-44, with 12 ambassadors from Muslim states either voting for Israel or abstaining.

Sadat deserves much credit for this positive shift in behavior toward Israel. He believed that Arab States should view Israel as we truly are — an asset to strengthen the Middle East, not a country to be destroyed.

The success of Sadat’s journey to Jerusalem was replicated in 1994 between Israel and Jordan when King Hussein formally recognized Israel, pursued direct negotiations with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and ushered in peace between Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom.

Israel and Muslim states have come a long way in the past 40 years. As Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu emphasized at this year’s UN General Assembly, Israel stands “shoulder-to-shoulder with those in the Arab world who share our hopes for a brighter future.”

Last week I hosted in Boston recently-retired Israeli Supreme Court Justice Elyakim Rubinstein, who was part of the Israeli team at the Camp David talks with Egypt. He described waiting for Sadat at Ben-Gurion Airport as the most significant experience of his professional career. In his words, it was as if he could “hear the wings of history.”

Rubinstein recalled being told at the time by an otherwise skeptical Israeli minister: “Look, if this is hopeful in another 15 years, I’ll think the price was worthwhile.” Forty years later, with tensions between Israel and Arab States on the decline, I believe that the price was categorically worthwhile.

For me, that hope for rapprochement capsulizes the importance of what Sadat pursued. We should all take a moment to remember him.


Du har kun ridset overfladen af Sadat familie historie.

Between 1984 and 1997, in the United States, Sadat life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1985, and highest in 1997. The average life expectancy for Sadat in 1984 was 50, and 82 in 1997.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Sadat ancestors lived in harsh conditions. En kort levetid kan også indikere sundhedsproblemer, der engang var udbredt i din familie. SSDI er en søgbar database med mere end 70 millioner navne. Du kan finde fødselsdatoer, dødsdatoer, adresser og mere.


Timeline: Israel, UAE deal follows years of failed peace initiatives

JERUSALEM (Reuters) - A deal between Israel and the United Arab Emirates intended to fully normalise relations follows a history of peace efforts between Israel and the Palestinians and their Arab allies that have failed to overcome decades of distrust and violence.

Most Arab nations, including the UAE, have not recognised Israel or had formal diplomatic or economic relations with it because of what they regard as Israel’s thwarting of Palestinians’ aspirations for a state of their own.

Here are the main initiatives undertaken by the parties themselves and international mediators since the 1967 Middle East War, when Israel captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem, the Sinai peninsula and the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights:

1967 - U.N. Security Council Resolution 242

After the Six-Day War, U.N. Security Council Resolution 242 calls for the “withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” in return for all states in the area to respect each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.

The resolution is the foundation for many peace initiatives but its imprecise phrasing - is the reference to all territories or just some? - has complicated efforts for decades.

1978 - Camp David agreement

Israel’s Menachem Begin and Egypt’s Anwar Sadat agree on a framework for regional peace that calls for an Israeli withdrawal in stages from Egypt’s Sinai and a transitional Palestinian government in the West Bank and Gaza.

1979 - Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty

The first peace treaty between Israel and an Arab country sets out plans for a complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai within three years. in 1981, Sadat was assassinated by Islamist revolutionaries at a military parade in Cairo.

Representatives of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) attend a peace conference. No agreements are reached but the scene is set for direct contacts.

1994 - Israel-Jordan agreement

Jordan becomes the second Arab country to sign a peace treaty with Israel. But the treaty is unpopular and pro-Palestinian sentiment is widespread in Jordan.

1993-1995 - Declaration of Principles/Oslo Accords

Israel and the PLO hold secret talks in Norway that result in interim peace accords calling for the establishment of a Palestinian interim self-government and an elected council in the West Bank and Gaza for a five-year transitional period, Israeli troop withdrawals and negotiations on a permanent settlement.

U.S. President Bill Clinton convenes Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak at Camp David. They fail to agree. Another Palestinian uprising ensues.

2002-2003 - Bush Declaration/Arab peace initiative/Road Map

George W. Bush becomes the first U.S. president to call for the creation of a Palestinian state, living side-by-side with Israel “in peace and security”.

2002 - Saudi Arabia presents Arab League-endorsed peace plan for full Israeli withdrawal from occupied territory and Israel’s acceptance of a Palestinian state in return for normal relations with Arab countries. The United States, the European Union, the United Nations and Russia present their own roadmap to a permanent two-state solution to the conflict.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert fail to reach a deal at a U.S.-hosted summit. Olmert later says they were close to a deal but a graft investigation against him and a Gaza war in 2008 scupper any agreement.

2009 - Netanyahu’s Bar-Ilan address

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says he would be prepared for a peace deal that includes the establishment of a demilitarised Palestinian state. He also sets another condition: Palestinian recognition of Israel as the “state of the Jewish people”.

2013 - 2014 - Washington peace talks/negotiations collapse

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry coaxes Israelis and Palestinians to resume talks. They fail and are suspended in April 2014.

June 2019 - Trump economic plan announced

Jared Kushner, Trump’s son-in-law, launches its preliminary stage in Bahrain. He takes an “economy first” approach, calling for a $50 billion investment fund to boost the Palestinian and neighbouring Arab economies. Palestinian leaders dismiss it.

Netanyahu says he intends to annex West Bank settlements, and much of the Jordan Valley if elected. Later, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo effectively backs Israel’s claimed right to build Jewish settlements in the occupied West Bank by abandoning a four-decade-old U.S. position that they were inconsistent with international law.

Arab League head Ahmed Aboul Gheit says in June 2019 the only acceptable resolution for Arab states is Israel’s acceptance of the initiative drawn up by Saudi Arabia in 2002.


Se videoen: 40 anos desde a histórica visita de Anwar Sadat a Jerusalem


Kommentarer:

  1. Sceapleigh

    Bravo, genial sætning og er behørigt

  2. Biton

    Der er noget i dette, og jeg kan godt lide denne idé, jeg er fuldstændig enig med dig.

  3. Kibei

    Parafraser venligst beskeden



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