Charles Manson og hans tilhængere dømt for drab

Charles Manson og hans tilhængere dømt for drab


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I Los Angeles, Californien, er kultleder Charles Manson dømt sammen med tilhængerne Susan Atkins, Leslie Van Houten og Patricia Krenwinkle for de brutale mord på skuespillerinden Sharon Tate i 1969 og seks andre.

I 1967 blev Manson, en livstidsforbryder, løsladt fra et føderalt kriminalforsorg i Washington State og rejste til San Francisco, hvor han tiltrak en følge blandt oprørske unge kvinder med urolige følelsesliv. Manson etablerede en kult baseret på sit koncept om "Helter Skelter" - en apokalyptisk filosofi, der forudsagde, at ud af en forestående racekrig i Amerika ville dukke fem herskende engle op: Manson, der ville påtage sig rollen som Jesus Kristus, og de fire medlemmer af Beatles. Manson overbeviste sine tilhængere om, at det ville være nødvendigt at myrde berømtheder for at tiltrække opmærksomhed til kulten, og i 1969 målrettede de Sharon Tate, en marginalt succesrig skuespillerinde, der var gift med Roman Polanski, en filminstruktør.

LÆS MERE: Hvordan Charles Manson tog syg inspiration fra Beatles '' Helter Skelter '

Om natten den 9. august 1969, med detaljerede instruktioner fra Manson, kørte fire af hans tilhængere op til Cielo Drive over Beverly Hills og brød ind i Polanski og Tates hjem. (Polanski var ikke hjemme, og venner boede hos den gravide Tate.) I løbet af de næste par timer deltog de i en morderisk vold, der efterlod fem døde, herunder en meget gravid Sharon Tate, tre af hendes venner og en 18-årig gammel mand, der var på besøg hos viceværten i godset. Næste nat myrdede Manson -tilhængere Leno og Rosemary LaBianca i deres hjem i Los Feliz -sektionen i Los Angeles; denne gang gik Manson med for at sikre, at drabene blev udført korrekt. Sagerne gik uløste i over et år, før politiet i Los Angeles opdagede Manson -forbindelsen. Forskellige medlemmer af hans kult tilstod, og Manson og fem andre blev anklaget for mord og sammensværgelse for at begå mord.

I januar 1972 blev Manson og tre andre fundet skyldige, og den 29. marts blev alle fire dømt til døden. Retssagen mod en anden tiltalt, Charles “Tex” Watson, blev forsinket af udleveringsprocedurer, men han blev ligeledes fundet skyldig og dømt til døden. I 1972 afskaffede Californiens højesteret dødsstraf i Californien, og Manson og hans tilhængers dødsstraf blev reduceret til livsvarigt fængsel. Manson døde i fængsel i 2017.

LÆS MERE: Charles Manson blev dømt til døden. Hvorfor blev han ikke henrettet?


Charles Manson casestudie

Som en aspirerende psykolog er en af ​​de ting, jeg kan lide at gøre, at studere og profilere berygtede kriminelle og seriemordere. I dette tilfælde vil jeg dissekere nogle almindelige spørgsmål, jeg støder på i chatrum, hvor samtale om sådanne personer finder sted.

Charles Manson var en amerikansk kultleder. I slutningen af ​​1960'erne dannede han det, der blev kendt som Manson -familien, som var hans kult baseret i Californien. Mansons tilhængere begik ni mord i juli og august 1969. I 1971 blev han dømt for mord i første grad og sammensværgelse for at begå mord for syv menneskers død, som alle blev udført efter hans instruktion af medlemmer af gruppen. Manson blev også dømt for mord i første grad for to andre dødsfald.

Der er stadig spørgsmål, folk stiller til Charles Manson. Jeg vil besvare de to mest almindelige.

Spørgsmål: Hvordan var Manson i stand til at tiltrække folk til at deltage i "The Manson Family"?

Svar: Manson var i stand til at skabe en illusion af komfort. Følelsesmæssig komfort er centralt for kultens tiltrækning. Når en person har en længsel efter trøst, søger denne person efter mennesker eller ting, der kan berolige den frygt og angst, de har. Manson var i stand til med succes at lindre frygt og angst for sine tilhængere ved hjælp af sprog.

Spørgsmål: Hvordan brugte Manson sprog til at få følgere?

Svar: Manson var meget god til at bruge sprog til at engagere folk. Han ville opsøge mennesker, der følte sig marginaliserede eller fremmedgjorte. Manson var let rustet til at forføre sine tilhængere med følelser af accept og forståelse.

Fordi han let var i stand til at lokke sine tilhængere på den måde, var det, hvad de syntes om hans ideologier, ligegyldigt. Det var ligegyldigt, hvor ødelæggende eller farlige de var. Det hele blev smidt ud af vinduet. Hans tilhængere var ikke længere fokuseret på Mansons ideologier. Hvad de var fokuseret på var at gøre, hvad de skulle gøre for at fortsætte med at have den "accept", Manson præsenterede dem.

Manson var i stand til med stor succes at hjernevaske alle sine tilhængere til at tro det sin egen ideologier var kun rigtige. Han fik det til at tænke hele gruppen. Manson fik også sine tilhængere til at tro, at han havde ryggen og var der for dem, selvom ingen andre var det. Den samme teknik har en tendens til at blive brugt af bander i det moderne samfund.

Der er to stykker, der udgør empati. Den første hedder: Kognitiv empati, som er evnen til at forstå nogens følelser. Den anden er: Emotionel empati, som er evnen til at dele følelser med andre mennesker. Disse to stykker kan imidlertid splitte fra hinanden. Evnen til at bruge kognitiv empati og forstå nogens følelser uden deling de samme følelser kan være farlige. Dette kan ligge til grund for intimidering og naturligvis manipulation.

Vi skal også huske på, at empatisk evne er værdineutral hvilket betyder, at det kan hjælpe mennesker eller skade mennesker, afhængigt af hvad intentionerne er med den person, der viser det.

Som jeg tidligere har sagt, er evnen til empati en vigtig komponent i manipulation. Når mange mennesker tænker på empati, tænker de over det på en god måde. De tænker på, at nogen kan hjælpe et sårende menneske, fordi de også har været igennem noget lignende.

Men empati har en mørk side. Du kan bruge den til at komme ind i offerets hjerne. Når du har lært og kender den indre funktion i offerets hjerne, er mulighederne uendelige.

Det er, hvad Manson gjorde. Han var i stand til sejrsmæssigt at forfalde empati og handle som om han havde empati med sine tilhængere for at vinde deres tillid. Han ville derefter bruge de oplysninger, han fik ved hans tilhængere, og vrid det rundt og hold det over hovedet. Han ville gøre det på en måde, hvor ofret ikke engang indså, hvad der skete. Da offeret kom til fornuft, var det allerede for sent, og gerningen var udført.

For at citere Charles Manson selv: ”At få folk til at gøre, hvad jeg vil, er det letteste i verden. Alt det kræver er at få dem til at tro, at vi har noget særligt, og alle andre er vildledte. Hvis det ikke virker ... få dem til at tro, at de ikke gør nok. Eller truer med at tage deres familie væk. Det letteste i verden. ”

Vi ser gennem historien, at nogle af de mest onde mennesker var i stand til at begå deres gerninger gennem sprogets magt.

For eksempel Adolf Hitler. Hitler var en meget stærk taler. Han sørgede for, at hans ord blev hørt højt og tydeligt. Han var meget god til at sammensætte følelsesmæssige udsagn for at lokke folk i hans fælde. Det virkede. I løbet af årene døde millioner på millioner af mennesker.

Hitler var i stand til at hjernevaske en hel nation til at tro, at det var den eneste måde at dræbe uskyldige mennesker.

Selvom han fremmede og begik frygtelige handlinger, Hitler var en fantastisk højttaler. Han var meget god til at få folk i hans nation til at føle sig bemyndigede, selvom de faktisk ikke var det. Hitlers folk følte, at de bidrog til et godt formål, da alt det, de egentlig gjorde, i virkeligheden var at opfylde Hitlers ønsker og behov.

Dette ligner Charles Mansons tilfælde, fordi han også kunne få sine tilhængere til at føle sig bemyndigede. Han var i stand til at få dem til at tro, at de tog deres egne beslutninger og drog deres egne konklusioner, når de virkelig ikke var det.

Mansons tilhængere følte, at de kæmpede for et godt formål på grund af det billede, Charles var i stand til at male. Manson havde en så smittende personlighed, når han havde brug for det. Han var meget let i stand til at anvende karisma for at opnå det, hans hjerte ønskede.

Charles Manson var specialist i kognitiv empati. Han var i stand til at bruge dette til sin fordel. Han vidste, hvad hans tilhængere tænkte, han var bare ligeglad. Derfor brugte han sine tilhængere følelser imod dem.

Manson var i stand til at manipulere situationer for at skræmme sine tilhængere til handling ved hjælp af frygt. Det generede ikke Manson noget, fordi han reagerede på frygt på en helt anden måde end typiske mennesker. Frygt var aldrig helt til stede i Mansons hjerne. På grund af dette var han i stand til at gøre og tænke de ting, han gjorde.


AP Was There: Charles Manson, tilhængere dømt for drab

LOS ANGELES-Efter en syv måneders retssag blev Charles Manson og tre af hans tilhængere dømt for drab og sammensværgelse i 1969 drab på skuespillerinden Sharon Tate og seks andre.

Associated Press genoptrykker følgende artikel om dommene for at markere årsdagen for drabene. Det udkom første gang den 26. januar 1971.

LOS ANGELES-Charles Manson, lurvet leder af en kultlignende klan af hippytyper, blev mandag dømt for mord og sammensværgelse af første grad sammen med tre kvindelige følgere i skuespillernes Sharon Tates og seks andre vildmord.

Staten sagde, at den vil bede om dødsstraf for alle.

De tiltalte, der iscenesatte vilde udbrud under deres syv måneders retssag, sad passivt, da der blev afsagt domme om de 27 tællinger mod dem.

Efter at jurymedlemmerne blev spurgt, mumlede Manson hørbart og henviste til dem: "Jeg tror, ​​at de alle er skyldige." Efter at alle domme var inde, råbte han til dommeren: "Vi må stadig ikke forsvare os. Det overlever du ikke, gamle mand."

Juryen bestående af syv mænd og fem kvinder, der havde overvejet 42 timer og 40 minutter siden modtagelsen af ​​sagen den 16. januar, blev beordret til at vende tilbage til retten kl. 9 torsdag til straffasen af ​​retssagen. De vil fortsat blive sekvestreret.

Anklageren sagde, at han har omkring 50 vidner klar til straffesagen. Forsvaret har sagt, at det vil anlægge en sag så lang eller længere end statens, og søge livsvarigt fængsel i stedet for dødsstraf på påstanden, der er stadig tvivl om skyld.

Død eller livsvarigt fængsel er de eneste mulige domme for domme om mord i første grad.

I henhold til lov i Californien skal den samme jury, der returnerer en overordnet mord-sammensværgelsesdom, mødes igen ved en anden retssag for at fastsætte straffen.

Havde dommen været mord i anden grad, ville straffen have været automatisk fem år til livstid, og der ville ikke have været nogen straffesag.

De tiltalte blev anklaget for mord-sammensværgelse i mordet på den smukke skuespillerinde i august 1969 og fire besøgende i hendes palæ og i drabene en nat senere på et velhavende handelspar.

Manson, 36, blev anklaget for at have beordret drabene til at afslutte en racerkrig, han mente var indvarslet i en Beatles -sang, hvorefter han forventede at overtage magten.

De andre tiltalte var Susan Atkins, 22, Patricia Krenwinkel, 23, og Leslie Van Houten, 21.

Frøken Van Houten blev anklaget for sammensværgelse i alle drabene, men for mord kun hos markedsejere Leno og Rosemary LaBianca.

De tiltalte, forvist fra retten 22. december for at råbe, indgivet smilende og chattende. Kvinderne bar fængselsuniformer med bånd i deres lange hår. Manson bar en kruset hvid skjorte med et blå tørklæde. Hans hår var skævt, og han havde en ny fipskæg på.

Alle opstod og gik stille ud, efter at dommene - læst en efter en for hver af de 27 tællinger - var færdige. En score af sheriffens stedfortrædere var i den fyldte 92-sæders retssal for at opretholde orden.

Stedfortrædende dist. Atty. Vincent Bugliesi, chefanklageren, fortalte nyhedsfolk, at han vil søge dødsstraf: "Jeg nyder det ikke, men det er nødvendigt."

Om dommen sagde han: "Jeg er meget, meget tilfreds, og politiet i Los Angeles er meget glad. Vi forventede dommen, men indtil ekspedienten læser dommen, ved du ikke."

Den afgørende faktor? "Den overvældende mængde beviser."

Chefforsvarer Paul Fitzgerald sagde, at de tiltalte mandag aften fortalte ham, at de "forventede det værste." Han beskrev dommen som forventet.

"Vi tabte sagen, da vi mistede vores stedskifte. Vi troede, at vi havde lige så stor chance for at vinde sagen i Los Angeles, som de havde for at vinde Sam Sheppard," sagde han og henviste til en Cleveland -læge, der blev dømt i 1960'erne for dræbe sin kone i en opsigtsvækkende sag. Højesteret omstødte i sidste ende dommen.

Fitzgerald sagde, at forsvaret under straffesagen ville argumentere for, at offentligheden før retssagen skadede de tiltalte. Han sagde, at han vil påberåbe sig en fængsel på livstid, fordi der stadig er tvivl om skyld.

Maxwell Keith, der repræsenterer Miss Van Houten, sagde, at han havde følt, at hun havde en kæmpechance, hvis ikke for frifindelse, for anden graders mord: Miss Van Houten var ikke medlem af morderpartiet i Tate-hjemmet.

"Hun reagerede meget bedre end jeg," sagde han om dommen. "Hun vendte ikke et hår. Hun virkede mere efterspurgt af mig."

Mansons advokat, Irving Kanarek, afviste at kommentere dommen.

Dommen begrænsede en retssag, hvor staten kaldte 84 vidner, og forsvaret hvilede uden at anlægge en sag. Udskriften kørte næsten 6 millioner ord, og der var 297 udstillinger.

Anklageren kaldte i sidste argumenter drabene "uhyrlige, makabre og mareridtsfulde. Måske den mest umenneskelige skrækfyldte time med vildt drab og menneskelig slagtning i annalerne om registreret kriminalitet."

Han kaldte Manson "nogen med en syg og sygelig lyst og optaget af døden." Kvinderne, sagde han, var Mansons "robotter og zombier".

Forsvaret argumenterede for, at en anden end de tiltalte måske havde foretaget drabene. Advokater sagde, at Manson blev retsforfulgt for sin upopulære livsstil, og at hvis kvinderne virkelig var robotter, kunne de ikke udføre den overlæg, der var nødvendig for førstegradsmord.

Sagen skabte først overskrifter 10. august 1969, da en tjenestepige fandt ofrenes blodige lig på Tate -ejendommen.

Den otte måneder gravide honningblonde skuespillerinde, 25, hustru til instruktøren Roman Polanski, lå stukket på stuegulvet nær liget af Jay Sebring, 26, Hollywood-frisør og hendes engang forlovede.

Udenfor var ligene af den polske playboy Wojciech Frykowski, 37, og hans kæreste, kaffearving, Abigail Folger, 26. Død i hans bil blev Stephen Parent, 18, skudt, da han forlod efter at have besøgt viceværten.

"PIG" blev smurt i blod på døren. En håndklæde "hætte" dækkede Sebrings hoved. Politiet kaldte drabene "ritualistiske".

Den næste dag, få kilometer væk, blev LaBiancas fundet stukket ihjel midt i blodige skrammer.

I fire måneder var politiet forvirrede. Derefter handlede politiet på et tip fra en kvinde, der sagde, at Miss Atkins fortalte om drabene, mens de to delte en fængselscelle, foretog politiet massearrestationer af Manson og hans familie og boede derefter i en fjerntliggende kommune nær Death Valley.

Manson, kun 5 fod 6, men med hvad hans tilhængere kaldte næsten hypnotiske kræfter, opstod hurtigt som den centrale figur. Søn af en prostitueret og tilvænning i fængsler og institutioner det meste af sit liv, han havde dannet sin "familie" i San Franciscos hippiedistrikt og kom til Hollywood -området for at søge en sangkarriere. Familiemedlemmer kaldte ham "Gud" og "Jesus" og "Satan".

Et engang klanmedlem, Linda Kasabian, stjernestatsvidne ved retssagen, sagde, at Manson sendte to morderpartier ud til Tate- og LaBianca -hjemmene og beordrede det andet sæt drab, fordi de første var "for rodede."

Fru Kasabian, der blev ydet immunitet mod anklager for sin historie, sagde, at Manson tog selv med på LaBianca -turen, men forlod inden de egentlige drab. I 19 dage på standen fortalte hun om at have set to drab og om at have hørt skrig fra andre ofre.

I Milford, New Hampshire, sagde fru Kasabian om dommen: "Jeg er ikke overrasket, men mit hjerte sørger virkelig over dem."

Andre vidner sagde, at Miss Atkins indrømmede at have dræbt Miss Tate, efter at sidstnævnte bad om at leve og få hendes baby, hvorefter han smagte hendes blod og fandt det "smukt".

Vidner sagde, at Miss Krenwinkel klagede over, at hendes hånd gjorde ondt efter Tate -drabene, fordi hun havde stukket så meget, og at Miss Van Houten gentagne gange stak et lig, der allerede var dødt, og nød det.

Da forsvarets tur kom, overraskede advokaterne retten ved at hvile. De sagde, at hvis de kvindelige tiltalte fik lov til at vidne, ville de fortælle historier, der ville inkriminere sig selv og rydde Manson. Advokaten sagde, at de ikke ville tillade dette.

Manson vidnede i juryens fravær og sagde, at han ikke havde dræbt nogen og beordret, at ingen skulle blive dræbt.

I en rumlende diskurs forklarede han sin livsstil og sagde om kvinder: "Disse børn, der kommer til dig med knive, de er dine børn. Jeg lærte dem ikke. Det gjorde du."

Han fortalte kvinderne ikke at vidne og afviste at gentage sin historie for jurymedlemmer.

Retshøjdepunkterne omfattede hyppige råb og sange fra tiltalte, der fik dem forvist til nærliggende tilbageholdelsesrum, hvor de lyttede via højttaler. Manson smed en gang til dommeren. Advokater blev fængslet for foragt. En advokat forsvandt på en campingtur og måtte udskiftes.

Gennem det hele opretholdt et band af loyale Manson -klankvinder en vagt på gaden uden for Justitshallen og ventede på, at deres "far" blev frigjort fra "tårnet".

Manson og frøken Atkins står stadig over for anklager om drab i 1969 drab på Malibu -musiker Gary Hinman. Manson er også sigtet for at have myrdet Donald "Shorty" Shea, en hånd, der forsvandt fra klanens film ranch kommune. Hans lig er ikke fundet.


Lektionen fra Manson 'familien'

Mange af Manson -tilhængerne gik i fængsel for deres forbrydelser, og nogle følte en enorm skyldfølelse senere over deres handlinger. Men det, der virkelig er skræmmende, er, hvordan det er alt for let at blive narret og suget til at tro, at dit liv er afhængigt af en fantastisk leder med sådanne vidunderlige indsigter, som i virkeligheden er en morderisk psykopat. Følgere glemmer, hvem de virkelig er, deres andre interesser, familie og venner og gør frygtelige ting for den sag og leder, de elsker.

Lektionerne fra Manson "familien" er en advarsel til os alle: sæt spørgsmålstegn ved alt, tænk kritisk og tro ikke, at en enkelt person har alle svarene. Vær på vagt over for karisma og charme og mennesker, der er dedikeret til en messiaslignende leder, for selvom det er dejligt at tro på store smukke ideer, kan det også være vejen til kult slaveri og trældom.

Mansons varige arv er forhåbentlig, at folk i stigende grad vil gennemskue sådanne kult -ledere hurtigere og undgå dem lettere end de tilhængere, der viet deres liv og myrdede andre for at bevise sig selv som sande hengivne.


Indhold

Barndom

Charles Manson blev født den 12. november 1934 til den 16-årige Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, [8] f. Maddox (1918–1973), [9] i University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center i Cincinnati, Ohio. Han blev først navngivet "intet navn Maddox". [10] [ side nødvendig ] [11] [12] Inden for uger blev han ringet op Charles Milles Maddox. [13] [14]

Mansons biologiske far ser ud til at have været oberst Walker Henderson Scott Sr. (1910–1954) [15] fra Catlettsburg, Kentucky, mod hvem Kathleen Maddox indgav en faderskabssag, der resulterede i en aftalt dom i 1937. Manson har muligvis aldrig kendt sin biologiske far. [10] [ side nødvendig ] [12] Scott arbejdede periodisk i lokale møller og havde et lokalt ry som en kunstner. Han tillod Maddox at tro, at han var en hæroverst, selvom "oberst" blot var hans fornavn. Da Maddox fortalte Scott, at hun var gravid, fortalte han hende, at han var blevet indkaldt til hæren efter flere måneder, at hun indså, at han ikke havde til hensigt at vende tilbage. [16]

I august 1934, før Mansons fødsel, giftede Maddox sig med William Eugene Manson (1909–1961), en "arbejder" i en renseri. Maddox fortsatte ofte med at drikke drinker sammen med sin bror Luther og efterlod Charles med flere babysittere. De blev skilt den 30. april 1937, efter at William påstod "grov forsømmelse af pligt" af Maddox. Charles beholdt Williams efternavn, Manson. [17] Den 1. august 1939 blev Luther og Kathleen Maddox anholdt for overfald og røveri. Kathleen og Luther blev idømt henholdsvis fem og ti års fængsel. [18]

Manson blev anbragt i hjemmet til en tante og onkel i McMechen, West Virginia. [19] Hans mor blev paroleret i 1942. Manson karakteriserede senere de første uger efter, at hun vendte tilbage fra fængslet som den lykkeligste tid i hans liv. [20] Uger efter Maddox løsladelse flyttede Mansons familie til Charleston, West Virginia, [21], hvor Manson løbende spillede tude og hans mor tilbragte hendes aftener med at drikke. [22] Hun blev anholdt for groft tyveri, men blev ikke dømt. [23] Familien flyttede senere til Indianapolis, hvor Maddox mødte en alkoholiker ved navn Lewis (intet fornavn) gennem Anonyme Alkoholikere -møder og giftede sig med ham i august 1943. [22]

Første lovovertrædelser

I et interview med Diane Sawyer sagde Manson, at da han var ni, tændte han sin skole. [24] Manson fik også problemer for puslespil og småtyveri. Selvom der manglede anbringelser i plejeboliger, blev Manson i 1947, i en alder af 13 år, placeret på Gibault School for Boys i Terre Haute, Indiana, en skole for mandlige kriminelle drevet af katolske præster. [25] Gibault var en streng skole, hvor straf for selv den mindste overtrædelse omfattede tæsk med enten en træpagaj eller en læderrem. Manson løb væk fra Gibault og sov i skoven, under broer, og hvor han ellers kunne finde ly. [26]

Manson flygtede hjem til sin mor og tilbragte julen 1947 i McMechen, hjemme hos sin tante og onkel. [27] Hans mor returnerede ham til Gibault. Ti måneder senere løb han væk til Indianapolis. [28] I 1948 begik Manson i Indianapolis sin første kendte forbrydelse ved at stjæle en købmand. I starten var røveriet simpelthen at finde noget at spise. Manson fandt imidlertid en cigarkasse indeholdende lidt over hundrede dollars, og han tog pengene. Han brugte pengene til at leje et værelse på Indianapolis's Skid Row og til at købe mad. [29]

I en tid forsøgte Manson at gå direkte ved at få et job med at levere beskeder til Western Union. Imidlertid begyndte han hurtigt at supplere sin løn gennem småtyveri. [26] Han blev til sidst fanget, og i 1949 sendte en sympatisk dommer ham til Boys Town, et ungdomsanlæg i Omaha, Nebraska. [30] Efter fire dage i Boys Town fik han og medstuderende Blackie Nielson en pistol og stjal en bil. De brugte det til at begå to væbnede røverier på vej til Nielsons onkels hjem i Peoria, Illinois. [31] [32] Nielsons onkel var en professionel tyv, og da drengene ankom, tog han angiveligt dem som lærlinge. [25] Manson blev anholdt to uger senere under et nattetog på en Peoria -butik. I den efterfølgende undersøgelse blev han knyttet til sine to tidligere væbnede røverier. Han blev sendt til Indiana Boys School, en streng reformskole. [33]

På skolen har andre elever angiveligt voldtaget Manson med opmuntring af en medarbejder, og han blev gentagne gange slået. Han stak af fra skolen atten gange. [30] Mens han var på skolen, udviklede Manson en selvforsvarsteknik, han senere kaldte det "vanvittige spil". Når han fysisk ikke var i stand til at forsvare sig selv, ville han skrige, grimase og vifte med armene for at overbevise aggressorer om, at han var sindssyg. Efter en række mislykkede forsøg slap han med to andre drenge i februar 1951. [34] [32] De tre flugter var ved at stjæle tankstationer, mens de forsøgte at køre til Californien i stjålne biler, da de blev anholdt i Utah. For den føderale forbrydelse at køre en stjålet bil på tværs af statslinjer blev Manson sendt til Washington, DC's National Training School for Boys. [35] Ved ankomsten fik han egnethedstest, der fastslog, at han var analfabet, men havde en over gennemsnittet IQ på 109. Hans sagsbehandler anså ham for aggressivt asocial. [34] [32]

Første fængsel

På anbefaling fra en psykiater blev Manson i oktober 1951 overført til Natural Bridge Honor Camp, en minimumssikkerhedsinstitution. [32] Hans tante besøgte ham og fortalte administratorer, at hun ville lade ham blive hjemme hos hende og ville hjælpe ham med at finde arbejde. Manson havde en prøveløsladelse planlagt til februar 1952. Men i januar blev han fanget for at voldtage en dreng ved knivpunkt. Manson blev overført til Federal Reformatory i Petersborg, Virginia. Der begik han yderligere "otte alvorlige disciplinære lovovertrædelser, tre involverede homoseksuelle handlinger". Han blev derefter flyttet til en maksimal sikkerhedsreformator i Chillicothe, Ohio, hvor han forventedes at blive ved med at blive løsladt på sin 21 -års fødselsdag i november 1955. God opførsel førte til en tidlig løsladelse i maj 1954 for at bo hos sin tante og onkel i McMechen. [36]

I januar 1955 giftede Manson sig med en hospitals servitrice ved navn Rosalie Jean Willis. [37] [ side nødvendig ] Omkring oktober, cirka tre måneder efter at han og hans gravide kone ankom til Los Angeles i en bil, han havde stjålet i Ohio, blev Manson igen sigtet for en føderal forbrydelse for at have taget køretøjet på tværs af statslinjer. Efter en psykiatrisk vurdering fik han fem års prøvetid. Mansons manglende møde i en høring i Los Angeles om en identisk sigtelse indgivet i Florida resulterede i hans arrestation i marts 1956 i Indianapolis. Hans prøvetid blev ophævet, han blev idømt tre års fængsel på Terminal Island, San Pedro, Californien. [32]

Mens Manson sad i fængsel, fødte Rosalie deres søn Charles Manson Jr. I løbet af sit første år på Terminal Island modtog Manson besøg af Rosalie og hans mor, som nu boede sammen i Los Angeles. I marts 1957, da besøgene fra hans kone ophørte, meddelte hans mor ham, at Rosalie boede sammen med en anden mand. Mindre end to uger før en planlagt prøveløsladelse, forsøgte Manson at flygte ved at stjæle en bil. Han fik fem års prøvetid, og hans prøveløsladelse blev nægtet. [32]

Andet fængsel

Manson modtog fem års prøveløsladelse i september 1958, samme år som Rosalie modtog et skilsmissedekret. I november pimperede han en 16-årig pige og modtog yderligere støtte fra en pige med velhavende forældre. I september 1959 erkendte han sig skyldig i et anklager om forsøg på at indkassere en forfalsket amerikansk statscheck, som han hævdede at have stjålet fra en postkasse, sidstnævnte sigtelse blev senere droppet. Han modtog en 10-årig betinget dom og betinget fængsel, efter at en ung kvinde ved navn Leona, der havde en arrestordre for prostitution, fremsatte et "grædende anbringende" for retten om, at hun og Manson var "dybt forelskede. Og ville gifte sig, hvis Charlie var frigivet ". [32] Inden årets afslutning giftede kvinden sig med Manson, muligvis så hun ikke skulle kræve at vidne mod ham. [32]

Manson tog Leona og en anden kvinde til New Mexico med henblik på prostitution, hvilket resulterede i, at han blev tilbageholdt og afhørt for overtrædelse af Mann Act. Selvom han blev løsladt, mistænkte Manson korrekt, at undersøgelsen ikke var afsluttet. Da han forsvandt i strid med sin prøvetid, blev der udstedt en bænkordre. Et anklageskrift for overtrædelse af Mann -loven fulgte i april 1960. [32] Efter anholdelsen af ​​en af ​​kvinderne for prostitution blev Manson anholdt i juni i Laredo, Texas, og blev returneret til Los Angeles. For at have overtrådt hans prøvetid på check-cashing-gebyret blev han dømt til at afsone sin ti års straf. [32]

Manson tilbragte et år uden held at appellere tilbagekaldelsen af ​​hans prøvetid. I juli 1961 blev han overført fra Los Angeles County Fængsel til United States Penitentiary på McNeil Island, Washington. Der tog han guitarundervisning af Barker – Karpis bandeleder Alvin "Creepy" Karpis og fik fra en anden indsat et kontaktnavn på en person på Universal Studios i Hollywood, Phil Kaufman. [38] Ifølge Jeff Guinns biografi om Manson fra 2013 flyttede hans mor til Washington State for at være tættere på ham under hans fængsling på McNeil Island og arbejdede i nærheden som servitrice. [39]

Selvom Mann Act -afgiften var blevet droppet, var forsøget på at indbetale statskontrollen stadig en føderal lovovertrædelse. Mansons årlige gennemgang i september 1961 bemærkede, at han havde et "enormt drev til at henlede opmærksomheden på sig selv", lød en observation i september 1964. [32] I 1963 fik Leona skilsmisse. Under processen påstod hun, at hun og Manson havde en søn, Charles Luther. [32] Ifølge en populær bylegende, auditionerede Manson uden held for Monkees i slutningen af ​​1965, dette modbevises af, at Manson stadig var fængslet på McNeil Island på det tidspunkt. [40]

I juni 1966 blev Manson sendt for anden gang til Terminal Island som forberedelse til tidlig frigivelse. Da han blev løsladt den 21. marts 1967, havde han tilbragt mere end halvdelen af ​​sine 32 år i fængsler og andre institutioner. Dette var hovedsageligt fordi han havde brudt føderale love. Forbundsdomme var og forbliver meget strengere end statsstraffe for mange af de samme lovovertrædelser. Han fortalte myndighederne, at fængslet var blevet hans hjem, og han bad om tilladelse til at blive. [32]

Kultdannelse

Efter at være blevet udskrevet fra fængslet i 1967, begyndte Manson at tiltrække en gruppe tilhængere, for det meste unge kvinder, fra omkring Californien. De blev senere kendt som Manson -familien. [41] Kernemedlemmerne i Mansons gruppe omfatter: Charles 'Tex' Watson, musiker og tidligere skuespiller Robert Beausoleil, tidligere musiker og pornografisk skuespiller Mary Brunner, tidligere bibliotekar Susan Atkins Linda Kasabian Patricia Krenwinkel og Leslie Van Houten. [42] [43] [44]

Mord

Manson -familien udviklede sig til en dommedagskult, da Manson blev fikseret på tanken om en forestående apokalyptisk racekrig mellem Amerikas sorte befolkning og den større hvide befolkning. En hvid overherredømme, [45] [46] Manson mente, at sorte mennesker i Amerika ville rejse sig og dræbe alle hvide undtagen Manson og hans "familie", men at de ikke var intelligente nok til at overleve på egen hånd, de havde brug for en hvid mand til at lede dem, og så ville de tjene Manson som deres "herre". [47] [48] Sent i 1968 vedtog Manson udtrykket "Helter Skelter", hentet fra en sang på Beatles 'for nylig udgivne Hvidt album, for at henvise til denne kommende krig. [49]

I begyndelsen af ​​august 1969 opmuntrede Manson sine tilhængere til at starte Helter Skelter ved at begå mord i Los Angeles og få det til at se ud til at være racistisk motiveret. Manson -familien blev nationalt kendt efter mordet på skuespillerinden Sharon Tate og fire andre i hendes hjem den 8. og 9. august 1969 [50] og Leno og Rosemary LaBianca dagen efter. Tex Watson og tre andre familiemedlemmer henrettede Tate - LaBianca -mordene og angiveligt handlet under Mansons instruktioner. [51] [52] Selvom det senere blev accepteret under retssagen, at Manson aldrig udtrykkeligt beordrede mordene, blev hans adfærd anset for at berettige til en dom for mord i første grad og sammensværgelse for at begå mord. Evidence pointed to Manson's obsession with inciting a race war by killing those he thought were "pigs" and his belief that this would show the "nigger" how to do the same. [4] Family members were also responsible for other assaults, thefts, crimes, and the attempted assassination of President Gerald Ford in Sacramento by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme. [53]

While it is often thought that Manson never murdered or attempted to murder anyone himself, true crime writer James Buddy Day, in his book Hippie Cult Leader: The Last Words of Charles Manson, claimed that Manson shot drug dealer Bernard Crowe on July 1, 1969. [54] Crowe survived. [55]

Trial

The State of California tried Manson for the Tate and LaBianca murders with co-defendants, Leslie Van Houten, Susan Atkins, and Patricia Krenwinkel. Co-defendant Tex Watson was tried at a later date after being extradited from Texas. [56]

The trial began on July 15, 1970. Manson appeared wearing fringed buckskins, his typical clothing at Spahn Ranch. [57]

On July 24, 1970 — the first day of testimony — Manson appeared in court with an "X" carved into his forehead. His followers issued a statement from Manson saying "I have "X'd myself from your world". [58] The following day, Manson's co-defendants, Van Houten, Atkins, and Krenwinkel, also appeared in court, with an "X" carved in their foreheads. [59] [60]

Members of the Manson Family camped outside of the courthouse, and held a vigil on a street corner, because they were excluded from the courtroom for being disruptive. Some of Manson's followers also carved crosses into their heads. [58] During the trial, members of the Manson Family appeared in saffron robes, and threatened to immolate themselves if Manson was convicted – just as nuns in Vietnam had done in protest of the war. [57] [61]

The State presented dozens of witnesses during the trial. However, its primary witness was Linda Kasabian, who was present during the Tate murders on August 8–9, 1969. Kasabian provided graphic testimony of the Tate murders, which she observed from outside the house. She was also in the car with Manson on the following evening, when he ordered the LaBianca killings. Kasabian spent days on the witness stand, being cross-examined by the defendants' lawyers. After testifying, Kasabian went into hiding for the next forty years. [10] [ side nødvendig ]

In early August 1970, President Richard Nixon told reporters that he believed that Manson was guilty of the murders, "either directly or indirectly". [62] Manson obtained a copy of the newspaper and held up the headline to the jury. [10] [ side nødvendig ] The defendants' attorneys then called for a mistrial, arguing that their clients had allegedly killed far fewer people than "Nixon's war machine in Vietnam". [62] Judge Charles H. Older polled each member of the jury, to determine whether each juror saw the headline and whether it affected his or her ability to make an independent decision. All of the jurors affirmed that they could still decide independently. [10] [ side nødvendig ] Shortly after, the female defendants – Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten – were removed from the room for chanting, "Nixon says we are guilty. So why go on?" [10] [ side nødvendig ]

On October 5, 1970, Manson attempted to attack Judge Older while the jury was present in the room. Manson first threatened Older, and then jumped over his lawyer's table with a sharpened pencil, in the direction of Older. Manson was restrained before reaching the judge. While being led out of the courtroom, Manson screamed at Older, "In the name of Christian justice, someone should cut your head off!" Meanwhile, the female defendants began chanting something in Latin. Judge Older began wearing a .38 caliber pistol to the trial afterwards. [63]

On November 16, 1970, the State of California rested its case after presenting twenty-two weeks worth of evidence. The defendants then stunned the courtroom by announcing that they had no witnesses to present, and rested their case. [64]

Manson's testimony

Immediately after defendants' counsel rested their case, the three female defendants shouted that they wanted to testify. Their attorneys advised the court, in chambers, that they opposed their clients testifying. Apparently, the female defendants wanted to testify that Manson had had nothing to do with the murders. [65]

The following day, Manson himself announced that he too wanted to testify. The judge allowed Manson to testify outside the presence of the jury. He stated as follows:

These children that come at you with knives, they are your children. You taught them. I didn't teach them. I just tried to help them stand up. Most of the people at the ranch that you call the Family were just people that you did not want. [65]

Manson continued, equating his actions to those of society at large:

I know this: that in your hearts and your souls, you are as much responsible for the Vietnam war as I am for killing these people. . I can't judge any of you. I have no malice against you and no ribbons for you. But I think that it is high time that you all start looking at yourselves, and judging the lie that you live in. [66]

Manson concluded, claiming that he too was a creation of a system that he viewed as fundamentally violent and unjust:

My father is the jailhouse. My father is your system. . I am only what you made me. I am only a reflection of you. . You want to kill me? Ha! I am already dead – have been all my life. I've spent twenty-three years in tombs that you have built. [66]

After Manson finished speaking, Judge Older offered to let him testify before the jury. Manson replied that it was not necessary. Manson then told the female defendants that they no longer needed to testify. [67]

On November 30, 1970, Leslie Van Houten's attorney, Ronald Hughes, failed to appear for the closing arguments in the trial. [67] He was later found dead in a California state park. His body was badly decomposed, and it was impossible to tell the cause of death. Hughes had disagreed with Manson during the trial, taking the position that his client, Van Houten, should not testify to claim that Manson had no involvement with the murders. Some have alleged that Hughes may have been murdered by the Manson Family. [68]

On January 25, 1971, the jury found Manson, Krenwinkel and Atkins guilty of first degree murder in all seven of the Tate and LaBianca killings. The jury found Van Houten guilty of murder in the first degree in the LaBianca killings. [69]

Sentencing

After the convictions, the court held a separate hearing before the same jury to determine if the defendants should receive the death sentence.

Each of the three female defendants – Atkins, Van Houten, and Krenwinkel – took the stand. They provided graphic details of the murders and testified that Manson was not involved. According to the female defendants, they had committed the crimes in order to help fellow Manson Family member Bobby Beausoleil get out of jail, where he was being held for the murder of Gary Hinman. The female defendants testified that the Tate-LaBianca murders were intended to be copycat crimes, similar to the Hinman killing. Atkins, Krenwinkel and Van Houten claimed they did this under the direction of the state's prime witness, Linda Kasabian. The defendants did not express remorse for the killings. [70]

On March 4, 1971, during the sentencing hearings, Manson trimmed his beard to a fork and shaved his head, telling the media, "I am the Devil, and the Devil always has a bald head!" However, the female defendants did not immediately shave their own heads. The state prosecutor, Vincent Bugliosi, later speculated in his book, Helter Skelter, that they refrained from doing so, in order to not appear to be completely controlled by Manson (as they had when they each carved an "X" in their foreheads, earlier in the trial). [71]

On March 29, 1971, the jury sentenced all four defendants to death. When the female defendants were led into the courtroom, each of them had shaved their heads, as had Manson. After hearing the sentence, Atkins shouted to the jury, "Better lock your doors and watch your kids." [72]

The Manson murder trial was the longest murder trial in American history when it occurred, lasting nine and a half months. The trial was among the most publicized American criminal cases of the twentieth century and was dubbed the "trial of the century". The jury had been sequestered for 225 days, longer than any jury before it. The trial transcript alone ran to 209 volumes or 31,716 pages. [72]

Post-trial events

Manson was admitted to state prison from Los Angeles County on April 22, 1971, for seven counts of first-degree murder and one count of conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of Abigail Ann Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Steven Earl Parent, Sharon Tate Polanski, Jay Sebring, and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. As the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional in 1972, Manson was re-sentenced to life with the possibility of parole. His initial death sentence was modified to life on February 2, 1977.

On December 13, 1971, Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in Los Angeles County Court for the July 25, 1969 death of musician Gary Hinman. He was also convicted of first-degree murder for the August 1969 death of Donald Jerome "Shorty" Shea. Following the 1972 decision of California v. Anderson, California's death sentences were ruled unconstitutional and that "any prisoner now under a sentence of death . may file a petition for writ of habeas corpus in the superior court inviting that court to modify its judgment to provide for the appropriate alternative punishment of life imprisonment or life imprisonment without possibility of parole specified by statute for the crime for which he was sentenced to death." [73] Manson was thus eligible to apply for parole after seven years' incarceration. [74] His first parole hearing took place on November 16, 1978, at California Medical Facility in Vacaville, where his petition was rejected. [75] [76]

1980s–1990s

In the 1980s, Manson gave four interviews to the mainstream media. The first, recorded at California Medical Facility and aired on June 13, 1981, was by Tom Snyder for NBC's The Tomorrow Show. The second, recorded at San Quentin State Prison and aired on March 7, 1986, was by Charlie Rose for CBS News Nightwatch, and it won the national news Emmy Award for Best Interview in 1987. [77] The third, with Geraldo Rivera in 1988, was part of the journalist's prime-time special on Satanism. [78] At least as early as the Snyder interview, Manson's forehead bore a swastika in the spot where the X carved during his trial had been. [79]

Nikolas Schreck conducted an interview with Manson for his documentary Charles Manson Superstar (1989). Schreck concluded that Manson was not insane but merely acting that way out of frustration. [80] [81]

On September 25, 1984, Manson was imprisoned in the California Medical Facility at Vacaville when inmate Jan Holmstrom poured paint thinner on him and set him on fire, causing second and third degree burns on over 20 percent of his body. Holmstrom explained that Manson had objected to his Hare Krishna chants and verbally threatened him. [75] [ mislykket verifikation ]

After 1989, Manson was housed in the Protective Housing Unit at California State Prison, Corcoran, in Kings County. The unit housed inmates whose safety would be endangered by general-population housing. He had also been housed at San Quentin State Prison, [77] California Medical Facility in Vacaville, [75] [ mislykket verifikation ] Folsom State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison. [82] [ citat nødvendig ] In June 1997, a prison disciplinary committee found that Manson had been trafficking drugs. [82] He was moved from Corcoran State Prison to Pelican Bay State Prison a month later. [82]

2000s–2017

On September 5, 2007, MSNBC aired The Mind of Manson, a complete version of a 1987 interview at California's San Quentin State Prison. The footage of the "unshackled, unapologetic, and unruly" Manson had been considered "so unbelievable" that only seven minutes of it had originally been broadcast on I dag, for which it had been recorded. [83]

In March 2009, a photograph of Manson showing a receding hairline, grizzled gray beard and hair, and the swastika tattoo still prominent on his forehead was released to the public by California corrections officials. [84]

In 2010, the Los Angeles Times reported that Manson was caught with a cell phone in 2009 and had contacted people in California, New Jersey, Florida and British Columbia. A spokesperson for the California Department of Corrections stated that it was not known if Manson had used the phone for criminal purposes. [85] Manson also recorded an album of acoustic pop songs with additional production by Henry Rollins, titled Completion. Only five copies were pressed: two belong to Rollins, while the other three are presumed to have been with Manson. The album remains unreleased. [86]

On January 1, 2017, Manson was suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding at California State Prison in Corcoran when he was rushed to Mercy Hospital in downtown Bakersfield. A source told the Los Angeles Times that Manson was seriously ill, [87] and TMZ reported that his doctors considered him "too weak" for surgery. [88] He was returned to prison on January 6, and the nature of his treatment was not disclosed. [89] On November 15, 2017, an unauthorized source said that Manson had returned to a hospital in Bakersfield, [90] but the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation did not confirm this in conformity with state and federal medical privacy laws. [91] He died from cardiac arrest resulting from respiratory failure and colon cancer at the hospital on November 19. [2] [92] [93]

Three people stated their intention to claim Manson's estate and body. [94] [95] [96] Manson's grandson Jason Freeman stated his intent to take possession of Manson's remains and personal effects. [97] Manson's pen-pal Michael Channels claimed to have a Manson will dated February 14, 2002, which left Manson's entire estate and Manson's body to Channels. [98] [99] Manson's friend Ben Gurecki claimed to have a Manson will dated January 2017 which gives the estate and Manson's body to Matthew Roberts, another alleged son of Manson. [94] [95] In 2012, CNN ran a DNA match to see if Freeman and Roberts were related to each other and found that they were not. According to CNN, two prior attempts to DNA match Roberts with genetic material from Manson failed, but the results were reportedly contaminated. [100] On March 12, 2018, the Kern County Superior Court in California decided in favor of Freeman in regard to Manson's body. Freeman had Manson cremated on March 20, 2018. [101] As of February 7, 2020, Channels and Freeman still had petitions to California courts attempting to establish the heir of Manson's estate. At that time, Channels was attempting to force Freeman to submit DNA to the court for testing. [102]

Involvement with Scientology

Manson began studying Scientology while incarcerated with the help of fellow inmate Lanier Rayner, and in July 1961, Manson listed his religion as Scientology. [103] A September 1961 prison report argues that Manson "appears to have developed a certain amount of insight into his problems through his study of this discipline". [104] Upon his release in 1967, Manson traveled to Los Angeles where he reportedly "met local Scientologists and attended several parties for movie stars". [105] [106] [107] Manson completed 150 hours of auditing. [108] Manson's "right hand man", Bruce M. Davis, worked at the Church of Scientology headquarters in London from November 1968 to April 1969." [109]

Relationships and alleged child

In 2009, Los Angeles disk jockey Matthew Roberts released correspondence and other evidence indicating that he might be Manson's biological son. Roberts' biological mother claims that she was a member of the Manson Family who left in mid-1967 after being raped by Manson she returned to her parents' home to complete the pregnancy, gave birth on March 22, 1968, and put Roberts up for adoption. CNN conducted a DNA test between Matthew Roberts and Manson's known biological grandson Jason Freeman in 2012, showing that Roberts and Freeman did not share DNA. [100] Roberts subsequently attempted to establish that Manson was his father through a direct DNA test which proved definitively that Roberts and Manson were not related. [110]

In 2014, it was announced [ af hvem? ] that the imprisoned Manson was engaged to 26-year-old Afton Elaine Burton and had obtained a marriage license on November 7. [111] Manson gave Burton the nickname "Star". She had been visiting him in prison for at least nine years and maintained several websites that proclaimed his innocence. [112] The wedding license expired on February 5, 2015, without a marriage ceremony taking place. [113] Journalist Daniel Simone reported that the wedding was cancelled after Manson discovered that Burton only wanted to marry him so that she and friend Craig Hammond could use his corpse as a tourist attraction after his death. [113] [114] According to Simone, Manson believed that he would never die and may simply have used the possibility of marriage as a way to encourage Burton and Hammond to continue visiting him and bringing him gifts. Burton said on her website that the reason that the marriage did not take place was merely logistical. Manson was suffering from an infection and had been in a prison medical facility for two months and could not receive visitors. She said that she still hoped that the marriage license would be renewed and the marriage would take place. [113]

Psychology

On April 11, 2012, Manson was denied release at his 12th parole hearing, which he did not attend. After his March 27, 1997, parole hearing, Manson refused to attend any of his later hearings. The panel at that hearing noted that Manson had a "history of controlling behavior" and "mental health issues" including schizophrenia and paranoid delusional disorder, and was too great a danger to be released. [115] The panel also noted that Manson had received 108 rules violation reports, had no indication of remorse, no insight into the causative factors of the crimes, lacked understanding of the magnitude of the crimes, had an exceptional, callous disregard for human suffering and had no parole plans. [116] At the April 11, 2012, parole hearing, it was determined that Manson would not be reconsidered for parole for another 15 years, i.e. not before 2027, at which time he would have been 92 years old. [117]

Kulturel indflydelse

Beginning in January 1970, the left-wing newspapers Los Angeles Free Press og Tuesday's Child embraced Manson as a hero-figure, and Tuesday's Child proclaimed him "Man of the Year". In June 1970, Rullende sten made him their cover story in "Charles Manson: The Incredible Story of the Most Dangerous Man Alive". [118] A Rullende sten writer visited the Los Angeles District Attorney's office while preparing that story, [119] and he was shocked by a photograph of the "Healter [sic] Skelter" that Manson's disciples had written on a wall in their victim's blood. [120] Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi pointed out the dispute in the underground press over whether Manson was "Christ returned" or "a sick symbol of our times". [ citat nødvendig ]

Bernardine Dohrn of the Weather Underground reportedly said of the Tate murders: "Dig it, first they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner in the same room with them, then they even shoved a fork into a victim's stomach. Wild!" [121] Neo-Nazi and Manson follower James Mason founded the Universal Order, a group that has influenced other movements such as the neo-Nazi terrorist group the Atomwaffen Division. The Universal Order's name and logo is a swastika between the scales of justice, remotely designed by Manson. [ præcisering nødvendig ] Bugliosi quoted a BBC employee's assertion that a "neo-Manson cult" existed in Europe, represented by approximately 70 rock bands playing songs by Manson and "songs in support of him". [74]

Musik

Manson was a struggling musician, seeking to make it big in Hollywood between 1967 and 1969. The Beach Boys did a cover of one of his songs. Other songs were publicly released only after the trial for the Tate murders started. On March 6, 1970, LIE, an album of Manson music, was released. [122] [123] [124] [125] This included "Cease to Exist", a Manson composition the Beach Boys had recorded with modified lyrics and the title "Never Learn Not to Love". [126] [127] Over the next couple of months only about 300 of the album's 2,000 copies sold. [128]

There have been several other releases of Manson recordings – both musical and spoken. One of these, The Family Jams, includes two compact discs of Manson's songs recorded by the Family in 1970, after Manson and the others had been arrested. Guitar and lead vocals are supplied by Steve Grogan [129] [ mislykket verifikation ] additional vocals are supplied by Lynette Fromme, Sandra Good, Catherine Share, and others. [ citat nødvendig ] One Mind, an album of music, poetry, and spoken word, new at the time of its release, in April 2005, was put out under a Creative Commons license. [130] [131]

American rock band Guns N' Roses recorded Manson's "Look at Your Game, Girl", included as an unlisted 13th track on their 1993 album "The Spaghetti Incident?" [74] [ mislykket verifikation ] [132] [133] "My Monkey", which appears on Portrait of an American Family by the American rock band Marilyn Manson, includes the lyrics "I had a little monkey / I sent him to the country and I fed him on gingerbread / Along came a choo-choo / Knocked my monkey cuckoo / And now my monkey's dead." These lyrics are from Manson's "Mechanical Man", [134] which is heard on LIE. Crispin Glover covered "Never Say 'Never' to Always" on his album The Big Problem ≠ The Solution. The Solution=Let It Be released in 1989.

Musical performers such as Kasabian, [135] Spahn Ranch, [136] and Marilyn Manson [137] derived their names from Manson and his lore.


Op-Ed: The human side of Charlie Manson

Charles Manson died on Sunday night after being admitted to a hospital in Bakersfield on Wednesday. The infamous cult leader, who was convicted along with three of his followers in 1971 of the murders of actress Sharon Tate and six others, was 83 years old.

How do we assess Manson? If early reports are any indication, it is with the same lack of nuance, the same hyperbole on which we’ve long relied. The Associated Press described him on Thursday as “a demonic presence,” “the living embodiment of evil” and quoted former special correspondent Linda Deutsch, who covered his trial: “In addition to killing seven people, he killed a whole counterculture.”

The temptation to see Manson in apocalyptic terms is understandable. In her 1978 essay “The White Album,” Joan Didion wrote, “On August 9, 1969, I was sitting in the shallow end of my sister-in-law’s swimming pool in Beverly Hills when she received a phone call from a friend who had just heard about the murders at Sharon Tate Polanski’s house on Cielo Drive. … There were twenty dead, no, twelve, ten, eighteen. Black masses were imagined, and bad trips blamed.”

Charles Manson was no devil but a human being, as his death makes clear.

In a nation now grappling with mass killings one after another, the actual number of Manson’s victims seems almost minimal, even quaint. But it’s worth remembering the terror stirred by the murders, the chaos they implied. Tate was 8½ months pregnant when she died the killers wrote “Pig” across the front door in her blood. The following night, the Manson family killed Leno and Rosemary LaBianca at their home in Los Feliz, scrawling “Healter Skelter” (sic) on the refrigerator, also using the victims’ blood.

I was a child on the other side of the country, and I recall my own fear in the wake of the killings, the disturbing satanic details, the violation of the safety of home. That my children now take such realities for granted suggests something of how desensitized we as a culture have become.

Manson, though, was no devil but a human being, as his death makes clear. I don’t say that to soften or absolve him. But I don’t believe in demons people are frightening enough. Indeed, to accept Manson as a person, to see him through the filter of his humanity, is to acknowledge what we resist: that he was perhaps not so utterly different from the rest of us.

Manson’s history was horrific his mother did time in prison for armed robbery when he was young and he lived with relatives who tormented him in the name of making him tough. In the 2013 biography “Manson: The Life and Times of Charles Manson,” Jeff Guinn traced one such incident, in which his uncle made him go to first grade in a dress as punishment for having cried in class.

A quarter-century later, after his release from the federal penitentiary at Terminal Island in San Pedro, Manson moved to San Francisco and began to collect the drifters and young women who would become his so-called family.

One of Manson’s inspirations was Dale Carnegie, whose 1936 book “How to Win Friends and Influence People” offered him tips on manipulating others to his ends. Among his successful strategies? Convincing his acolytes to commit the murders he planned, then claiming innocence since he did not actually kill anyone.

This is, of course, horrific, venal — and recognizably human at the same time. Just look at the news evasion of responsibility is our new national pastime. You might say Manson was ahead of his time, spinning out a series of false narratives about race war and his own messianic status that ensnared his followers.

Although much has been made of his efforts to join the Southern California music scene (he befriended Beach Boy Dennis Wilson, among others), it’s a stretch to suggest Manson’s turn to murder was a reaction to his failed rock star fantasies.


Manson created a cult around himself called the "Family" that he hoped to use to bring about Armageddon through a race war. He named this scenario "Helter Skelter," after the 1968 Beatles song of the same name.

Manson believed that once African-Americans rose up against white people in an end-of-times race war, he and his Family, which consisted mostly of women, would be the only ones left standing at its conclusion.

The Family sought to quicken this apocalyptic timeline by carrying out prominent murders of celebrities and pinning them on African-Americans so that people would take notice.

Manson compelled his followers to believe him by exhibiting many qualities common to gurus and spiritual leaders around the world, and also used LSD to influence their thinking.


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In the years that would follow, Lake became more loyal to Manson, even as he grew more violent in the days leading up to the murderous rampage that members of his cult went on in 1969.

Lake did not take part in the two-day summer murder spree in which Manson and members of his cult killed seven people, including pregnant actress Sharon Tate, Abigail Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, Steven Parent and Jay Sebring.

She was arrested along with the other cult members at Barker Ranch in 1969 but maintained throughout police interviews that she knew nothing of the murders.

Lake did not take part in the two-day murder spree in which Manson and members of his cult killed seven people, including film director Roman Polanski's pregnant wife Sharon Tate (above with the director in 1968)

Lake said she couldn't understand why the women who she previously considered friends from the Manson family - Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkle and Leslie van Houton (above) had stood by the murderer during the trial

She went on to provide the district attorney with incriminating evidence and testimony against them.

In 1970, Lake was institutionalized for schizophrenia which doctors said was caused by emotional trauma.

When she later faced Manson in court, his defense attorney asked her: 'Are you still in love with Mr. Manson now?' She responded: 'I guess so' as she looked at the man who she had a deep relationship in the years prior.

Manson blurted out: 'You loved everybody. Don't put it all on Mr Manson.'

The court room burst into laughter at Manson's statement.

Lake penned this book 'Member of the Family' out October 24 on her time with the madman

Recalling the incident in her book, Lake said: 'I hadn't seen it before, how he could truly work a room. This man didn't mean to be funny. he was deflecting responsibility from himself by humiliating me and dismissing my value as a human being,' she said.

She said that was the moment she realized he was a 'scruffy little man with an enormous ego'.

'He was a fake, a fraud, a pimp, and a con artist. And now I was truly free of him,' she said.

She also said she could not understand why Patricia Krenwinkle, Leslie van Houton and Susan Atkins stood by Manson.

All three famously carved X's on their foreheads.

'The girls with the Xs on their foreheads? That part always blew me away,' Lake said. 'They continued to hang on, be groupies.'

After the trial concluded and Manson was convicted on first degree murder charges, Lake said she tried to move forward with her life. She is now married, has raised three children and earned a master's degree in education.

Manson, however, has been behind bars for more than four decades after being put away for the series of murders in 1969.

He was convicted of leading a cult in which disaffected young people living in a commune followed his orders and were ultimately turned into killers.

Manson, Atkins, Krenwinkle and Leslie Van Houten were convicted of murder and sentenced to death for the killings.

Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkle and Leslie Van Houten (above) were convicted of murder and sentenced to death for killings at two gruesome scenes in the summer of 1969

They brutally murdered director Tate and six others in Los Angeles over two nights.

He had ordered his family members to slaughter Tate, who was eight-and-a-half months pregnant, and three of her friends at her home above Beverly Hills.

Stephen Parent was a fifth unfortunate victim that night. He had driven to the property to see if caretaker William Garreston wanted to buy his AM/FM Clock radio, and had stayed on for a beer at the guest house. He was shot multiple times when he wound down the window at the electric gate as he left.

The following night the Family butchered small business owners Leno and Rosemary La Bianca, in their home in Los Angeles.

The murders were carried out in upscale, mostly white neighborhoods of Los Angeles in order to blame the crimes on African Americans, in the hope of sparking what he termed a 'Helter Skelter' race war.

Manson, who was not actually present but ordered the killings, applied for parole in 2012 but was denied release and is not eligible to apply again until 2027.

He was hospitalized earlier this year suffering from intestinal bleeding.


Chief prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi said he would seek the death penalty

LOS ANGELES (AP) &mdash Following a seven-month trial, Charles Manson and three of his followers were convicted of murder and conspiracy in the August 1969 killings of actress Sharon Tate and six others.

The Associated Press is republishing the following article on the verdicts to mark the anniversary of the killings. It first appeared on Jan. 26, 1971.

By Linda Deutsch
Associated Press Writer

LOS ANGELES &mdash Charles Manson, shaggy leader of a cult-like clan of hippie types, was convicted Monday of first-degree murder and conspiracy along with three women followers in the savage slayings of actress Sharon Tate and six others.

The state said it will ask the death penalty for all.

The defendants, who staged wild outbursts during their seven-month trial, sat passively as verdicts were returned on the 27 counts against them.

After jurors were polled, Manson muttered audibly, referring to them: &ldquoI think they&rsquore all guilty.&rdquo After the verdicts were all in, he shouted at the judge: &ldquoWe&rsquore still not allowed to put on a defense. You won&rsquot outlive that, old man.&rdquo

The jury of seven men and five women, who had deliberated 42 hours and 40 minutes since receiving the case Jan.16, was ordered to return to court at 9 a.m. Thursday for the penalty-phase of the trial. They will continue to be sequestered.

The prosecutor said he has about 50 witnesses ready for the penalty trial. The defense has said it will put on a case as long or longer than the state&rsquos, seeking life imprisonment instead of the death penalty on the contention there still is doubt as to guilt.

Death or life imprisonment are the only possible verdicts for convictions on first-degree murder.

Under California law the same jury that returns a first-degree murder-conspiracy conviction must meet again at a second trial to fix the penalty.

Had the verdict been second-degree murder, the penalty would have been an automatic five years to life and there would have been no penalty trial.

The defendants were charged with murder-conspiracy in the August 1969 slayings of the beautiful actress and four visitors to her mansion, and in the killings a night later of a wealthy merchant couple.

Manson, 36, was accused of ordering the killings to touch off a race war he believed was heralded in a Beatles song, after which he expected to take over power.

The other defendants were Susan Atkins, 22, Patricia Krenwinkel, 23, and Leslie Van Houten, 21.

Miss Van Houten was charged with conspiracy in all the killings, but with murder only in those of market owners Leno and Rosemary LaBianca.

The defendants, banished from court Dec. 22 for shouting, filed in smiling and chatting. The women wore prison uniforms with ribbons in their long hair. Manson wore a rumpled white shirt with a blue scarf. His hair was disheveled, and he sported a new goatee.

All arose and walked out quietly after the verdicts &mdash read one by one for each of the 27 counts &mdash were finished. A score of sheriff&rsquos deputies was in the packed 92-seat courtroom to maintain order.

Deputy Dist. Atty. Vincent Bugliosi, the chief prosecutor, told newsmen he will seek the death penalty: &ldquoI don&rsquot enjoy it, but it is necessary.&rdquo

Of the verdict, he said: &ldquoI am very, very pleased, and the Los Angeles Police Department is very happy. We expected the verdict, but until the clerk reads the verdict you don&rsquot know.&rdquo

The deciding factor? &ldquoThe overwhelming amount of evidence.&rdquo

Chief defense counsel Paul Fitzgerald, said the defendants told him Monday night they &ldquoexpected the worst.&rdquo He described the verdict as anticipated.

&ldquoWe lost the case when we lost our change of venue. We thought we had as much chance to win the case in Los Angeles as they had of winning the Sam Sheppard,&rdquo he said, referring to a Cleveland doctor convicted in the 1960s of slaying his wife in a sensational case. The Supreme Court ultimately overturned the conviction.

Fitzgerald said the defense would argue at the penalty trial that pretrial publicity hurt the defendants. He said he will plead for a sentence of life imprisonment on grounds there is still some doubt as to guilt.

Maxwell Keith, representing Miss Van Houten, said he had felt she had a fighting chance if not for acquittal, for second-degree murder: Miss Van Houten was not a member of the killer party at the Tate home.

&ldquoShe reacted a lot better than I did,&rdquo he said of the verdict. &ldquoShe didn&rsquot turn a hair. She seemed more solicitous of me.&rdquo

Manson&rsquos attorney, Irving Kanarek, declined to comment on the verdict.

The verdict capped a trial in which the state called 84 witnesses, and the defense rested without putting on a case. The transcript ran nearly 6 million words, and there were 297 exhibits.

The prosecutor in final arguments called the killings &ldquomonstrous, macabre and nightmarish . perhaps the most inhuman horror-filled hour of savage murder and human slaughter in the annals of recorded crime.&rdquo

He called Manson &ldquosomeone with a sick and morbid lust and preoccupation with death.&rdquo The women, he said, were Manson&rsquos &ldquorobots and zombies.&rdquo

The defense argued that someone other than the defendants might have done the killings. Attorneys said Manson was being prosecuted for his unpopular lifestyle, and that if the women were really robots, they couldn&rsquot perform the premeditation needed for first-degree murder.

The case first made headlines Aug. 10, 1969, when a maid found the bloody bodies of victims at the Tate estate.

The eight-months-pregnant honey blond actress, 25, wife of director Roman Polanski, lay stabbed on the living room floor near the body of Jay Sebring, 26, Hollywood hairstylist and her onetime fiancé.

Outside were the bodies of Polish playboy Wojciech Frykowski, 37, and his girlfriend, coffee heiress Abigail Folger, 26. Slain in his car was Stephen Parent, 18, shot as he left after visiting the caretaker.

&ldquoPIG&rdquo was smeared in blood on the door. A towel &ldquohood&rdquo covered Sebring&rsquos head. Police called the slayings &ldquoritualistic.&rdquo

The next day, a few miles away, the LaBiancas were found stabbed to death amid bloody scrawlings.

For four months police were baffled. Then, acting on a tip from a woman who said Miss Atkins told of the killings while the two shared a jail cell, police made mass arrests of Manson and his family, then living in a remote commune near Death Valley.

Manson, only 5 feet 6 but with what his followers called near-hypnotic powers, quickly emerged as the central figure. The son of a prostitute and habitué of prisons and institutions most of his life, he had formed his &ldquofamily&rdquo in San Francisco&rsquos hippie district and come to the Hollywood area to seek a singing career. Family members called him &ldquoGod&rdquo and &ldquoJesus&rdquo and &ldquoSatan&rdquo.

A onetime clan member, Linda Kasabian, star state witness at the trial, said Manson sent out two killer parties to the Tate and LaBianca homes, ordering the second set of killings because the first were &ldquotoo messy.&rdquo

Mrs. Kasabian, granted immunity from prosecution for her story, said Manson went along himself on the LaBianca trip but left before the actual killings. In 19 days on the stand, she told of seeing two killings and of hearing screams of other victims.

In Milford, New Hampshire, Mrs. Kasabian said of the verdict: &ldquoI&rsquom not surprised, but my heart really grieves for them.&rdquo

Other witnesses said Miss Atkins admitted killing Miss Tate after the latter pleaded to live and have her baby, then tasting her blood and finding it &ldquobeautiful.&rdquo

Witnesses said Miss Krenwinkel complained that her hand hurt after the Tate killings because she had stabbed so much, and that Miss Van Houten repeatedly stabbed a body that was already dead, and enjoyed it.

When the defense&rsquos turn came, attorneys surprised the court by resting. They said that if the women defendants were allowed to testify, they would tell stories that would incriminate themselves and clear Manson. The attorney said they would not allow this.

Manson testified in the jury&rsquos absence and said he&rsquod killed no one and ordered no one killed.

In a rumbling discourse he explained his lifestyle and said of women: &ldquoThese children who come at you with knives, they&rsquore your children. I didn&rsquot teach them. You did.&rdquo

He told the women not to testify and declined to repeat his story for jurors.

Trial highlights included frequent shouts and songs from defendants that got them banished to nearby detention rooms, where they listened via loudspeaker. Manson lunged once at the judge. Attorneys were jailed for contempt. One attorney vanished on a camping trip and had to be replaced.

Through it all, a band of loyal Manson clan women maintained a vigil in the street outside the Hall of Justice, waiting for their &ldquofather&rdquo to be freed from &ldquothe tower.&rdquo

Manson and Miss Atkins still face murder charges in the 1969 killing of Malibu musician Gary Hinman. Manson also is charged with murdering Donald &ldquoShorty&rdquo Shea, a hand who vanished from the clan&rsquos movie ranch commune. His body has not been found.


Manson was saved from execution when the California Supreme Court outlawed the death penalty in 1972. During his decades in the California State Prison in Corcoran, Manson received more mail than any other prisoner in the U.S. He was denied parole a dozen times and died, apparently of natural causes, on Nov. 19, 2017. He was 83.

Laurie Levenson, a professor at Loyola Law School who followed high-profile cases, described Manson in 2009 as the worst of the worst: "If you're going to be evil, you have to be off-the-charts evil, and Charlie Manson was off-the-charts evil," Levenson told CNN.

Despite the vicious brutality of the murders he committed or ordered, however, Manson became an icon of sorts to the more radical elements of the counterculture movement. His image is still seen on posters and T-shirts.

To others, he was an object of morbid curiosity. In addition to the best-selling "Helter Skelter," which was written by Manson prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi, and the TV movie released two years later, many other books and movies related to the Manson story have been released.


Se videoen: Charles Manson Superstar: Redux 1989 documentary with extra stuff added in 2012