Metroerne i Tokyo angribes med sarin gas

Metroerne i Tokyo angribes med sarin gas


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Flere pakker med dødelig saringas er sat i gang i Tokyo -metrosystemet og dræbte tolv mennesker og sårede over 5.000 den 20. marts 1995. Saringas blev opfundet af nazisterne og er en af ​​de mest dødelige nervegasser, man kender. Politi i Tokyo fik hurtigt at vide, hvem der havde plantet de kemiske våben og begyndte at spore terroristerne. Tusinder af kontrolpunkter blev oprettet over hele landet i det massive træknet.

Gasangrebet blev indledt af Aum Shinrikyo (hvilket betyder Supreme Truth) kult. Den Højeste Sandhed havde tusinder af tilhængere i hele Japan, der troede på deres dommedagsprofetier. Fordi den hævdede nye kultmedlemmers personlige aktiver, havde den Højeste Sandhed gemt godt over en milliard dollars væk. Shoko Asahara, en fyrre-årig blind mand, var leder af kulten. Asahara havde langt hår og langt skæg, bar lyse klæder og mediterede ofte, mens han sad på satinpuder. Hans bøger omfattede påstande om, at han var Jesu Kristi genkomst, og at han havde evnen til at rejse gennem tiden.

Japanske myndigheder slog til mod Supreme Truth -forbindelserne i hele landet, men kunne ikke finde Asahara. I en lejr i bunden af ​​Fuji -fjeldet fandt politiet masser af kemikalier, der bruges til at producere saringas. De fandt også planer om at købe atomvåben fra russerne. Politiet fandt til sidst Hideo Murai, en af ​​kultens andre øverste ledere, men da han blev taget i forvaring blev han stukket ihjel af en snigmorder, der beskyldte Murai for giftgasangrebet.

Kort tid efter fandt politiet en skjult kælder ved Mount Fuji -forbindelsen, hvor andre kultledere blev lukket op, herunder Masami Tsuchiya, en kemiker, der indrømmede at lave sarngassen. Alligevel forblev Asahara på fri fod, og den Højeste Sandhed foretog yderligere fire gasangreb på metroen og skadede flere hundrede. En anden potentiel dødelig kemisk bombe blev lukket ned på et metro -toilet. Nationens øverste politibetjent blev skudt af en maskeret terrorist, hvilket øgede landets uro.

Endelig den 16. maj blev Asahara fundet i endnu et hemmeligt rum i Mount Fuji -forbindelsen og arresteret. Sammen med snesevis af de andre Supreme Truth -ledere blev Asahara anklaget for drab. Deres dommedagsprognoser var endelig gået i opfyldelse, omend i en meget mindre og mere personlig skala, end de havde forestillet sig.

LÆS MERE: 5 kultlederne i det 20. århundrede


Tokyo subway sarin angreb: katastrofehåndtering, del 1: Fællesskabets beredskab

Tokyo -metro -sarinangrebet var den anden dokumenterede hændelse af nervegasforgiftning i Japan. Inden Tokyo-metroen sarinangreb havde der aldrig været en så stor katastrofe forårsaget af nervegas i fredstidens historie. Denne artikel indeholder detaljer om, hvordan samfundets akutmedicinske system (EMS) reagerede ud fra synspunktet om katastrofehåndtering, de stødte problemer og hvordan de blev løst. Forfatternes vurdering var, at hvis EMT'er i henhold til japansk lov havde fået lov til at opretholde en luftvej med et endotrachealt rør eller bruge en larynxmaske -luftvej uden lægetilsyn, kunne flere patienter være blevet reddet under denne kemiske eksponeringskatastrofe. I betragtning af de nuværende juridiske begrænsninger vil avanceret luftvejskontrol på stedet kræve, at læger bliver mere aktivt involveret i behandling uden for hospitalet. Andre anbefalinger er: 1) at integration og samarbejde mellem berørte organisationer etableres gennem katastrofeøvelser 2) at giftinformationscentre fungerer som regionale formidlere af al toksikologisk information 3) at der etableres et realtids, multidirektionelt kommunikationssystem 4) at flere kanaler kommunikation være tilgængelig for katastrofebehandling)


At ryste følelsen af ​​sikkerhed i det japanske samfund

Efter sarinangrebet ansporede det rygter og spekulationer om, at der ville komme flere angreb, der spredte frygt over hele landet. Ukendt dengang var, hvor rigtig denne frygt var.

Det ville senere blive afsløret, at kulten havde planer om et cyanidangreb i en af ​​Tokyos største metrostationer, Shinjuku. Heldigvis blev disse planer forkastet.

Men det hele satte tvivl om landets politistyrkes evne. Den organiserede kriminelle gruppe begik forbrydelser i mange år i Japan, et land set som et af de sikreste i verden. Aum udførte til sidst det vilkårlige angreb på metrosystemet. Dens kriminelle historie er uden fortilfælde. Sarin -angrebene viste, at politiet ikke var i stand til at reagere på den form for terrortrusel. De var dårligt udstyrede og uforberedte. De var heller ikke klar over den type radikalisering, der foregik med kulten. Politiagenturet indrømmede i sin rapport om kulten, at det havde undladt at forhindre Aum i at begå forbrydelser udført ved hjælp af avanceret videnskab. De giftgasser, de fremstillede - sarin og VX - kræver normalt, at statsapparater opretter. Det tilføjede, at organisationen opererede under dække af en religiøs gruppe i et miljø, der var lukket for andre dele af samfundet.

Efter Aum -forbrydelserne forstærkede politiet deres enheder, der beskæftiger sig med kemiske våben samt systemer til efterforskning af terrorisme og anden organiseret kriminalitet.


Hvad skete der efter angrebet?

I månederne efter angrebet i marts 1995 gjorde gruppen flere mislykkede forsøg på at frigive hydrogencyanid på forskellige stationer.

Metroens grusomhed chokerede Japan, et land, der er stolt over lave kriminalitet og social samhørighed. Det rejste også spørgsmål om politiets undladelse af at undersøge tidligere påstande om kriminel aktivitet fra gruppens side.

Den japanske forfatter Haruki Murakami skrev en faglitterær bog om hændelsen med titlen Underground: The Tokyo Gas Attack and the Japanese Psyche og interviewede 60 ofre.

Masser af Aum -medlemmer har stået over for retssag over angrebet, og 13 blev dømt til døden, herunder Asahara.

Den sidste, der blev prøvet i forbindelse med metroangrebet, var Katsuya Takahashi, anholdt i juni 2012 efter at have været på flugt i 17 år. Han blev idømt livsvarigt fængsel.

Kultmedlem Makoto Hirata blev også fængslet i 2014 for bortførelse af en 68-årig mand og hans involvering i to bombeangreb.


Indhold

Aum Shinrikyo Rediger

Oprindelse Rediger

Aum Shinrikyo blev grundlagt i 1984 som en yoga- og meditationsklasse, oprindeligt kendt som Oumu Shinsen no Kai (オ ウ ム 神仙 の 会, "Aum Mountain Hermits 'Society"), af apotekeren Chizuo Matsumoto. Gruppen troede på en doktrin, der kredsede om en synkretisk blanding af indisk og tibetansk buddhisme, samt kristen og hinduistisk overbevisning [7], især vedrørende den hinduistiske gud Shiva. [8] De mente, at Harmageddon var uundgåelig i form af en global krig, der involverede USA og Japan, at ikke-medlemmer var dømt til evigt helvede, men kunne blive reddet, hvis de blev dræbt af kultmedlemmer, og at kun medlemmer af kulten ville overleve apokalypsen, og bagefter ville bygge Kongeriget Shambhala. I 1987 omdøbte gruppen og etablerede en filial i New York året efter, og den åbnede et hovedkvarter i Fujinomiya. Omkring dette tidspunkt blev Matsumotos mentale sundhed (nu under navnet Shoko Asahara) forværret - han udviklede en sundhedsangst og udtrykte selvmordssyn. [9]

I august 1989 fik gruppen officiel religiøs selskabsstatus af Tokyo Metropolitan Government, hvilket gav den privilegier såsom skattelettelser og frihed fra regeringens tilsyn. Denne anerkendelse forårsagede dramatisk vækst, herunder en stigning i nettoværdi fra mindre end 430 millioner yen til over 100 milliarder yen (ca. medlemmer til omkring 20.000 i 1992. [10]

Gruppens drastisk stigende popularitet oplevede også en stigning i voldelig adfærd fra sine medlemmer. I året forud for dets anerkendelse af regeringen i Tokyo havde et medlem af kulten - Terayuki Majima - ved et uheld druknet under et ritual, hans lig blev kremeret, med de resterende knogler grundet og spredt over en nærliggende sø. Majimas ven - et medlem af gruppen - blev myrdet af medlemmer, der handlede under Asaharas ordre, efter at han blev desillusioneret og forsøgte at forlade. [11]

Tre måneder efter anerkendelsen var seks Aum Shinrikyo-medlemmer involveret i mordet på en advokat, Tsutsumi Sakamoto, der havde arbejdet på et gruppesøgsmål mod kulten samt hans kone og 1-årige søn. [12] Asahara havde tidligere avanceret begrebet 'poa': en doktrine, der erklærede, at ikke kun mennesker med dårlig karma var dømt til en evighed i helvede (medmindre de blev 'genfødt' ved hjælp af 'oplyste mennesker'), men at det var acceptabelt at dræbe dem, der var i fare for dårlig karma for at redde dem fra helvede. [ citat nødvendig ]

Tidlige forsøg på at gribe magten Rediger

Asahara havde oplevet storhedsvanviddelser allerede i 1985 - mens han mediterede, hævder han, at guden Shiva var blevet åbenbaret for ham og havde udnævnt ham til 'Abiraketsu no Mikoto' ('Lysets gud, der leder gudernes hære') , der skulle bygge Kongeriget Shambhala, et utopisk samfund bestående af dem, der havde udviklet 'psykiske kræfter'. [13]

I 1990 meddelte Asahara, at gruppen ville stille 25 kandidater ved valget samme år til den japanske diæt under fanen Shinrito (真理 党, "Sandhedsfest" ). På trods af at de viste tillid til deres evne til at få plads i kosten, modtog partiet kun 1.783 stemmer den manglende lovlige opnåelse af magten, som Asahara bebrejdede en ekstern sammensværgelse, der blev formeret af "frimurere og jøder", fik ham til at beordre kulten om at producere botulinum og fosgen for at vælte den japanske regering. Da medlemmerne blev desillusionerede over gruppen (efter kontakt med omverdenen, der blev foretaget under valgkampen) og hoppede over, blev en holdning blandt de resterende medlemmer om, at 'de uoplyste' ikke fortjente frelse, accepteret. [14]

Forsøg på at lagre botulinumtoksin viste sig ikke at lykkes. Seiichi Endo-et af medlemmerne, der havde til opgave at erhverve botulinumtoksin-indsamlede jordprøver fra Ishikari-floden og forsøgte at producere toksinet ved hjælp af tre 10.000 liter (2.600 US gal) fermentatorer. I alt blev der produceret omkring 50 partier på 9.000 liter rå rå bouillon - kulten forsøgte imidlertid ikke at rense bouillonen (som for det meste ville have bestået af bakteriedyrkningsmidler et medlem faldt endda ind i en af ​​de gærere og druknede næsten, men havde ellers ingen dårlige virkninger). [15]

På trods af at bioassays fra mus drives af Tomomasu Nakagawa (et andet kultmedlem, der hjælper Endo) ikke returnerer toksiske virkninger, blev den rå bouillon i april 1990 lastet i tre lastbiler udstyret med specialsprøjteanordninger, der skulle sprøjtes på to amerikanske flådebaser, Narita lufthavn, kostbygningen, kejserpaladset og hovedkvarteret for en rivaliserende religiøs gruppe. [16]

Samtidig meddelte Asahara, at den kommende apokalyptiske krig ikke kunne redde mennesker uden for kulten, og at medlemmerne skulle deltage i et tredages seminar i Ishigakijima for at søge ly. Sprøjteangrebene forårsagede ingen negative virkninger blandt befolkningen, men 1270 mennesker deltog i seminaret, hvoraf mange blev trofaste munke. [ citat nødvendig ]

Med det formål at bygge en forbindelse med faciliteter såsom et fosgenanlæg (samt faciliteter til fremstilling af VX og klorgas) brugte Aum Shinrikyo 14 dummy -virksomheder til at købe acres jord i Namino (nu en del af Aso by) og begyndte konstruktion. Men den offentlige holdning til kulten var blevet meget negativ på grund af mistanke omkring kultens ulovlige aktiviteter. Disse holdninger blev forværret, da det blev afsløret for det omgivende samfund, at gruppen havde handlet ulovligt. En politiundersøgelse i oktober resulterede i anholdelser af flere Aum-medlemmer, hvilket fik Asahara til at frygte et politiangreb-derfor beordrede han destruktion af alle biologiske og kemiske våbenlagre, og at kulten kun fokuserede på legitime, ikke-voldelige strategier. [ citat nødvendig ]

Genstart af voldelig aktivitet Rediger

Efter ødelæggelsen af ​​de ulovlige våbenlagre stolte kulten på 'almindelige' metoder til at tiltrække andre medlemmer - dette omfattede hyppige tv -optrædener fra Asahara samt oprettelsen af ​​radiostationen 'Aum Shinrikyo broadcasting' i Rusland i april 1992 . Imidlertid begyndte sidst i 1992 at Asaharas mentale helbred forværredes yderligere - hans selvmordsfølelser blev stærkere, han begyndte at klage over hallucinationer og paranoia, [9], og han trak sig fra offentlige optrædener (undtagen på Aum Shinrikyo Broadcasting) og påstod, at samfundet forhindrede ham fra at opfylde sin skæbne som Kristus. Den samtidige udskiftning af den tidligere overvejende kvindelige gruppe af toprådgivere med en mere aggressiv mandlig gruppe førte til en gradvis genstart af den voldelige kampagne for at tage magten. På et tidspunkt i 1992 udgav Asahara Jeg erklærer mig selv for Kristus, hvor han identificerede sig med "Guds lam". [17]

Han skitserede en dommedagsprofeti, som omfattede en tredje verdenskrig, og beskrev en sidste konflikt, der kulminerede med en atomvåben Harmageddon, og lånte udtrykket fra Åbenbaringens Bog 16:16. [18] Hans påståede mission var at påtage sig verdens synder, og han hævdede, at han kunne overføre sin tilhængere åndelig magt og tage deres synder væk. [19]

Asahara hævdede at være i stand til at se mørke sammensværgelser overalt, der blev bekendtgjort af jøder, frimurere, hollænderne, den britiske kongefamilie og rivaliserende japanske religioner. [20]

Præsidenten for Okamura -jernværket, et industrianlæg, der står over for gældsproblemer, var medlem af kulten, der rådførte sig med Asahara om en overtagelsesstrategi. I september 1992 blev Asahara præsident for jernværket, hvilket resulterede i, at 90% af personalet blev afskediget eller forlod på grund af anlæggets 'Aum-ification'. Disse arbejdere blev erstattet med andre medlemmer af gruppen. I løbet af 1993 smuglede kulten AK-74-rifler og 5,45 millimeter (0,215 in) kugler og begyndte at prototype rifler baseret på AK-74-designet.

Under tilsyn med Endo genoptog kultens biologiske våbenafdeling-denne gang forfulgte ikke kun botulinumtoksin, men også miltbrand ved hjælp af forbedrede 200-liters (53 US gal) tromlefermentorer på deres Kameido-anlæg. [ citat nødvendig ]

Igen forsøgte gruppen ikke at rense det resulterende produkt, der lignede en ildelugtende brun gylle. Yderligere mislykkede angreb på enkeltpersoner blev forsøgt i 1993 og 1994 ved hjælp af botulinum - først ved hjælp af en hjemmelavet sprøjte monteret på en bil og derefter ved at blande med saft - men ingen af ​​disse havde nogen virkninger. Fem dage før sarinangrebet på metroerne i Tokyo blev botulinum spredt i et mislykket angreb på Kasumigaseki station - et dissidentmedlem havde erstattet den aktive forbindelse med vand, men kulten havde undladt at erhverve en aktiv stamme af C. botulinum. [ citat nødvendig ]

På samme måde var Aum miltbrand -programmet en fiasko - på trods af at have adgang til en sympatisør uden for gruppen, der kunne erhverve miltbrandsporer, var den stamme, gruppen modtog, en Sterne -vaccinstamme, der ikke var i stand til at forårsage skade. Det var uklart, hvorfor gruppen, på trods af denne viden, udførte to angreb i 1993 ved hjælp af denne vaccinstamme - en gang fra taget på hovedkvarterets bygning i Kameido og en gang fra en lastbil med en speciel sprøjteindretning, rettet mod diætbygningen, Kejserpaladset og Tokyo Tower. Begge angreb forårsagede ingen andre virkninger end en dårlig lugt, rapporteret af forbipasserende. [ citat nødvendig ]

I sommeren 1993 forsøgte Endo en anden strategi - ved at udtørre gyllen, B. anthracis sporer kunne spredes som et pulver, frem for gennem sprøjtning - dette blev opnået med en rå varmluftstørrer. Nakagawa har hævdet, at der blev forsøgt at sprede dette pulver gennem Tokyo centrum, men dette havde heller ingen virkninger. Den totale fiasko i det biologiske våbenprogram havde i midten af ​​1993 overbevist Asahara om at fokusere på den kemiske våbenafdeling under Masami Tsuchiya. Selvom Endo ville blive forfremmet inden for kulten til 'sundhedsminister' i 1994 - hvilket afspejler hans anciennitet - blev der ikke forsøgt yderligere angreb ved hjælp af biologiske våben. [ citat nødvendig ]

Kemisk våbenproduktion Rediger

Tsuchiya havde etableret et lille laboratorium i deres Kamikuishiki -kompleks i november 1992. Efter indledende undersøgelser (foretaget på Tsukuba University, hvor han tidligere havde studeret kemi), foreslog han Hideo Murai - en højtstående Aum -rådgiver, der havde tildelt ham at undersøge kemiske våben i November 1992 af frygt for, at kulten snart ville blive angrebet med dem-at det mest omkostningseffektive stof at syntetisere ville være sarin. [15]

Han blev efterfølgende beordret til at producere en lille mængde-inden for en måned var det nødvendige udstyr blevet bestilt og installeret, og 10–20 gram (0,35–0,71 oz) sarin var blevet produceret via syntetiske procedurer afledt af fem-trins DHMP-processen som oprindeligt beskrevet af IG Farben i 1938, og som brugt af de allierede efter Anden Verdenskrig. [15]

Efter at denne lille mængde var blevet produceret, beordrede Murai Tsuchiya at producere omkring 70 tons (da 150.000 lb) - da Tsuchiya protesterede og bemærkede, at dette skaleringsniveau ikke var muligt i et forskningslaboratorium, blev der beordret at bygge et kemisk anlæg ved siden af ​​det biologiske produktionsanlæg i Fujigamine-distriktet i Kamikuishiki, der skal mærkes Satyan-7 ('Sandhed'). Det specialiserede udstyr og betydelige kemikalier, der er nødvendige for at drive anlægget, blev købt ved hjælp af skalvirksomheder under Hasegawa Chemical, et kemikaliefirma, der allerede ejes af Aum. På samme tid rejste Asahara og 24 andre kultmedlemmer i september 1993 fra Tokyo til Perth, Australien og bragte generatorer, værktøjer, beskyttelsesudstyr (herunder gasmasker og åndedrætsværn) og kemikalier til fremstilling af sarin.

Efter at have købt kemikalier konfiskeret af tolden chartrede gruppen fly fra Perth til Banjawarn Station, hvor de søgte efter uranforekomster for at lave atomvåben og muligvis har testet effektiviteten af ​​den syntetiserede sarin på dyr. De blev i Australien i otte dage og forsøgte at vende tilbage i oktober samme år, men blev nægtet visa - Banjawarn Station ville blive solgt et år senere. [ citat nødvendig ]

Satyan-7-anlægget blev erklæret klar til indflytning i september 1993 med kapacitet til at producere omkring 40-50 liter sarin, udstyret med 30-liters (7,9 US gal) blandingskolber inden for beskyttelseshætter , og til sidst ansættelse af 100 Aum -medlemmer ville FN senere estimere værdien af ​​bygningen og dens indhold til $ 30 millioner. [21]

På trods af sikkerhedsfunktionerne og ofte state-of-the-art udstyr og praksis var driften af ​​anlægget meget usikker-en analytiker ville senere beskrive kulten som en "høj grad af boglæring, men stort set intet i vejen for teknisk dygtighed. " [22]

Da anlægget udviklede lækager, blev spande brugt til at indeholde spild, hvor flere teknikere inhalerede dampe ved gentagne lejligheder og udviklede 'symptomer lige fra næseblod til kramper', [1] og giftige kemikalier lækket fra stedet og ned i jorden. Borgere indgav klager over ildelugt flere gange, hvor kulten hævdede, at den amerikanske hær havde angrebet komplekset med giftgas. En ulykke på fabrikken i november 1994 ville i sidste ende tvinge til at suspendere produktionen af ​​kemiske midler. [ citat nødvendig ]

I december havde Tsuchiya samlet samlet omkring 3 kilo sarin-heraf blev der foretaget to separate attentatforsøg på Daisaku Ikeda, leder af Soka Gakkai (en rivaliserende japansk religiøs bevægelse), i midten af ​​1994. Det første angreb involverede en lastbil med et sprøjtesystem, som tidligere brugt - sprøjtesystemet fungerede forkert, sprøjtede sarin i selve lastbilen og forgiftede operatørerne let. Det andet angreb benyttede en lastbil, der var modificeret til at omfatte et fordampningssystem baseret på opvarmning af sarin over en gaskomfur, på trods af forudgående advarsler fra kultmedlem Kazuyoshi Takizawa, lastbilen brød i brand under formidlingen og forgiftede føreren Tomomitsu Niimi kraftigt og forårsagede både Niimi og Murai - operatørerne - at flygte. Niimi modtog en injektion af atropin og pralidoximjod, hvilket reddede hans liv. [ citat nødvendig ]

På trods af angrebets fiasko var medlemmerne af Aum overbevist om sarins effektivitet, hvilket fik Asahara til at udnævne Takizawa som ansvarlig for driften af ​​Satyan-7 Tsuchiya blev tildelt flere andre projekter og ville fortsætte med at fremstille flere psykoaktiver-LSD, PCP, methamphetamin, mescalin og phenobarbital, der skal bruges i kultaktiviteterne og hjernevask, ville han også fremstille små mængder phosgen, VX, soman, cyclosarin og krudt. Disse forbindelser ville blive brugt i flere angreb og attentatforsøg:

Bekræftede kemiske angreb udført af Aum Shinrikyo [16]
Dato Agent Beliggenhed Kommentarer
Sent 1993-begyndelsen af ​​1994 Sarin Tokyo To mislykkede forsøg på at myrde Daisaku Ikeda, leder af Soka Gakkai.
9. maj 1994 Sarin Tokyo Forsøgte attentat mod Taro Takimoto, en advokat, der arbejder på vegne af ofre for gruppen - Takimoto blev indlagt på hospitalet, men blev fuldstændig rask.
27. juni 1994 Sarin Matsumoto Matsumoto sarin angreb
20. september 1994 Fosgen Yokohama Forsøgte mord på Shoko Egawa, en journalist, der havde dækket Tsutsumi Sakamotos forsvinden i 1989.
Sent 1994 VX Forskellige VX blev brugt til at myrde op til 20 dissidente Aum -medlemmer. [ citat nødvendig ]
12. december 1994 VX Osaka Aum -medlemmer sprøjtede ud som joggere og sprøjtede Tadahito Hamaguchi, en mand, som kulten mente spionerede på dem, med VX fra en sprøjte. Han blev erklæret død fire dage senere.
4. januar 1995 VX Tokyo Forsøgte mord på Hiroyuki Nagaoka, leder af 'Aum Shinrikyo Victim's Group' - Nagaoka var indlagt på hospital i flere uger.
Februar 1995 VX Tokyo Forsøgte mord på Ryuho Okawa, leder af Institute for Research in Human Happiness, der havde kritiseret gruppen - Okawa havde ingen dårlige virkninger.
20. marts 1995 Sarin Tokyo Tokyo subway sarin angreb
5. maj 1995 Hydrogencyanid Tokyo To vinylposer - den ene indeholdende svovlsyre og den anden indeholdende natriumcyanid - blev fundet i brand på toilettet i en metrostation. Fire skader.

Matsumoto sarin angreb Rediger

I juni 1994 beordrede Asahara kulten til at myrde dommerne, der var involveret i at afgøre en kommerciel jordstrid, der involverede kulten, på grund af hans tro på, at de ikke ville afgive en gunstig dom. Cirka en uge senere, den 27. juni, blev 30 liter (7,9 US gal) sarin læsset på en lastbil udstyret med en ventilator, varmelegeme og pumpe-seks medlemmer, der forud administreres med sarin modgift og iført improviserede gasmasker, startede formering af sarin omkring kl. 10:40, sprøjtning i omkring 10–20 minutter. [ citat nødvendig ]

På grund af at det var en varm aften, havde mange beboere ladet deres vinduer stå åbne, mens de sov - det første nødopkald blev foretaget kl. 23:09. Inden for en time var der blevet erklæret en massekatastrofe forårsaget af en ukendt giftig gas. 58 mennesker blev indlagt på hospitalet, hvoraf syv mennesker døde umiddelbart efter og en ottende 14 år senere, og yderligere 253 mennesker søgte lægehjælp på ambulatorier. [ citat nødvendig ] [2]

Undersøgelser efter Matsumoto -angrebet var generelt ufuldstændige, idet den primære mistænkte var Yoshiyuki Kōno, hvis kone var blevet efterladt i koma af angrebet. Skylden ville ikke klart blive tilskrevet Aum Shinrikyo før efter metroangrebet, på trods af tipoffs - i september 1994 blev der sendt to anonyme breve til store medier i Japan - den første hævdede, at gruppen var ansvarlig for angrebet, og den anden hævdede at Matsumoto var et slags "eksperiment" i det fri og bemærkede, at resultaterne ville have været meget værre, hvis sarin var blevet frigivet indendørs, f.eks. i "en overfyldt metro". [1]

Efter en ulykke ved Satyan-7 den næste måned (og klager fra de omkringliggende samfund) afslørede en politiundersøgelse methylphosphonsyre og isopropylmethylphosphonsyre-førstnævnte er et nedbrydningsprodukt af sarin, og sidstnævnte er en endelig signatur af både sarinproduktion og fejl i produktionen. Der var imidlertid ingen lov på det tidspunkt, der forbød produktionen af ​​nervemidlerne. Dette bevis blev efterladt, men blev lækket til Yomiuri Shimbun i januar 1995, og advarede Asahara og kulten, og fik Nakagawa og Endo til at begynde processen med at ødelægge og/eller skjule alle nerveagenter og biologiske våben, der varede indtil slutningen af ​​februar. [ citat nødvendig ]

Forberedelse til angrebet Rediger

Fingeraftryksbevis for et Aum-medlem, der er knyttet til en tidligere kidnapning, ud over de sarin-kontaminerede jordprøver, fik politiet til at fastsætte en raiddato den 22. marts. Asahara blev gjort opmærksom på det forestående raid af to kultmedlemmer inde i selvforsvarsstyrkerne og beordrede et angreb på Tokyo-metrolinjer tæt på Metropolitan Police Department om morgenen den 20. marts-muligvis som et desperat angreb for at starte apokalypsen . [23]

For at hjælpe med dette blev Tsuchiya beordret af Endo til at producere sarin igen den 18. marts - på grund af mangel på normale forstadier som følge af den kemiske ødelæggelsesproces var den producerede sarin af en lavere kvalitet og fik den normalt farveløse sarin til at dukke op Brun. 30 kg (66 lb) af kemikaliet blev fremstillet og opbevaret i en stor beholder, hvorfra det blev dekanteret i plastposer. Senere fandt retsmedicinsk analyse, at den sarin, der blev brugt i angrebet, var omtrent halvt så ren som den, der blev brugt i Matsumoto -angrebet.

Mandag den 20. marts 1995 iværksatte fem medlemmer af Aum Shinrikyo et kemisk angreb på Tokyo-metroen (på linjer, der er en del af den nuværende Tokyo Metro), et af verdens travleste pendeltransportsystemer, på morgenens højdepunkt myldretid. Det anvendte kemiske middel, flydende sarin, var indeholdt i plastposer, som hvert hold derefter pakkede ind i avis. Hver gerningsmand havde to pakker på i alt cirka 0,9 liter sarin, undtagen Yasuo Hayashi, der havde tre poser på i alt cirka 1,3 liter sarin. Aum planlagde oprindeligt at sprede sarinen som en aerosol, men fulgte ikke med den. Sarin har en LD50 på 550 mikrogram pr. kilogram (0,0039 gr/lb), svarende til 38,5 milligram (0,594 gr) for et menneske på 70 kilo (150 lb), men spredningsproblemer reducerede dets effektivitet dramatisk.

Med sine pakker sarin og paraplyer med skærpede spidser satte gerningsmændene sig på deres udpegede tog. På forudindrettede stationer blev sarinpakkerne droppet og punkteret flere gange med paraplyens skærpede spids. Hver gerningsmand steg derefter af toget og forlod stationen for at møde sin medskyldige med en bil. [24] At lade de punkterede pakker stå på gulvet tillod sarinen at lække ud i togvognen og stationer. Denne sarin påvirkede passagerer, metroarbejdere og dem, der kom i kontakt med dem. Sarin er den mest flygtige af nerverne [25], hvilket betyder, at den hurtigt og let kan fordampe fra en væske til en damp og spredes til miljøet. Folk kan blive udsat for dampen, selvom de ikke kommer i kontakt med den flydende form af sarin. Fordi det fordamper så hurtigt, udgør sarin en umiddelbar, men kortvarig trussel. [26]

Chiyoda Line Edit

Teamet af Ikuo Hayashi og Tomomitsu Niimi fik til opgave at droppe og punktere to sarinpakker på Chiyoda -linjen. Hayashi var gerningsmanden, og Niimi var hans flugtchauffør. På vej til Sendagi Station købte Niimi aviser til at pakke sarinpakkerne i - Japans kommunistpartis Akahata og Sōka Gakkai's Seikyo Shimbun. [ citat nødvendig ]

Hayashi valgte til sidst at bruge Akahata. Iført en kirurgisk maske, der almindeligvis blev brugt af japanerne i kulde- og influenzasæsonen, gik Hayashi ombord på den første bil i sydvest-bundet 07:48 Chiyoda Line-tognummer A725K. Da toget nærmede sig Shin-Ochanomizu Station, det centrale forretningskvarter i Chiyoda, punkterede han den ene af sine to poser sarin, efterlod den anden uberørt og forlod toget ved Shin-Ochanomizu. [ citat nødvendig ]

Toget fortsatte ned ad linjen med den punkterede pose sarin utæt indtil 4 stop senere ved Kasumigaseki Station. Der blev poserne fjernet og til sidst bortskaffet af stationsbetjente, hvoraf to døde. Toget fortsatte videre til den næste station, hvor det blev helt stoppet, evakueret og rengjort. [ citat nødvendig ]

Marunouchi Line Edit

Ogikubo-bound Rediger

To mænd, Ken'ichi Hirose og Koichi Kitamura, fik til opgave at frigive to sarinpakker på den vestgående Marunouchi -linje bestemt til Ogikubo Station. Parret forlod Aums hovedkvarter i Shibuya klokken 06.00 og kørte til Yotsuya Station. Der steg Hirose ombord på et vestgående Marunouchi Line -tog og skiftede derefter til et nordgående JR East Saikyō Line -tog på Shinjuku Station og stod af ved Ikebukuro Station. Derefter købte han en sportstabloid til at pakke sarinpakkerne ind og satte sig i den anden bil i Marunouchi Line -tog A777.

Da han var ved at frigive sarinen, mente Hirose, at de høje lyde forårsaget af avisindpakkede pakker havde fanget en skolepiges opmærksomhed. For at undgå yderligere mistanke steg han af toget på enten Myogadani eller Korakuen Station og flyttede til den tredje bil i stedet for den anden.

Da toget nærmede sig Ochanomizu Station, faldt Hirose aviserne på gulvet, gentog et Aum -mantra og punkterede begge sarinpakker med så meget kraft, at han bøjede spidsen af ​​sin skærpede paraply. Begge pakker blev med succes brudt, og alle 900 milliliter sarin blev frigivet på gulvet i toget. Hirose forlod derefter toget ved Ochanomizu og forlod via Kitamuras bil og ventede uden for stationen. Hiroses klodsede frigivelse af sarinen resulterede i, at han ved et uheld forgiftede sig selv, men han var i stand til at administrere en modgift opbevaret i Kitamuras bil.

På Nakano-sakaue Station, 14 stop senere, blev to alvorligt tilskadekomne passagerer ført ud af togvognen, mens stationsbetjent Sumio Nishimura fjernede sarinpakkerne (en af ​​disse to passagerer var den eneste dødsfald fra dette angreb). Toget fortsatte med sarin stadig på gulvet i den tredje bil. Fem stop senere, kl. 8:38, nåede toget Ogikubo Station, enden af ​​Marunouchi -linjen, alt imens passagererne fortsatte med at stige ombord på toget. Toget fortsatte østpå, indtil det endelig blev taget ud af drift på Shin-Kōenji Station to stop senere. Hele prøven resulterede i en passagers død, hvor 358 blev alvorligt såret.

Ikebukuro-bound Rediger

Masato Yokoyama og hans chauffør Kiyotaka Tonozaki fik til opgave at frigive sarin på den Ikebukuro-bundne Marunouchi-linje. På vej til Shinjuku Station stoppede Tonozaki for at give Yokoyama mulighed for at købe en kopi af Nihon Keizai Shimbun, to wrap the two sarin packets. When they arrived at the station, Yokoyama put on a wig and fake glasses and boarded the fifth car of the Ikebukuro-bound 07:39 Marunouchi Line train number B801. As the train approached Yotsuya Station, Yokoyama began poking at the sarin packets. When the train reached the next station, he fled the scene with Tonozaki, leaving the sarin packets on the train car. The packets were not fully punctured. During his drop, Yokoyama left one packet fully intact, while the other packet was only punctured once (and with a small hole), resulting in the sarin being released relatively slowly.

The train reached the end of the line, Ikebukuro, at 8:30 am where it would head back in the opposite direction. Before it departed the train was evacuated and searched, but the searchers failed to discover the sarin packets. The train departed Ikebukuro Station at 8:32 am as the Shinjuku-bound A801. Passengers soon became ill and alerted station attendants of the sarin-soaked newspapers at Kōrakuen Station. One station later, at Hongō-sanchōme, staff removed the sarin packets and mopped the floor, but the train continued on to Shinjuku. After arriving at 9:09 am, the train once again began to make its way back to Ikebukuro as the B901. The train was finally put out of service at Kokkai-gijidō-mae Station in Chiyoda at 9:27 am, one hour and forty minutes after Yokoyama punctured the sarin packet. The attack resulted in no fatalities, but over 200 people were left in serious condition.

Hibiya Line Edit

Tōbu Dōbutsu Kōen-bound Edit

Toru Toyoda and his driver Katsuya Takahashi were assigned to release sarin on the northeast-bound Hibiya Line.

The pair, with Takahashi driving, left Aum headquarters in Shibuya at 6:30 am. After purchasing a copy of Hochi Shimbun and wrapping his two sarin packets, Toyoda arrived at Naka-Meguro Station where he boarded the first car of northeast-bound 07:59 Hibiya Line train number B711T. Sitting close to the door, he set the sarin packets on the floor. When the train arrived at the next station, Ebisu, Toyoda punctured both packets and got off the train. He was on the train for a total of two minutes, by far the quickest sarin drop out of the five attacks that day.

Two stops later, at Roppongi Station, passengers in the train's first car began to feel the effects of the sarin and began to open the windows. By Kamiyacho Station, the next stop, the passengers in the car had begun panicking. The first car was evacuated and several passengers were immediately taken to a hospital. Still, with the first car empty, the train continued down the line for one more stop until it was completely evacuated at Kasumigaseki Station. This attack killed one person and seriously injured 532 others.

Naka-Meguro-bound Edit

Yasuo Hayashi and Shigeo Sugimoto were the team assigned to drop sarin on the southwest-bound Hibiya Line departing Kita-Senju Station for Naka-Meguro Station. Unlike the rest of the attackers, Hayashi carried three sarin packets onto the train instead of two. Prior to the attack, Hayashi asked to carry a flawed leftover packet in addition to the two others in an apparent bid to allay suspicions and prove his loyalty to the group.

After Sugimoto escorted him to Ueno Station, Hayashi boarded the third car of southwest-bound 07:43 Hibiya Line train number A720S and dropped his sarin packets to the floor. Two stops later, at Akihabara Station, he punctured two of the three packets, left the train, and arrived back at Aum headquarters with Sugimoto by 8:30 am. Hayashi made the most punctures of any of the perpetrators. By the next stop, passengers in the third car began to feel the effects of the sarin. Noticing the large, liquid-soaked package on the floor and assuming it was the culprit, one passenger kicked the sarin packets out of the train and onto Kodenmachō Station's subway platform. Four people in the station died as a result.

A puddle of sarin remained on the floor of the passenger car as the train continued to the next station. At 8:10 am, after the train pulled out of Hatchōbori Station, a passenger in the third car pressed the emergency stop button. The train was in a tunnel at the time, and was forced to proceed to Tsukiji Station, where passengers stumbled out and collapsed on the station's platform and the train was taken out of service.

The attack was originally believed to be an explosion and was thus labeled as such in media reports. Eventually, station attendants realized that the attack was not an explosion, but rather a chemical attack. At 8:35 am, the Hibiya Line was completely shut down and all commuters were evacuated. Between the five stations affected in this attack, 10 people died and 275 were seriously injured.

Ten men were responsible for carrying out the attacks: five released the sarin, while the other five served as getaway drivers.

Metro line Tog Perpetrator Getaway driver
Chiyoda A725K Ikuo Hayashi ( 林 郁夫 , Hayashi Ikuo) Tomomitsu Niimi ( 新実 智光 , Niimi Tomomitsu)
Marunouchi A777 Kenichi Hirose ( 広瀬 健一 , Hirose Ken'ichi ) Kōichi Kitamura ( 北村 浩一 , Kitamura Kōichi )
B801 Toru Toyoda ( 豊田 亨 , Toyoda Tōru) Katsuya Takahashi ( 高橋 克也 , Takahashi Katsuya)
Hibiya B711T Masato Yokoyama ( 横山 真人 , Yokoyama Masato) Kiyotaka Tonozaki ( 外崎 清隆 , Tonozaki Kiyotaka)
A720S Yasuo Hayashi ( 林 泰男 , Hayashi Yasuo) Shigeo Sugimoto ( 杉本 繁郎 , Sugimoto Shigeo)

Naoko Kikuchi, who was involved in producing the sarin gas, was arrested after a tipoff in June 2012. [27]

Kikuchi was acquitted in 2015 on the grounds that she was unaware of the plot. [28]

Katsuya Takahashi was arrested soon afterward. [29] He was later convicted and given a life sentence.

Ikuo Hayashi Edit

Prior to joining Aum, Hayashi was a senior medical doctor with "an active 'front-line' track record" at the Ministry of Science and Technology. The son of a doctor, Hayashi graduated from Keio University. He was a heart and artery specialist at Keio Hospital, which he left to become head of Circulatory Medicine at the National Sanatorium Hospital in Tokai, Ibaraki (north of Tokyo).

In 1990, he resigned his job and left his family to join Aum in the monastic order Sangha, where he became one of Asahara's favorites and was appointed the group's Minister of Healing, as which he was responsible for administering a variety of "treatments" to Aum members, including sodium pentothal and electric shocks to those whose loyalty was suspect. These treatments resulted in several deaths.

Hayashi later reported to the Japanese police investigators about the sarin attacks and Aum activities post-Tokyo subway attack his cooperation with the authorities resulted in numerous arrests and convictions, and he was given a life sentence instead of death penalty. [30] Tomomitsu Niimi, who was his getaway driver, was sentenced to death by hanging due to his involvement in other crimes perpetrated by Aum members. He was executed by hanging at Osaka Detention Center on 6 July 2018 [31] with six others of those principally involved.

Kenichi Hirose Edit

Hirose was thirty years old at the time of the attacks. Holder of a postgraduate degree in physics from Waseda University, [32] Hirose became an important member of the group's Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology. He was also involved in the group's Automatic Light Weapon Development scheme.

Hirose teamed up with getaway driver Kōichi Kitamura. After releasing the sarin, Hirose himself showed symptoms of sarin poisoning. He was able to inject himself with the antidote (atropine sulphate) and was rushed to the Aum-affiliated Shinrikyo Hospital in Nakano for treatment. Medical personnel at the given hospital had not been given prior notice of the attack and were consequently clueless regarding what treatment Hirose needed. When Kitamura realized that he had driven Hirose to the hospital in vain, he instead drove to Aum's headquarters in Shibuya where Ikuo Hayashi gave Hirose first aid.

Hirose was later sentenced to death by hanging for his role in the attack. His appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on 28 July 2003 and the sentence was upheld by the Supreme Court of Japan on 6 November 2009. [33] Hirose was executed by hanging at Tokyo Detention Center on 26 July 2018, along with five other cult members. [34]

Kitamura, Hirose's getaway driver, was sentenced to life imprisonment. [ citat nødvendig ]

Toru Toyoda Edit

Toyoda was twenty-seven at the time of the attack. He studied Applied Physics at University of Tokyo's Science Department and graduated with honors. He also held a master's degree, [32] and was about to begin doctoral studies when he joined Aum, where he belonged to the Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology.

Toyoda was sentenced to death. The appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on July 28, 2003, and was upheld by the Supreme Court on November 6, 2009. [33] Toyoda was executed by hanging at Tokyo Detention Center on 26 July 2018. [34]

Katsuya Takahashi was Toru Toyoda's getaway driver. Takahashi was arrested in June 2012. [35] In 2015, Takahashi was convicted for his role in the attack and was sentenced to life in prison. [36] His appeal was rejected by the Tokyo High Court in September 2016.

Masato Yokoyama Edit

Yokoyama was thirty-one at the time of the attack. He was a graduate in Applied Physics from Tokai University's Engineering Department. He worked for an electronics firm in Gunma Prefecture [32] for three years after graduation before leaving to join Aum, where he became Undersecretary at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He was also involved in their Automatic Light Weapons Manufacturing scheme. Yokoyama was sentenced to death in 1999. [32] His appeals were rejected, and he was executed by hanging at Nagoya Detention Center on 26 July 2018. [34]

Kiyotaka Tonozaki, a high school graduate who joined the group in 1987, was a member of the group's Ministry of Construction, and served as Yokoyama's getaway driver. Tonozaki was sentenced to life imprisonment. [ citat nødvendig ]

Yasuo Hayashi Edit

Yasuo Hayashi was thirty-seven years old at the time of the attacks, and was the oldest person at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He studied Artificial Intelligence at Kogakuin University after graduation he traveled to India where he studied yoga. He then became an Aum member, taking vows in 1988 and rising to the number three position in the group's Ministry of Science and Technology.

Asahara had at one time suspected Hayashi of being a spy. The extra packet of sarin he carried was part of "ritual character test" set up by Asahara to prove his allegiance, according to the prosecution. Hayashi went on the run after the attacks he was arrested twenty-one months later, one thousand miles from Tokyo on Ishigaki Island. [32] He was later sentenced to death. His appeal was rejected by the Tokyo High Court in 2008. Hayashi was executed by hanging at Sendai Detention Center on 26 July 2018. [34]

Hayashi's getaway driver was Shigeo Sugimoto, whose lawyers argued he played only a minor role in the attack, but the argument was rejected and he was sentenced to life in prison. [ citat nødvendig ]

Kōichi Kitamura Edit

Kōichi Kitamura ( 北村浩一 , Kitamura Kōichi, born February 16, 1968) is a Japanese convicted domestic terrorist and member of the doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo. In 1995, he served as getaway driver for one of the perpetrators of the Tokyo subway sarin attack, Kenichi Hirose. He was 27 years old when the attack was committed. [37] He is currently serving a life sentence for the attack and other offenses. [38] [39]

Crimes and conviction Edit

Kitamura is a native of Aichi Prefecture and joined Aum Shinrikyo in the late 1980s after reading a book written by leader Shoko Asahara. [40]

During the Tokyo subway sarin attack he drove Kenichi Hirose to the Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line where Hirose boarded a train and punctured two bags of liquid sarin, causing the death of one person. The attack would kill 13 people and injure more than 5,300. [38] Kitamura also aided cult fugitive Takeshi Matsumoto in hiding from justice between the months of March and April 1995 for the crime of kidnapping. [38] [39]

He remained as a fugitive until November 1996 when he was finally arrested in Tokorozawa, Saitama. [38] In his first trial in May 1997 he admitted to the crimes and reportedly renounced to the cult although he maintained the belief that Asahara had superpowers and his lawyer said that he still was under the spell of the cult. [38]

He was sentenced to life imprisonment in November 1999, with the presiding judge chastising him for playing an "indispensable role" in the attack. The judge also highlighted his self-righteous motive for his crimes and pronounced the sentencing saying that:

Though the defendant knew the deadliness of the nerve gas, he took part without hesitation, believing the attack was an "act of salvation" [38]

After the verdict was read, his lawyer said that Kitamura was still under Asahara's spell which made him a victim of the cult as well. He also said that the court had dismissed this point adding that he would discuss with him whether to appeal to the higher courts. [38]

In January 2002, the Tokyo High Court upheld his sentence, which he called "too harsh" given his role in the attack. The court refuted his argument and highlighted his lack of remorse as motive for upholding the sentence. [39] [40]

Following the attack, Japanese police raided Aum Shinrikyo facilities and arrested members. The cult's headquarters in Tokyo was raided by police on May 16, 1995. Due to fears that armed cult members might resist the raid, the 1st Airborne Brigade of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force was stationed nearby to provide support if needed. [41] [42]

Injuries and deaths Edit

On the day of the attack, ambulances transported 688 patients and nearly five thousand people reached hospitals by other means. In total, 278 hospitals saw 5,510 patients – 17 of whom were deemed critical, 37 severe, and 984 moderately ill with vision problems. Most of those reporting to hospitals were the "worried well", who had to be distinguished from those who were ill. The categorization was that a moderate casualty just had miosis (excessive constriction of the pupil), a severe casualty was short of breath or had muscular twitching or gastrointestinal problems as well as miosis, and a severe or critical casualty required intensive care unit care. [1] [43] Witnesses have said that subway entrances resembled battlefields. Several of those affected by sarin went to work in spite of their symptoms, [24] not realizing that they had been exposed to sarin. Most of the victims sought medical treatment as the symptoms worsened and as they learned of the actual circumstances of the attacks via news broadcasts.

By mid-afternoon, the mildly affected victims had recovered from vision problems and were released from hospital. Most of the remaining patients were well enough to go home the following day, and within a week only a few critical patients remained in hospital. The death toll on the day of the attack was eight, with four more dying subsequently. [1]

Several of those affected were exposed to sarin only by helping those who had been directly exposed. Among these were passengers on other trains, subway workers and health care workers.

A 2008 law enacted by the Japanese government authorized payments of damages to victims of the gas attack, because the attack was directed at the government of Japan. As of December 2009, 5,259 people have applied for benefits under the law. Of those, 47 out of 70 have been certified as disabled and 1,077 of 1,163 applications for serious injuries or illnesses have been certified. [44]

Surveys of the victims in 1998 and 2001 showed that many were still suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. In one survey, twenty percent of 837 respondents complained that they felt insecure when on a train, while ten percent answered that they tried to avoid any nerve-attack related news. Over sixty percent reported chronic eyestrain and said their vision had worsened. [45]

Until 2008, 12 fatalities resulting from the attack had been officially acknowledged. However, in 2008 a survey of victims was conducted by the prefectural police department for the purpose of allocating compensation. This survey determined that a man who had died the day after the attack had also been killed by sarin inhalation, thereby increasing the officially recognised death toll to 13. [3] On 10 March 2020, a further victim died, who had been bedridden for the 25 years since the attack. 56-year-old Sachiko Asakawa's cause of death was determined to be hypoxic encephalopathy caused by sarin poisoning, making her the attack's 14th fatality. [4]

Beredskabstjenester Rediger

Emergency services, including police, fire and ambulance services, were criticised for their handling of the attack and the injured, as were the media (some of whom, though present at subway entrances and filming the injured, hesitated when asked to transport victims to the hospital) and the Subway Authority, which failed to halt several of the trains despite reports of passenger injury. Health services including hospitals and health staff were also criticised: one hospital refused to admit a victim for almost an hour, and many hospitals turned victims away.

[46] Sarin poisoning was not well understood at the time, and many hospitals received information on diagnosis and treatment only because a professor at Shinshu University's school of medicine happened to see reports on television. Dr. Nobuo Yanagisawa had experience with treating sarin poisoning after the Matsumoto incident he recognized the symptoms, had information on diagnosis and treatment collected, and led a team who sent the information to hospitals throughout Tokyo via fax.

St. Luke's International Hospital in Tsukiji was one of very few hospitals in Tokyo at that time to have the entire building wired and piped for conversion into a "field hospital" in the event of a major disaster. This proved to be a very fortunate coincidence as the hospital was able to take in most of the 600+ victims at Tsukiji Station, resulting in no fatalities at that station.

As there was a severe shortage of antidotes in Tokyo, sarin antidote stored in rural hospitals as an antidote for herbicide/insecticide poisoning was delivered to nearby Shinkansen stations, where it was collected by a Ministry of Health official on a train bound for Tokyo.

Defense offered by Japanese and American scholars Edit

Aum had carefully cultivated the friendship of Japanese scholars of religion. After the sarin gas attack, some of them, including Shimada Hiromi, a professor at Tokyo's Japan Women's University, suggested Aum may be innocent. Shimada later apologized, claiming he had been deceived by Aum, but his and others' statements damaged the public image of scholars of religion in general in Japan. Shimada later had to resign from his academic position. [47]

In May 1995, Aum contacted an American group known as AWARE (Association of World Academics for Religious Education), founded by American scholar James R. Lewis, claiming that the human rights of its members were being violated. [47] Lewis recruited human rights lawyer Barry Fisher, scholar of religion J. Gordon Melton, and chemical expert Thomas Banigan. They flew to Japan, with their travel expenses paid by Aum, and announced that they will investigate and report through press conferences at the end of their trip. [48]

In the press conferences, Fisher and Lewis announced that Aum could not have produced the sarin with which the attacks had been committed. They had determined this, Lewis said, with their technical expert, based on photos and documents provided by the group. [49]

In fact, the Japanese police had already discovered at Aum's main compound back in March a sophisticated chemical weapons laboratory that was capable of producing thousands of kilograms a year of the poison. [45] Later investigation showed that Aum not only created the sarin used in the subway attacks, but had committed previous chemical and biological weapons attacks, including a previous attack with sarin that killed eight people and injured 144. [50] [51]

British scholar of Japanese religions Ian Reader, in a detailed account of the incident, reported that Melton "had few doubts by the end of his visit to Japan of Aum’s complicity" and eventually "concluded that Aum had in fact been involved in the attack and other crimes" [47] In fact, the Washington Post account of the final press conference mentioned Lewis and Fisher but not Melton. [49] A Christian anti-cult Web site called Apologetic Index quoted the Washington Post article and implied that Melton had spoken in the press conference. [52] Melton was, however, not mentioned in the original Washington Post article. [49]

Lewis, on the other hand, maintained his opinion that Aum had been framed, and wrote that having the trip funded by Aum had been arranged "so that financial considerations would not be attached to our final report". [53]

Reader concluded that, "The visit was well-intentioned, and the participants were genuinely concerned about possible violations of civil rights in the wake of the extensive police investigations and detentions of followers." However, it was ill-fated and detrimental to the reputation of those involved. While distinguishing between Lewis' and Melton's attitudes, Reader observed that Melton was criticized as well by both Japanese media and some fellow scholars. [47] Using stronger words, Canadian scholar Stephen A. Kent chastised both Lewis and Melton for having put the reputation of the whole category of scholars of new religious movements at risk. [54]

Murakami book Edit

Popular contemporary novelist Haruki Murakami wrote Underground: The Tokyo Gas Attack and the Japanese Psyche (1997). He was critical of the Japanese media for focusing on the sensational profiles of the attackers and ignoring the lives of the victimized average citizens. The book contains extensive interviews with the survivors in order to tell their stories. Murakami later added a second part to the work, The Place That Was Promised, which focuses on Aum Shinrikyo. [ citat nødvendig ]

Aum/Aleph today Edit

The sarin attack was the most serious attack upon Japan since World War II. Shortly after the attack, Aum lost its status as a religious organization, and many of its assets were seized. [55] The Diet (Japanese parliament) rejected a request from government officials to outlaw the group. The National Public Safety Commission received increased funding to monitor the group. In 1999, the Diet gave the commission board powers to monitor and curtail the activities of groups that have been involved in "indiscriminate mass murder" and whose leaders are "holding strong sway over their members", a bill custom-tailored to Aum Shinrikyo.

Asahara was sentenced to death by hanging on 27 February 2004, but lawyers immediately appealed the ruling. The Tokyo High Court postponed its decision on the appeal until results were obtained from a court-ordered psychiatric evaluation, which was issued to determine whether Asahara was fit to stand trial. In February 2006, the court ruled that Asahara was indeed fit to stand trial, and on 27 March 2006, rejected the appeal against his death sentence. Japan's Supreme Court upheld this decision on 15 September 2006. Two re-trial appeals were declined by the appellate court. In June 2012, Asahara's execution was postponed due to the further arrests of the two remaining Aum Shinrikyo members wanted in connection with the attack. Japan does not announce dates of executions, which are by hanging, in advance of them being carried out. On 6 July 2018, the Ministry of Justice announced that Asahara had been executed that morning [56] [57] with six others of those principally involved.

On 27 November 2004, all the Aum trials concluded, excluding Asahara's, as the death sentence of Seiichi Endo was upheld by Japan's Supreme Court. As a result, among a total of 189 members indicted, 13 were sentenced to death, five were sentenced to life in prison, 80 were given prison sentences of various lengths, 87 received suspended sentences, two were fined, and one was found not guilty. [58] [59]

In May and June 2012, the last two of the fugitives wanted in connection with the attack were arrested in the Tokyo and Kanagawa area. [60] Of them, Katsuya Takahashi was taken into custody by police near a comic book cafe in Tokyo. [61]

Asahara and twelve other Aum cultists were finally executed by hanging in July, 2018, after all appeals were exhausted.

The group reportedly still has about 2,100 members, and continues to recruit new members under the name "Aleph" as well as other names. Though the group has renounced its violent past, it still continues to follow Asahara's spiritual teachings. Members operate several businesses, though boycotts of known Aleph-related businesses, in addition to searches, confiscations of possible evidence and picketing by protest groups, have resulted in closures. [62]


The Crazy True Story Of The Tokyo Subway Sarin-Gas Attack

Feb 22, 2021 · The 1995 sarin gas attacks in Tokyo were one of the first attacks perpetrated on a public transit system. Targeting one of the busiest transit systems in the world, it was only due to the incompetence of the Aum Shinrikyo cult members who carried it out that the attack wasn't any more horrific than it was.

2 .The Crazy True Story Of The Tokyo Subway Sarin-Gas Attack

Mar 18, 2021 · Several packages of deadly sarin gas are set off in the Tokyo subway system killing twelve people and injuring over 5,000 on March 20, 1995. Sarin gas …

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Kōichi Kitamura (北村浩一, Kitamura Kōichi, born February 16, 1968) is a Japanese convicted domestic terrorist and member of the doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo. In 1995, he served as getaway driver for one of the perpetrators of the Tokyo subway sarin attack, Kenichi Hirose. He was 27 years old when the attack was committed.

4 .The Crazy True Story Of The Tokyo Subway Sarin-Gas Attack

The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the second documented incident of nerve gas poisoning in Japan. The authors report how St. Luke's Hospital dealt with this disaster from the viewpoint of disaster management. Recommendations derived from the experience include the following: Each hospital in Japan …

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The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the Subway Sarin Incident (地下鉄サリン事件 Chikatetsu Sarin Jiken?), was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of Aum Shinrikyo on March 20, 1995.

6 .The Crazy True Story Of The Tokyo Subway Sarin-Gas Attack

Case Study: Sarin poisoning of Subway Passengers in Tokyo, Japan, in March, 1995 On March 20, 1995, the Aum Shrin Kyo began a new phase in terrorism by releasing the highly toxic chemical agent, sarin , on the Tokyo subway system during the morning rush hour.

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HE TOKYO subway sarin attack was the sec- ond documented incident of nerve gas poison- ing in Japan. The first mass public exposure to sarin (methyl phosphonofluoridic acid l-methyl- ethyl ester) gas occurred in the city of Matsumoto in June 1994.’ From a worldwide historical per- spective, the Tokyo subway sarin attack represents

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6 Panic Sets In

Within minutes of the packages being punctured, it was clear that something was horribly wrong. On the Hibiya Line train poisoned by Yasuo Hayashi, passengers were beginning to cough uncontrollably.

By 8:02 AM, some were on the floor vomiting. Others were clutching their eyes in agony. As the train pulled into Kodemmacho Station, a passenger kicked the sarin-filled bags out onto the platform. It was at this point that things got really bad.

Three lines were now clearly affected, yet no one had any idea what was going on. A rumor swept through the system that there had been an explosion at Tsukiji in the government district&mdashpossibly a terrorist bombing.

The line operators pulled several trains from service. Unfortunately, some of those stopped at platforms were the trains awash with sarin. They opened their doors, disgorging toxic fumes into the faces of commuters. For those trains that were kept in place, the passengers were trapped inside with the killer gas.

Kazuyuki Takahashi was one of the unlucky ones caught in the panic. He boarded the Hibiya Line train at Hatchobori to find his fellow passengers collapsed on the floor, spasms racking their bodies.

The door closed, and he had to ride the stricken carriage all the way to the next stop. By the time he escaped onto Tsukiji platform, he was dying of sarin poisoning.

At Kasumigaseki, three subway employees&mdashToshiaki Toyoda, Kazumasa Takahashi, and Tsuneo Hishinuma&mdashwere dispatched to remove suspicious plastic packages from a train. They carried out their work without protective equipment, simply wrapping the sarin-drenched plastic in newspaper.

Within minutes, Toyoda was feeling deathly ill. He later reported that he turned around just in time to see Takahashi and Hishinuma collapse, blood foaming from their mouths. Aum&rsquos deadly attack had just claimed its first two victims.


Tokyo Subway Attack

In March 1995, police were about to close in on Asahara and his followers for their role in the murder of Kiyoshi Kariya, the brother of a cult member who had escaped. Asahara was tipped off about the police investigation and decided it was time for a distraction. On March 20, 1995, members of Aum Shinrikyo working under Asahara's orders released a chemical nerve agent into the Tokyo subway system.

The attackers brought liquid sarin, carried in plastic bags and wrapped in newspaper, onto five separate subway trains during peak rush hour. Each individual who carried a packet of sarin also carried an umbrella with a sharpened tip. Once the trains arrived at pre-determined stations, they punctured the bags of sarin with the umbrella tip, then departed from the subway, leaving the sarin to leak out into the train cars.

Several of the trains continued on for multiple stops before anyone realized what was happening. By the time the attack had ended, Tokyo's subway line looked like a war zone. Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times skrev:

A single drop of sarin is enough to kill an adult. The attack left thirteen people dead and thousands injured from the effects of the nerve gas. Two decades later, many of the survivors say they still have vision problems as a result of the sarin exposure.


Main perpetrators

Ten men were responsible for carrying out the attacks five released the sarin, while the other five served as get-away drivers.

  • Ikuo Hayashi ( 林 郁夫 , Hayashi Ikuo? ) and Tomomitsu Niimi ( 新見 智光 , Niimi Tomomitsu? )
  • Kenichi Hirose ( 広瀬 健一 , Hirose Ken'ichi? ) and Koichi Kitamura ( 北村 浩一 , Kitamura Kōichi? )
  • Toru Toyoda ( 豊田 亨 , Toyoda Tōru? ) and Katsuya Takahashi ( 高橋 克也 , Takahashi Katsuya? )
  • Masato Yokoyama ( 横山 真人 , Yokoyama Masato? ) and Kiyotaka Tonozaki ( 外崎 清隆 , Tonozaki Kiyotaka? )
  • Yasuo Hayashi ( 林 泰男 , Hayashi Yasuo? , no relation to Ikuo Hayashi) and Shigeo Sumimoto ( 杉本 繁郎 , Sugimoto Shigeo? )

Ikuo Hayashi

Prior to joining Aum, Hayashi was a senior medical doctor with "an active 'front-line' track record" at the Japanese Ministry of Science and Technology. Himself the son of a doctor, Hayashi graduated from Keio University, one of Tokyo's top schools. He was a heart and artery specialist at Keio Hospital, which he left to become head of Circulatory Medicine at the National Sanatorium Hospital in Tokai, Ibaraki (north of Tokyo). In 1990, he resigned his job and left his family to join Aum in the monastic order Sangha, where he became one of Asahara's favourites and was appointed the group's Minister of Healing, as which he was responsible for administering a variety of "treatments" to Aum members, including sodium pentothal and electric shocks to those whose loyalty was suspect. These treatments resulted in several deaths. Hayashi was later sentenced to life imprisonment.

Tomomitsu Niimi, who was his get-away driver, received the death sentence.

Kenichi Hirose

Hirose was thirty years old at the time of the attacks. Holder of a postgraduate degree in Physics from prestigious Waseda University, Hirose became an important member of the group's Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology. Hirose was also involved in the group's Automatic Light Weapon Development scheme.

Hirose teamed up with Koichi Kitamura, who was his get-away driver. After releasing the sarin, Hirose himself showed symptoms of sarin poisoning. He was able to inject himself with the antidote (atropine sulphate) and was rushed to the Aum-affiliated Shinrikyo Hospital in Nakano for treatment. However, medical personnel at the given hospital had not been given prior notice of the attack and were consequently clueless regarding what treatment Hirose needed. When Kitamura faced the fact that he had driven Hirose to the hospital in vain, he instead drove to Aum's headquarter in Shibuya where Ikuo Hayashi gave Hirose first aid.

Hirose's appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on Wednesday, July 28, 2003.

Toru Toyoda

Toyoda was twenty-seven at the time of the attack. He studied applied physics at Tokyo University's Science Department and graduated with honours. He also holds a master's degree, and was about to begin doctoral studies when he joined Aum, where he belonged to the Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology.

Toyoda was sentenced to death. The appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on Wednesday, July 28, 2003, and he remains on death row.

Katsuya Takahashi was his get-away driver.

Masato Yokoyama

Yokoyama was thirty-one at the time of the attack. He was a graduate in applied physics from Tokai University's Engineering Department. He worked for an electronics firm for three years after graduation before leaving to join Aum, where he became Undersecretary at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He was also involved in their Automatic Light Weapons Manufacturing scheme. Yokoyama was sentenced to death in 1999.

Kiyotaka Tonozaki, a high school graduate who joined the group in 1987, was a member of the group's Ministry of Construction, and served as Yokoyama's getaway driver. Tonozaki was sentenced to life in prison.

Yasuo Hayashi

Yasuo Hayashi was thirty-seven years old at the time of the attacks, and was the oldest person at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He studied artificial intelligence at Kogakuin University after graduation he travelled to India where he studied yoga. He then became an Aum member, taking vows in 1988 and rising to the number three position in the group's Ministry of Science and Technology.

Asahara had at one time suspected Hayashi of being a spy. The extra packet of sarin he carried was part of "ritual character test" set up by Asahara to prove his allegiance, according to the prosecution.

Hayashi went on the run after the attacks he was arrested twenty-one months later, one thousand miles from Tokyo on Ishigaki Island. He was later sentenced to death and has appealed.

Shigeo Sugimoto was his get-away driver. His lawyers argued that he played only a minor role in the attack, but the argument was rejected, and he has been sentenced to death.


Victims' kin still grieving 26 years after Tokyo subway sarin attack

Bereaved relatives of victims of the March 1995 sarin nerve gas attack in Tokyo’s subway system expressed their unabated sorrow on Saturday, the 26th anniversary of the killings carried out by by the now-defunct Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult.

A ceremony was held at Tokyo Metro Co.’s Kasumigaseki Station in Chiyoda Ward to remember the indiscriminate attack that claimed 14 lives and injured more than 6,000 people.

Kazumasa Takahashi, 50, deputy head of the station, and Tsuneo Hishinuma, 51, deputy head of the Yoyogi train management facility, died in the attack.

“I feel exactly the same way as I did 26 years ago,” said Shizue Takahashi, the 74-year-old widow of Kazumasa Takahashi. “My sadness will never fade.”

During the morning rush hour on March 20, 1995, members of Aum Shinrikyo released sarin on trains of the Hibiya, Marunouchi and Chiyoda lines of the Teito Rapid Transit Authority, now Tokyo Metro. Kasumigaseki Station serves all three lines.

Around 8 a.m. Saturday, 13 Tokyo Metro employees who work at Kasumigaseki Station offered silent prayers. Yoshiharu Ogawa, a 57-year-old senior official at the station, offered flowers for the victims.

Shizue Takahashi visited the station at 10 a.m. to offer flowers. “I asked my husband to emotionally support me as I’m getting older and losing energy,” she said.

In July 2018, Chizuo Matsumoto, the former leader of Aum Shinrikyo who went by the name Shoko Asahara, and 12 other members of the cult were executed for the subway attack and other crimes committed by the group.

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Kommentarer:

  1. Tojagis

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  2. Mull

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  3. Weyland

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