T-90 Main Battle Tank (Rusland)

T-90 Main Battle Tank (Rusland)


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T-90 Main Battle Tank (Rusland)

T-90 er ikke en ny tank, men en udvikling af T-72-designet og giver kun en lille fordel i forhold til tankene, der kommer i drift i Sovjetunionens sidste år. I begyndelsen af ​​1990'erne, da Sovjetunionen kollapsede, var der stadig to tanke i produktion: T-80U udviklet af Spetsmash Design Bureau i Leningrad og T-72B, som var blevet udviklet af Vagonka Design Bureau på Uralvagon-fabrikken i Nizhni Tagil. T-80U var den mere sofistikerede af de to med et overlegen brandstyringssystem og en gasturbinemotor. Dette afspejlede sig i prisskiltet på de to tanke, idet T-80U tilbydes til eksport for $ 2 millioner og T-72 for omkring $ 1,2 millioner. Indførelsen af ​​'forsvarstilstrækkelighed' under Gorbatjov -æraen og derefter Sovjetunionens sammenbrud havde en katastrofal effekt på den russiske tankindustri. Den Russiske Føderation kunne ikke længere blive ved med at skaffe to typer hovedkamptanke, men at vælge en frem for en anden ville være katastrofal for den tabende by og fortsatte derfor med at købe begge kampvogne i et lille antal. De to fabrikker blev ved med at producere kampvogne i håb om yderligere ordrer fra den russiske hær eller en stor eksportordre. Nizhni Tagil begyndte at opgradere T-72B med tredje generation af Kontakt-5 eksplosive reaktive rustninger (som allerede er tilføjet til T-80U) udviklet af NII Stali (Scientific Research Institute for Steel). Dette producerede T-72BM, som oplevede begrænset service i den tjetjenske konflikt. Mens T-72 traditionelt har været udstyret med mindre sofistikerede brandkontroller end T-80 (som den var beregnet til andenlinjes sovjetiske enheder og politiske allierede) besluttede Vagonka Design Bureau at gøre T-72 meget mere konkurrencedygtig mod T-80 ved at tilføje T-80's brandkontrolsystem. Resultatet var T-72BU, selvom det blev besluttet at omdøbe tanken til T-90 for at distancere den fra T-72A, der havde klaret sig dårligt i både Golfkrigen og i mindre grad den tjetjenske konflikt. På grund af at T-80 havde et dårligt ry for et højt brændstofforbrug, en kort motorlevetid og de tab, de led i Tjetjenien (selvom det skyldtes dårlig taktik og mandskabstræning) blev beslutningen taget om gradvist at gå over til T- 90 med produktion af T-80U'er, der fortsætter i en periode for at forhindre økonomisk nød og for at generere eksportordrer. Selve tanken monterer et forbedret T-72BM-tårn (som har en NII Stali-version af Chobham-rustning) og Kontakt-5-applikation. Det har en afledt af T-80U 1A45 brandstyringssystemet, 1A45T, som indeholder den nye 1V528-1 digitale ballistiske computer. Den monterer den nye 2A46M-1 (eller D-81TM) tankpistol, som den bruges af T-80, og kan affyre den nye generation af tankpistolammunition udviklet af Mechanical Engineering Research Institute i Moskva og AT-11 Sniper missil. T-90 bruger en modificeret version af kommandørens kuppel og monterer også Shtora-1 forsvarssuiten, udviklet af VNII Transmash i St. Pertersburg i samarbejde med Elers-Elektron i Moskva. T-90 driver V-84MS multi-fuel dieselmotoren, som er en opgradering af motoren fra T-72BM, men har samme effekt (840 hk). Det betyder, at T-90 er lidt mere træg (dens to tons tungere), men der er opgraderinger til rådighed, V-92 (950 hk) og V-96 (1.100 hk) dieselmotorer fra Chelyabinsk motorfabrik. En forbedret T-90S er for nylig blevet afsløret og tilbudt til eksport til potentielle asiatiske kunder. Den er udstyret med et klimaanlæg, et termisk skudsyn og en B-92C2 dieselmotor på 1.000 hk, der løfter ydeevnen til en maksimal kørehastighed på 65 km/t. Indien har udtrykt interesse for at købe T-90, da Pakistan for nylig har købt 320 T-80UD'er fra Ukraine.

Skroglængde: 6,86 m. Skrogbredde: 3,37m. Vægt: 46.500 kg (kamp); Højde: 2,23 m. Besætning: 3. Frihøjde: 0,47m. Jordtryk: 0,87 kg/kvm Max hastighed: 60 km/t. Max rækkevidde (internt brændstof): 500 km på vej. Bevæbning: 125 mm glatboret hovedpistol, 1 x 7,62 mm MG koaksial, 1 x 12,7 mm luftværns MG.

BIBLIOGRAFI
Foss, Christopher. 'Forbedret T-90S er målrettet mod det asiatiske marked' i Jane's Defense Weekly, 31. maj 2000, s. 37.
Zaloga, Steven. 'T-90: standarden for russisk hensigtsmæssighed' i Jane's Intelligence Review, Februar 1997, s. 58 - 64.

T -90 Main Battle Tank (Rusland) - Historie

T-95 er den almindelige uformelle betegnelse for en russisk fjerde generation [2] tank, der var under udvikling ved Uralvagonzavod, inden den blev aflyst i maj 2010.

Projektet blev første gang rapporteret i 1995 [ citat nødvendig ] og annonceret af russiske officielle kilder i 2000, men der var ikke frigivet konkrete data. Det skulle introduceres i 2009, men blev gentagne gange forsinket. Den russiske regering opsagde sit engagement i projektet i maj 2010 og trak al finansiering tilbage. [3]

De fleste oplysninger om denne tank var spekulative. Designet var formodentlig en væsentlig afvigelse fra de sovjetiske kampvogne, der i øjeblikket er i drift. Især forventedes det at have en ny hydropneumatisk affjedring med adaptive funktioner, og hele besætningen skulle tilsyneladende placeres i et forseglet rum inde i skroget, isoleret fra andre tankkomponenter. [4]

T-95 var et navn givet til tanken af ​​medierne, det var ikke et officielt navn. [4] Ifølge offentliggjorte kilder begyndte udviklingen af ​​en ny tank kaldet "Object 195" på designbureauet Uralvagonzavod i begyndelsen af ​​1990'erne. [4]

Prototypetanken blev annonceret af den russiske forsvarsminister Igor Sergejev i 2000. Den 10. juli 2008 meddelte den russiske regering, at de russiske væbnede styrker ville begynde at modtage nye generations kampvogne, der var overlegen i forhold til T-90 hovedkamptanken efter 2010. " T-90 MBT vil være rygraden i de pansrede enheder frem til 2025. T-72'erne og T-80'erne vil ikke blive moderniseret og vil i sidste ende blive erstattet af nye generations tanke, som vil begynde at komme i drift efter 2010 ", en pressekonference med Sergei Mayev, leder af Federal Service for Defense Contracts. [5]

På den første dag i Russian Defense Expo 2010 i Nizhny Tagil meddelte direktøren for Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation i Den Russiske Føderation, Konstantin Biryulin, til pressen, at den russiske statsmonopol Federal Service for Defense Contracts afslørede prototypen af ny kampvogn kaldet "Object 195" (T-95) i en privat visning til udvalgte VIP-gæster, selvom tanken endnu ikke er blevet set af journalister eller bekræftet offentligt af nogen af ​​deltagerne. [6]

Imidlertid meddelte viceforsvarsminister og bevæbningschef Vladimir Popovkin i maj 2010, at en række programmer til udvikling af nye rustninger og artillerivåben ville blive annulleret. [7] Det vigtigste offer er Object 195 -programmet. Popovkin sagde, at militæret i stedet vil fokusere på modernisering af T-90. [8] [9] Grunden til dette var, at T-95 allerede var forældet, da den havde været under udvikling i næsten to årtier, men nogle kilder spekulerede på, at det havde mere at gøre med den nylige reduktion i Ruslands militær budget, hvilket kræver omfattende nedskæringer på kryds og tværs. [3] [8]

Popovkin bekræftede denne beslutning i et interview i juni 2010, hvoraf det fremgik, at Rusland ikke længere ville finansiere og ikke ville købe T-95, men at Uralvagonzavod muligvis fortsat ville arbejde på tanken uden statsstøtte. I begyndelsen af ​​juli 2010, som rapporteret af "Ural Information Bureau": Ministeren for industri og videnskab, Sverdlovsk-regionen, sagde Alexander Petrov, at Uralvagonzavod snart ville færdiggøre en T-95-prototype, helt uafhængigt. Men uden statsfinansiering eller eksporttilladelser ville virksomheden ikke være i stand til at gå videre til produktionen. [10]


En legendes fødsel

T-90 er en af ​​de lettest genkendelige tanke på markedet. Den kaldes "flyvende tank" for sin dynamik og kapabel affjedring, der let kan understøtte enorme belastninger, når tanken kører gennem ujævnt terræn. Dens udvikling ved Ural Transport Engineering Design Bureau (UKBTM) i slutningen af ​​1980'erne og begyndelsen af ​​1990'erne var en milepæl både i russisk og i verdens tankbygning.

T-90A kampvogne øver i Moskva til 71-års jubilæumsparaden for Victory i den store patriotiske krig. (Foto: Sputnik)

Mange mener, at T-90 ikke er andet end en moderniseret T-72B, som T-90 er baseret på. Oprindeligt blev T-90 faktisk udviklet som en dybdegående modernisering af sin forgænger, og specifikationerne omtalte det endda som en "opgraderet T-72B." Men den blev taget i brug som T-90 i 1992 og af en grund, da designerne kun brugte de overordnede dimensioner af karosseriet og tårnet og tanklæsseren. Samtidig tillader antallet af innovationer og udviklingsarbejde, der er lagt i T-90, let at blive klassificeret som et nyt kampvogn.


Rusland ’s T-90A Main Battle Tank: All Makings of a Killer

Oprindeligt udviklet som eksportversionen af ​​den russiske T-90 hovedstridsvogn (MBT), der først kom i produktion i 1992, blev T-90S også vedtaget af de russiske væbnede styrker som T-90A. Denne MBT var en videreudvikling af den sovjetiske røde hærs T-72.

Fremstillet af Uralvagonzavod i Nizhny Tagil, Rusland, havde T-90 sit udspring i programmet fra sovjettiden, der havde til formål at udvikle en ny MBT, der kunne erstatte T-64, T-72 og T-80-serien.

En opdateret version blev udviklet til eksport, og i begyndelsen af ​​2001 underskrev det indiske militær en kontrakt om at erhverve 310 af de nye T-90S-modeller. I sidste ende blev 124 fuldstændigt afsluttet i Rusland, mens de ifølge Army-Technology blev leveret i en “ nedslidt ” form til endelig samling i Indien. Det første parti af de moderniserede T-90 tanke ankom til Indien i januar 2004, og den nye model blev døbt “Bhishma. ” Tankene var udstyret med det russisk byggede Shtora selvbeskyttelsessystem sammen med Catherine termiske billedbehandlere fra Thales i Frankrig og Peleng fra Hviderusland. Yderligere 1.000 T-90S MBT'er blev også produceret gennem 2020 under licens i Indien.

Tilsyneladende kunne Moskva lide det, den så i den forbedrede T-90-eksportversion og vedtog modellen for sine egne væbnede styrker. I slutningen af ​​2007 blev det anslået, at den russiske hær havde erhvervet omkring 200 af T-90A-versionerne.

Godt bevæbnet og pansret

Bevæbningen i T-90S inkluderer en 125 mm 2A45M glatboret kanon, der er stabiliseret i to akser og udstyret med en termisk muffe. Dette gør det muligt at udskifte eller reparere pistolrøret uden at demontere indersiden af ​​tårnet. Hovedpistolen kan affyre en række ammunition inklusive APDS (Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (højeksplosiv antitank) og HE-FRAG (højeksplosiv fragmentering) samt 9M119 Refleks (NATO-betegnelse AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guidet missilsystem. Missiler har en rækkevidde på 100 m til 4.000 m. Derudover kan pistolen skyde granatprojektiler med tidssikringer.

T-90S er udstyret med et 1A4GT integreret brandstyringssystem (IFCS). Sekundært våben indeholder et 7,62 PKT maskingevær sammen med et 12,7 mm luftværns maskingevær. Besætningsmedlemmerne er også forsynet med 5,45 mm AKS-74 overfaldsgeværer.

T-90A lever op til “pansret køretøj ” moniker, da den er udstyret med både konventionel belægning og eksplosiv reaktiv rustning. Som med de indiske versioner er T-90 udstyret med Shtora-1-systemet, der har en infrarød jammer, et laseradvarselssystem med fire laseradvarselmodtagere og et granatudladningssystem. MBT er også udstyret med NBC (nukleart, biologisk, kemisk) beskyttelsesudstyr.

Den originale T-90 ’s motor var en V-94 12-cylindret dieselmotor, der leverede 840 hk. Systemet er blevet opgraderet til V-92 12-cylindret dieselserie, der øgede hestekræfterne til 960, mens de nyeste T-90'er er udstyret med V-96 12-cylindret motor, der giver en massivt opgraderet 1.250 hk. Den maksimale hastighed er 40 miles i timen, og tanken har en rækkevidde på 430 miles.

Mens T-90 blev udviklet for over 30 år siden, er den stadig en alsidig og dygtig tank. Det har vist sig i talrige konflikter i Dagestan -krigen, krigen i Donbas og den syriske borgerkrig. T-90'erne blev endda brugt i sidste års konflikt i Nagorno-Karabakh, hvilket beviser, at den er velegnet til den moderne slagmark. Selvom T-14 Armata-tanken kommer.


Indhold

T-90 har sin oprindelse i et program fra sovjettiden, der sigter mod at udvikle en enkelt erstatning for T-64, T-72 og T-80 serierne af de vigtigste kampvogne. T-72 platformen blev valgt som grundlag for den nye generation af tank på grund af dens omkostningseffektivitet, enkelhed og bilkvaliteter. Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau fra Nizhny Tagil var ansvarlig for designarbejdet og udarbejdede to parallelle forslag-det Objekt 188, som var en relativt enkel opgradering af den eksisterende T-72B tank (Objekt 184), og de langt mere avancerede Objekt 187-kun vagt relateret til T-72-serien og indeholder store forbedringer af skrog og tårndesign, rustning, motor og bevæbning. Udviklingsarbejde blev godkendt i 1986, og de første prototyper blev afsluttet i 1988. Køretøjerne som følge af Objekt 187 program er ikke blevet afklassificeret til denne dato, men det var den lavere risiko Objekt 188 opgradering, der ville blive godkendt til serieproduktion som T-72BU. [9]

T-72BU blev officielt taget i brug den 5. oktober 1992 af det russiske forsvarsministerium og blev samtidig omdøbt til T-90 til marketing- og propagandaformål med det formål at distancere den nye type fra eksisterende T-72-varianter. [10]

Hovedopgraderingen i T-90 er inkorporering af en let modificeret form af T-80U's mere sofistikerede 1A45T Irtysh brandstyringssystem og en opgraderet V-84MS multi-fuel motor, der udvikler 830 hk (620 kW). T-90 blev fremstillet på fabrikken i Uralvagonzavod i Nizhny Tagil, hvor produktionen på lavt niveau blev udført siden 1993 og næsten ophørte mod slutningen af ​​1990'erne for hjemmemarkedet. Mindre end 200 T-90 tanke blev leveret til de russiske grundstyrker, inden produktionen blev genoptaget i 2005 af en opgraderet version.

I september 1995 var der produceret omkring 107 T-90 kampvogne i det sibiriske militærdistrikt. [11]

Står over for tilspidsede indenlandske ordrer og med permanent lukning af den sidste tårnstøbelinie i det tidligere Sovjetunionen, ejet af Azovstal i Mariupol, Ukraine, [ citat nødvendig ] designerne på Uralvagonzavod sammen med eksperter fra NII Stali (Scientific Research Institute of Steel) ved hjælp af forsøgsdata hentet fra sovjettiden, skabte et nyt, svejset tårn for at tilbyde yderligere forbedringer og tiltrække udenlandske købere til T-90. Indien signalerede interesse for T-90 som reaktion på Pakistans anskaffelse af 320 ukrainske T-84 kampvogne, hvilket var en intuitiv beslutning i betragtning af, at Indien havde rettigheder til fuldt ud at fremstille T-72M1 i Avadi, hvor produktionen let kunne tilpasses til at samle T- 90.

De første 42 komplette indiske tanke blev leveret i 2001 og blev udpeget T-90S (Objekt 188S), stadig udstyret med de ældre kastetårne ​​i den tidlige serie (dette udmattede de resterende lagre af støbttårne ​​opbevaret på Nizhny Tagil) og drevet af V-84-motoren, der yder 840 hk (618 kW). Dette blev fulgt op næste år med levering af 82 biler, der nu er udstyret med de nye svejsede tårne ​​og V-92S2-motoren, der producerer 1.000 hk (735 kW). Den oprindelige kontrakt indeholdt følgende batch af 186 tanke - nu officielt kaldet Bhishma-skal udfyldes i Indien fra russisk leverede kits og derefter gradvist erstattes med indenlandsk fremstillede dele, men den lave indenlandske indiske produktion tvang de indiske myndigheder til at afgive en ekstra ordre på 124 komplette køretøjer i 2007 fra Uralvagonzavod.

I 2005 genoptog den russiske hær levering af T-90 og anmodede om den "originale" specifikation for køretøjet med et støbt tårn. Men da den nye ordre nummererede sølle 14 kampvogne og den store kapitalinvestering, der kræves for at etablere produktion af nye kastetårne, blev det russiske forsvarsministerium enige om en ny konfiguration meget tæt på den indiske T-90S, som hurtigt blev accepteret til service uden forsøg som Objekt 188A1 eller T-90A. [12] Samme år blev der leveret yderligere 18 nye tanke - nok til at udstyre cirka fem tankplatoner. Disse nye russiske tanke blev drevet af V-92S2-motoren, båret en T01-K05 Buran-M gunner's sight (passiv-aktiv nattesynskanal med en EPM-59G Mirage-K matrix og en maksimal observationsafstand på 1.800 m) og blev beskyttet af den seneste Kontakt-5 reaktive rustning med 4S22 eksplosive fliser.

I årene 2006-2007 blev der leveret 31 T-90A tanke hver, nu udstyret med helt passive ESSA hovedskytterens seværdigheder leveret af Peleng i Hviderusland og ved hjælp af 2. generations termokamera Catherine-FC fra Thales, samt forbedrede 4S23 ERA fliser. Joint venture-selskabet, der blev etableret på grundlag af JSC Volzhsky Optical and Mechanical Plant "(VOMZ) og Thales Optronics, producerede Catherine-FC termiske billeddannelsesenheder, som yderligere blev brugt til at udvikle" ESSA "," PLISA "og" SOSNA-U "observation systemer produceret til de russiske pansrede køretøjer, herunder T-72B3-tanke og eksportversioner af T-90S (eksporteret til Indien, Algeriet og Aserbajdsjan). Siden 2012 var Rusland i stand til at producere 3. generations Catherine-XP-kameraer baseret på QWIP-matrixteknologi . [13]

I 2012 kombinerede den russisk fremstillede chef en prøveovervågningssystem "T01-K04DT/Agat-MDT" blev præsenteret for offentligheden på International Forum Engineering Technologies 2012. Ifølge Krasnogorsky Zavod-anlægget har Agat-MDT mulighed for at installere (til yderligere modernisering) det nyudviklede indenlandske UPF-format 640 × 512 med 15 mikron, hvilket gør muligt i fremtiden at udvide rækkevidden af ​​målidentifikation om natten til 3,5 - 4,0 km uden ændringer af synet. [14]

I 2016 blev Krasnogorsk -fabrikken færdig med at teste Irbis-K nattesynsobservationssystem til T-80U og T-90, med første leverancer planlagt til 2017. Afslutning af Irbis-K, det første russisk producerede kviksølv-cadmium-tellurid (MCT) matrix termisk syn, adresserede en ulempe ved Russiske kampvogne i forhold til deres vestlige kolleger. Irbis-K er i stand til at identificere mål i områder op til 3.240 meter i løbet af både dag og nat. [15]

Den russisk fremstillede termiske billeddannelse betød ikke kun, at russiske tanke ikke længere skulle være udstyret med fremmede dele, men det betød også, at komplet tankmodernisering var billigere. Den nye tankskytters varmesyn Irbis-K og kommandantens kombinerede syne- og observationssystem Agat-MDT kan leveres til T-90 opgraderet version (T-90M), der erstatter ESSA-system med Catherine-FC termisk billedbehandler fra Thales.

I 2007 var der omkring 334 T-90 kampvogne af forskellige typer, der tjente i de russiske grundstyrkers 5. gardetankdivision, stationeret i det sibiriske militærdistrikt, og syv T-90 kampvogne tildelt marinerne. [16] Siden 2008 har den russiske hær modtaget 62 kampvogne årligt og suspenderet ordrer i 2011.

Rusland udvikler den nye Armata Universal Combat Platform (også kendt som T-14 Armata) til at være klar til brug inden 2016 [ har brug for opdatering ]. Det forventes at anvende en mere kraftfuld motor, forbedret rustning, hovedpistol og autoloader, med ammunitionslager adskilt fra besætningen. [17]

Leverancer af opgraderede T-90M-tanks startede i april 2020 til Guards Tank Army i RF Western Military District. T-90M 'Proryv' har modtaget et hovedsageligt nyt tårn, 2A46M-5 pistolen og en mere kraftfuld motor. Proryv er udstyret med et nyt multi-channel observationssystem, der gør det muligt at anvende våben når som helst på dagen eller natten, og det kan udveksle data med andre køretøjer i realtid. [18] Et nyt parti blev leveret i marts 2021. [19]

En tidlig variant af den eksportorienterede T-90S så angiveligt kamphandlinger under den tjetjenske invasion af Dagestan i 1999 i stedet for at blive leveret til Indien. Ifølge Moskva forsvars brief, blev et køretøj ramt af syv RPG anti-tank raketter, men forblev i aktion. Tidsskriftet konkluderede, at med almindeligt udstyr synes den opgraderede T-90 at være den bedst beskyttede russiske tank, især med implementeringen af ​​Shtora-1 og Arena defensive systemer. [18]

Under krigen i Donbas i sommeren 2014 blev elementer af den russiske 136th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade udstyret med T-90A-tanks, der udførte operationer i Luhansk Oblast i Ukraine, identificeret i sociale medier og placeringer af deres fotografier georefereret af open-source efterforskere. [20] [21]

T-90A blev indsendt til Syrien i 2015 for at støtte det russiske engagement i den syriske borgerkrig. [22] I begyndelsen af ​​februar 2016 begyndte den syriske hærs styrker at bruge T-90A'er i kamp. [ citat nødvendig ] I slutningen af ​​februar blev en video lækket på internettet, der viste, at en T-90 overlevede et direkte frontaltårn, der blev ramt af et TOW-missil i Aleppo. [23]

Den 15. september 2020 blev en russisk T-90 ved et uheld ramt af et anti-tank guidet missil under øvelser i Ruslands Astrakhan-region, der forårsagede alvorlig skade på køretøjet. [24]

Aserbajdsjan brugte deres T-90S-tanke under Nagorno-Karabakh-konflikten 2020. Én T-90 blev beskadiget og fanget af armenske styrker. [25] [26]

Indien Rediger

I 2001 købte Indien 310 T-90S-tanke fra Rusland, hvoraf 124 blev leveret komplet (42 fremhævede de tidlige kastetårne, der blev set på russiske kampvogne), og 186 skulle samles fra kits leveret i forskellige færdiggørelsesfaser med vægt på skift produktion til indenlandske midler. T-90 blev valgt, fordi det er en direkte udvikling af T-72, som Indien allerede fremstiller med 60% dele fælles med T-90, hvilket forenkler træning og vedligeholdelse. Indien valgte at erhverve T-90 som reaktion på talrige forsinkelser i produktionen af ​​sin egen indenlandsk udviklede Arjun hovedkamptank og for at imødegå pakistansk indsættelse af de ukrainsk fremstillede T-80 kampvogne i 1995–97.

Disse T-90S tanke blev fremstillet af Uralvagonzavod, og motorerne blev leveret af Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. De indiske kampvogne udelader imidlertid det Shtora-1 passive elektroniske modforanstaltningssystem, der blev anset for forældet.

En opfølgningskontrakt til en værdi af 800 millioner dollars blev underskrevet den 26. oktober 2006 for yderligere 330 T-90S "Bhishma" MBT'er, der skulle fremstilles i Indien af ​​Heavy Vehicles Factory i Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

T-90S Bhishma (opkaldt efter værge-krigeren i Mahabharata) er et køretøj skræddersyet til indisk service, der forbedrer T-90S, og er udviklet med bistand fra Rusland og Frankrig. Tankene er udstyret med de franske Thales-byggede Catherine-FC termiske seværdigheder, [27] og bruger russiske Kontakt-5 K-5 eksplosive reaktive pansrede plader. [28] og Kontakt-5 ERA ud over den primære rustning, der består af laminerede plader og keramiske lag med høj trækegenskaber. De nye svejsede tårne, der først blev udviklet til den indiske T-90S Bhishma, har mere avanceret rustningsbeskyttelse end de tidlige støbte tårne.

I april 2008 sendte den indiske hær en anmodning om forslag til Rafael, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab og IBD Deisenroth Engineering om et aktivt beskyttelsessystem til T-90S Bhishma. [29] Kontrakten forventes at være på 270 millioner dollars. Saabs LEDS-150 vandt kontrakten i januar 2009. [30]

En tredje kontrakt på 1,23 milliarder dollars blev underskrevet i december 2007 for 347 opgraderede T-90M'er, hvoraf hovedparten vil blive licensmonteret af HVF. Hæren håber at stille en styrke på over 21 regimenter af T-90 kampvogne og 40 regimenter med modificerede T-72'er. Den indiske hær ville begynde at modtage sin første T-90M hovedkampvogn i fuldstændig nedslidt tilstand fra Ruslands Nizhny Tagil-baserede Uralvagonzavod JSC i slutningen af ​​2009. [31] [32]

T-90M har pakken 'Kaktus K-6' boltet eksplosiv reaktiv rustning (ERA) på frontskroget og tårnet (T-90S har 'Kontakt-5' ERA), er udstyret med et forbedret miljøkontrolsystem leveret af Israels Kinetics Ltd til tilførsel af afkølet luft til kamprummet, har ekstra intern volumen til at rumme de kryogene kølesystemer til nygenerations termiske billedbehandlere som det THALES-byggede Catherine-FC termiske billedbehandler (opererer i båndbredden 8-12 mikrometer) . [31] I alt planlægger Indien at have 2.080 T-90 tanke i drift inden 2020.

Det første parti med 10 licens bygget T-90M blev optaget i den indiske hær den 24. august 2009. Disse køretøjer blev bygget på Heavy Vehicles Factory i Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

Et køb på $ 10.000 crore (US $ 1,4 mia.) Af 354 nye T-90SM-tanke til seks tankregimenter til Kina-grænsen blev godkendt [33] i 2012, hvilket ville tage det samlede antal T-90-tanks i den indiske hærs beholdning til 2011 og med i alt næsten 4500 tanke (T-90 og varianter, T-72 og Arjun MBT) i aktiv service, verdens tredje største operatør af tanke.

Indien planlægger at have 21 tankregimenter med T-90'er i 2020 med 45 kamptanke og 17 trænings- og udskiftningstanke pr. Regiment, i alt 62 i alt. [34]

Den 17. september 2013 godkendte Indiens forsvarsministerium produktionen af ​​235 T-90S-tanke under russisk licens til 1 milliard dollar. [35]

Den 11. november 2019 meddelte Indien, at Heavy Vehicles Factory ville producere 464 T-90S MBT'er. [36]

Andet Rediger

I 2005 begyndte leverancer for en første ordre på 185 tanke til Algeriet. Disse er kendt som T-90SA ("A" er et akronym for Algeriet).

Cyperns husforsvarsudvalg godkendte i januar 2009 midler til køb af 41 russiskbyggede T-90 kampvogne. Pengene var inkluderet som en del af forsvarsbudgettet for 2009. Cypern driver allerede den russisk fremstillede T-80 tank. [37] I marts 2010 blev det rapporteret, at Cypern havde valgt 41 ekstra T-80'er i stedet for at købe T-90'er. [38]

Anonyme venezuelanske forsvarskilder sagde, at præsident Hugo Chavez "ønsker at erstatte sin hærs forældede AMX-30 hovedkamptanke med mellem 50 og 100 russiskbyggede T-90 hovedkamptanke", ifølge en artikel fra oktober 2008 af analytiker Jack Sweeney. [39] I september 2009 blev der kun annonceret en aftale om 92 T-72'er. [40] Saudi -Arabien blev rapporteret i juli 2008 af russisk dagblad Kommersant at være i forhandlinger om at købe 150 T-90 tanke. [41] Libanesisk forsvarsminister Elias El Murr mødtes med den russiske forsvarsminister Anatoly Serdyukov i december 2008, da de diskuterede muligheden for en overførsel af militært udstyr inklusive T-90 kampvogne. [42] [43]

I februar 2010 blev der underskrevet en våbenaftale mellem Libyen og Rusland. Detaljer om salget blev ikke straks frigivet, men en russisk diplomat oplyste, at Libyen havde ønsket 20 jagerfly, luftforsvarssystemer og måske også var interesseret i at købe "flere dusin" T-90'er og modernisere yderligere 140 T-72'er. Efter Libyens angreb på anti-regeringsdemonstranter i begyndelsen af ​​2011 vedtog FN imidlertid en international våbenembargo mod Libyen, hvilket resulterede i annullering af russiske våbenaftaler. [44] [45]

I april 2013 anmodede Rosoboronexport om optagelse af T-90S i et kommende udbud af den peruvianske hær om hovedkamptanke. [46] Peru søgte at anskaffe mellem 120 og 170 kampvogne for at erstatte sine aldrende T-55 kampvogne. T-90 blev testet mod M1A1 Abrams fra USA, Leopard 2A4 tilbudt fra den spanske hær, Leopard 2A6'er, der tidligere blev betjent af den hollandske hær, og T-64'er og T-84'er, der blev tilbudt af Ukraine. I september 2013 konkurrerede kun T-90S, den russiske T-80, den ukrainske T-84 og amerikanske M1A1. [47] Den 19. september 2013 blev en T-90S demonstreret for chefen for de peruvianske landstyrker og 300 officerer. I løbet af dagen blev tankens kamp- og løbeevner vist. Om natten blev nøjagtigheden af ​​alle våben på forskellige områder, mens de var stationære og på farten, vist under begrænset sigtbarhed og bjergrige terrænforhold. En peruviansk T-55 driver blev orienteret i 5 minutter om betjeningen, og kunne derefter flytte og betjene T-90S, hvilket demonstrerede de to køretøjers fælles karakter. [48] ​​Rusland pressede på for at sælge 110 T-90S tanke. [49] [ har brug for opdatering ]

Folkets hær i Vietnam er angiveligt interesseret i at købe T-90MS for at beholde sin militære kapacitet i takt med sine naboer. [50] Vietnam og Irak underskrev kontrakter om mindst 150 T-90S/SK-tanke i 2016. [51]

I december 2015 sagde chefen for den iranske hærs grundstyrker, at Iran planlagde at købe russisk udviklede T-90 kampvogne, da FN-sanktioner, der havde rettet sig mod det iranske militær, blev ophævet. [ citat nødvendig ] To måneder senere meddelte Iran imidlertid, at det ikke længere var interesseret i at købe T-90 fra Rusland, men besluttede i stedet at udvikle en lignende model, der kaldes "Karrar" på hjemmemarkedet. I juli 2016 viste iranske medier et kort klip, der refererede til en ny indenlandsk produceret tank kaldet "Karrar", der lignede T-90MS. [52]

Bevæbning Rediger

T-90s hovedbevæbning er 2A46M 125 mm glatboret tankpistol. Dette er en meget modificeret version af Sprut antitankpistol og er den samme pistol, der blev brugt som hovedbevæbningen på T-80-seriens tanke. Den kan udskiftes uden at afmontere det indre tårn og er i stand til at affyre panserbrydende finnestabiliseret kasseret sabot (APFSDS), højeksplosiv antitank (HEAT-FS) og høj eksplosiv fragmentering (HE-FRAG) ammunition, som samt 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guidede missiler. Refleks-missilet har halvautomatisk laserstråle-vejledning og et tandemhulladet HEAT-sprænghoved. Den har en effektiv rækkevidde på 100 m til 6 km og tager 17,5 sekunder at nå maksimal rækkevidde. Reflekser kan trænge igennem omkring 950 millimeter stålpanser og kan også engagere lavtflyvende luftmål som helikoptere. [53]

NSV 12,7 mm (12,7 × 108) fjernstyret luftværntung maskingevær kan betjenes inde fra tanken af ​​kommandanten og har en rækkevidde på 2 km og en cyklisk skudhastighed på 700-800 runder i minuttet med 300 runder tilgængelig (NSV blev erstattet af Kords tunge maskingevær i slutningen af ​​1990'erne). PKMT 7,62 mm (7,62 × 54 mmR) koaksial maskingevær vejer cirka 10,5 kg, mens ammunitionskassen bærer 250 runder (7.000 runder båret) og vejer yderligere 9,5 kg. [53]

Ligesom andre moderne russiske kampvogne fodres 2A46M i T-90 af en automatisk læsser, der fjerner behovet for en manuel læsser i tanken og reducerer besætningen til 3 (kommandør, skytte og chauffør). Autoloaderen kan bære 22 runder, der er klar til at affyre i sin karrusel og kan indlæse en runde på 5–8 sekunder. [53] Det er blevet foreslået, at de automatiske læssemaskiner på moderne T-90-tanke er blevet ændret for at drage fordel af nyere ammunition såsom 3BM-44M APFSDS, der ligesom den amerikanske M829A3 trænger bedre i rustninger end de tidligere kortere runder. VARME-runder, der kan affyres fra 2A46M, inkluderer 3BK21B (med en forarmet uranforing), 3BK29 (med en krediteret penetration på 800 mm RHA-ækvivalens) og 3BK29M (med et tredobbelt tandem-ladningshoved). Additionally the T-90 features the Ainet fuse setting system which allows the tank to detonate 3OF26 HE-FRAG rounds at a specific distance from the tank as determined by the gunners laser rangefinder, improving its performance against helicopters and infantry. [54] Accurate firing range of the HE-Frag-FS 10 km, APFSDS 4 km. [55]

Fire-control system of the T-90 showed the following features of combat shooting during state testing. Heavily armoured targets at ranges of up to 5 km were hit by tank T-90 on the move (up to 30 km/h) with a high probability of hit with the first shot. During state testing made 24 launches of missiles at ranges of 4–5 km and they all hit the target (all missile launches were made by inexperienced professionals). An experienced gunner at speeds of 25 km/h hit 7 real armoured targets located at ranges of 1,500–2,500 m and 54sec. [56] [57]

Fire-control system on the T-90 includes the PNK-4S/SR AGAT day and night sighting system mounted at the commanders station which allows for night time detection of a tank sized target at ranges between 700 and 1100 metres depending on the version of the sight. Early models of the T-90 were equipped with the TO1-KO1 BURAN sight but later models (T-90S) were upgraded to use the ESSA thermal imaging sight, which allows for accurate firing to a range of 5,000–8,000m using the CATHERINE-FC thermal camera produced by Thales Optronique. The gunner is also provided with the 1G46 day sighting system which includes a laser range finder, missile guidance channel and allows tank-sized targets to be detected and engaged at 5 to 8 kilometres (3.1 to 5.0 mi). The driver uses a TVN-5 day and night sight. [53] In 2010, Russia started licensed production of Thales-developed Catherine FC thermal imaging cameras for T-90M tanks, a Russian daily said. [58] These thermal imagers are also present on T-90M "Bhishma" built in India under licence. [31]

In 2012, the Russian-made combined sample of commander supervisory-sighting system T01-K04DT/Agat-MDT was presented to the public. According to Krasnogorsky Zavod (plant), Agat-MDT has the ability to be installed (for further modernization) in the sight of the newly developed domestic UPF format 640×512 by 15 microns, which is possible in the future to extend the range of target identification at night to 3.5 — 4.0 km without sight modifications. [14] In 2016, the Krasnogorsk plant finished testing the Irbis-K night-vision gunner's sighting system for the T-80U and T-90, with first deliveries in 2018. [59] Completion of the Irbis-K, the first Russian-produced mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) matrix thermal sight, will bridge a gap with the leading NATO countries in this area. The Irbis-K is capable of identifying targets at ranges up to 3,240 meters during both day and night. [15]

The Russian-made thermal imaging device not only meant that Russian tanks would no longer need to be equipped with foreign parts, but it also meant that complete tank modernization was cheaper. Furthermore, there will be no decrease in demand for the T-72 and the T-90 in the next few years. The new tank gunner’s heat-vision sight Irbis-K and the commander’s combined sighting and observation system Agat-MDT can be supplied to T-72, T-80 and T-90 upgraded versions (T-72B3M, T-80BVM, T-90M. ), replacing Catherine-FC thermal camera from Thales.


Fire control and observation

The T-90S uses the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS), which is automatic but features a manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner’s 1A43 day fire control system, gunner’s TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight with a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander’s PNK-S sight.

A 1G46 day sight / rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabiliser, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge comprise the gunner’s 1A43 day FCS.

A TKN-4S (Agat-S) day / night sight, which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night) are included in the commander’s PNK 4S sight.

The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.


A Tank for All Seasons: The Russian T-90MS

The T-90MS’ export focus brings into perspective some of its more controversial design choices.

Her er hvad du skal huske: Clients are already lining up to buy the improved tank, notably armed forces in the Middle East (including Egypt and Kuwait).

Earlier this week, Russian arms manufacturer Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) released a video of their T-90MS battle tank in action.

The footage, aired by the official channel of the Russian Ministry of Defense, depicts some highlights from the T-90MS’ most recent exercise.

The tank moves at high speeds past a grassy plain, before discharging its 125mm cannon with what appears to be good effect on target (GEOT) the clip ends with the T-90MS making its way down an unpaved road.

In a rarity for these types of demonstration videos, the clip is interspersed with technical footage from inside the tank.

The first fifteen seconds capture the targeting module at work, while the latter half shows the gunner operating the tank’s digitized onboard controls.

Why would UVZ go out of their way to highlight the tank’s inner workings? Consider the context.

The T-90MS is a modernized export version of the T-90 main battle tank, Russia’s staple heavy armor solution from the early 1990’s through 2011. Whereas arms exercise footage is typically intended for domestic consumption, UVZ was trying to reach an altogether different audience: foreign buyers.

Thus, the video aims less for entertainment value and more to demonstrate the T-90MS’ technical capabilities to foreign military experts. Footage of the T-90MS’ four, 360° view cameras is hardly exciting for general audiences, but conveys crucial purchasing information to importers.

The T-90MS will be shown next week at IDEX-2019, the largest arms exhibition in the Middle East. To date, Rosoboronexport-- Russia’s arms export agency-- is on the verge of finalizing T-90MS orders with major clients including Egypt and Kuwait. With several contracts nearing completion, the Russians are looking to double down on the T-90MS’ success at IDEX-2019: “There have been many delegations that have gone through pre-contract motions. This tank is potentially our export leader,” said UVZ chief Alexei Zharich.

The T-90MS is also the successor to the T-90’s prior export variant, the T-90S, offering several key iterative improvements. The T-90MS boasts a slightly more powerful 1,130 horsepower V-92S2F diesel engine, improved 3,500-meter thermal imager, digital computer for monitoring topographical conditions, GLONASS navigation integration, and a revised turret bustle. Among the most impactful changes is the inclusion of modular explosive reactive armor (ERA) panels for increased protection against certain kinds of explosive blasts.

The T-90MS’ export focus also brings into perspective some of its more controversial design choices. In a decision likely taken to suppress manufacturing costs, the UVZ has opted to arm the MS with a variant of the Soviet 2A46 smoothbore cannon found on the original T-90, rather than the newer 2A82-1M found on the recent T-90M and Russia’s upcoming, next-generation Armata tank.

Despite these active measures to maintain market competitiveness, the T-90MS will still come in at 4.5 million dollars per unit, a steep increase over the 2.5-3.5 million dollars per unit of its T-90S predecessor. To capture as many segments of the heavy armor market as possible, the Russians will continue offering the T-90S and even the original T-90. Both are still perfectly viable options in medium and low-intensity conflicts, and remain i demand across the world.


T-90 Tank

The T-90 is considered a modern unit, with only the elite Kantemirovskaya and Tamanskaya tank divisions equipped by 2010. Derived from the T-72, the GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 main battle tank is the most modern tank in the army arsenal. The successor to T-72BM, the T-90 uses the gun and 1G46 gunner sights from T-80U, a new engine, and thermal sights. Protective measures include Kontakt-5 ERA, laser warning receivers, and the SHTORA infrared ATGM jamming system.

The price of a T-90 main battle tank (MBT), manufactured by Russia’s Uralvagonzavod plant is $4-7 million, while the price of a T-72 model is $1-2 million. A Russian tank battalion comprises 31 tanks. In 2008 Uralvagonzavod produced a total of 165 T-90 tanks. Over half of the vehicles were exported, and the remaining tanks replaced some of the T-72s in the Russian Armed Forces.

By 1992 the Russian Defense Ministry announced that it could no longer afford to manufacture two MBTs in parallel. Since both the “quality” T-80U and the cheaper “quantity” T-72B were each being built at one plant, and each plant was critical to the economy of the city it was in, the Government gave small orders to both. Omsk built five T-80Us and Nizhni Tagil 15 T-72s, and both built more against the hope of winning large export orders. Nizhni Tagil had built a few T-72BMs, T-72Bs upgraded with a third generation add-on Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) called Kontakt-5, which was already in service on T-80U.

To further improve the T-72’s export prospects and its chances of being selected as Russia’s sole production MBT, the T-80U’s more sophisticated fire control system was also added to produce a vehicle designated T-72BU. Finally, since worldwide news coverage during Desert Storm had firmly established the image of the T-72 as a burning Iraqi tank, the new model was renamed T-90.

The Russian Defense Ministry made a selection of a single MBT in 1995. The fighting in Grozny had been shown around the world and the reputation of Russian tanks was sullied. Although many casualties were due to bad tactics and many T-72s were also lost, it was the knocked-out T-80s which made an impression. More had been expected of the “quality” M-80 MBT. This is alleged to have tipped the balance against the T-80 in the selection. The T-80 was already more expensive and its delicate, fuel-hungry turbine engine was still giving problems. In January 1996, Col.-Gen. Aleksandr Galkin, Chief of the Main Armor Directorate of the Ministry of Defense, announced that the T-90 had been selected as the sole Russian MBT.

The T-90 went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated as the T-88. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Vagonka Works in Nizhniy Tagil. Initially thought by Western observers to be an entirely new design, the production model is in fact based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. The T-90 features a new generation of armor on its hull and turret. Two variants, the T-90S and T-90E, have been identified as possible export models. Plans called for all earlier models to be replaced with T-90s by the end of 1997, subject to funding availability. By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone into service in the Far Eastern Military District.

Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun. The T-90 is an interim solution, pending the introduction of the new Nizhny Tagil MBT which has been delayed due to lack of funding. Produced primarily mainly due to its lower cost, the T-90 it will probably remain in low-rate production to keep production lines open until newer designs become available. Several hundred of these tanks have been produced, with various estimates suggesting that between 100 and 300 are in service, primarily in the Far East.

The T-90 retains the 125-mm 2A46-series main gun of the T-72 and T-80 which is capable of firing APDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG projectiles as well as time-fuzed shrapnel projectiles.

The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective against both armored targets and low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 4000 meters, gives the T-90 the ability to engage other vehicles and helicopters before they can engage the T-90. The computerised fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner’s thermal sight, permit the T-90 to engage targets while on the move and at night. However, this first generation system is probably not as capable as current Western counterpart systems. The tank is fitted with precision laying equipment and an automatic loader to guarantee a high rate of gun fire. Secondary armament includes a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and 12.7mm machine gun mount to for air and ground targets.

The T-90 features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive and active defenses which make the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by second generation explosive reactive armor [ERA] bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a “clam shell” appearance. ERA bricks on the turret roof provide protection from top-attack weapons.

The T-90 is equipped with the TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system which is designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM. The T-90 is also equipped with a laser warning package that warns the tank crew when it is being lased. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy’s semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora-1 is actually a soft kill, or countermeasures system. It is most effective when used in tandem with a hard kill system such as the Arena.

During the International Defense Exposition (IDEX) held in Abu Dhabi in 1995, the system was shown fitted to a Russian MBT. The first known application of the system is the Russian T-90 MBT that entered service in the Russian Army in 1993. Shtora-1 is currently installed on the T-80UK, T-80U, T-84 and T-90 MBTs.

The Shtora-1 system comprises four key components, the electro-optical interface station, which includes a jammer, modulator, and control panel a bank of forward-firing grenade dischargers mounted on either side of the turret that are capable of firing grenades dispensing an aerosol screen a laser warning system with precision and coarse heads and a control system comprising control panel, microprocessor, and manual screen-laying panel. This processes the information from the sensors and activates the aerosol screen-laying system. Two infrared lights, one on each side of the main gun, continuously emit coded pulsed infrared jamming when an incoming ATGM has been detected. Shtora-1 has a field of view of 360-degrees horizontally and -5 to +25-degrees in elevation. It contains 12 aerosol screen launchers and weighs 400kg. The screening aerosol takes less than 3 seconds to form and lasts about 20 seconds. The screen laying range is between 50-70 meters.

The T-90 is powered by the V-84MS 618 kW (840 hp) four-stroke V-12 piston multi-fuel diesel engine, which can also run on T-2, TS-1 kerosene and A-72 benzine. This engine results in a power to weight ratio of only 18.06 hp/ton, considerably less than that of the T-80. The tank crew can prepare fording equipment within 20 minutes to negotiate 5 meter deep water obstacles. The tank is also fitted with the NBC protection system and mounted mineclearing equipment.

T-90 – The first production version.

T-90K – Commander’s version of the T-90, with additional communication (station R-163-50K) and navigation equipment (TNA-4-3).

T-90E – Export version of T-90 MBT.

T-90A – Russian army version with welded turret, V-92S2 engine and ESSA thermal viewer. Sometimes called T-90 Vladimir.

T-90S – Export version of the T-90A. These tanks were made by Uralvagonzavod and were updated with 1,000 hp (750 kW) engines made by Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. These tanks however do not feature the Shtora-1 passive/active protection system. Sometimes called T-90C (Cyrillic letter es looks like a Latin c). These tanks are found with two different turret armour arrays.

T-90SK – Commander’s version of the T-90S, with additional communication and navigation equipment. It differs in radio and navigation equipment and Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds.

T-90S “Bhishma” – modified T-90S in Indian service.

T-90AM – Latest version of the T-90A. The main features include the modernization of the old turret design, which is equipped with a new advanced fire control system “Kalina” (with integrated combat information and control systems), a new automatic loader and a new upgraded gun 2A46M-5, as well as a remote-controlled anti-aircraft gun “UDP T05BV-1”. The new version also includes the Relikt active protection system instead of the Kontakt-5 active protection system. Other improvements include a new 1,250 PS (920 kW) engine, an enhanced environmental control system and satellite navigation systems.

T-90SM – New modernized (M) version of the export tank T-90S, with a 1130HP engine, a PNM Sosna-U gunner view, a 7.62mm turret UDP T05BV-1 RWS, GLONASS, inertial navigation systems and explosive reactive armour (ERA).


T-90 Main Battle Tank (Russia) - History

The T-90S is the latest development in the T-series of Russian tanks and represents an increase in firepower, mobility and protection. It is manufactured by the Uralvagonzavod Plant in Nizhniy Tagil (Potkin's bureau) of the Russian Federation.

The T-90S is in service with the Russian Army and the Indian Army. In February 2001, the Indian Army signed a contract for 310 T-90S tanks. 124 were completed in Russia and the rest are being delivered in "knocked down/semi-knocked down" form for final assembly in India. The first of these was delivered in January 2004. The locally-assembled tanks are christened "Bhishma". The tanks are fitted with the Shtora self-protection system and thermal imagers from Thales of France and Peleng of Belarus.

In January 2005, it was announced that a further 91 T-90S tanks would be procured for the Russian Army. 31 are due to be delivered in 2006.

In March 2006, Algeria signed a contract for the supply of 180 T-90S tanks from Uralvagonzavod, to be delivered by 2011.

In November 2006, India ordered a further 300 T-90 tanks, to be licence-built by Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. Deliveries are to begin in 2008.

Derived from the T-72, the GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 main battle tank is the most modern tank in the Russian Army's arsenal. The successor to T-72BM, the T-90 uses the gun and 1G46 gunner sights from T-80U, a new engine, and thermal sights. Protective measures include Kontakt-5 ERA, laser warning receivers, and the SHTORA infrared ATGM jamming system.

Kontakt-5 is a Russian type of third-generation explosive reactive armour. It is the first type of ERA which is effectively able to defeat modern APFSDS rounds. Introduced on the T-80U tank in 1985, Kontakt-5 is made up of "bricks" of explosive sandwiched between two metal plates. The plates are arranged in such a way as to move sideways rapidly when the explosive detonates. This will force an incoming KE-penetrator or shaped charge jet to cut through more armour than the thickness of the plating itself, since "new" plating is constantly fed into the penetrating body. A KE-penetrator will also be subjected to powerful sideways forces, which might be large enough to cut the rod into two or more pieces. This will significantly reduce the penetrating capabilities of the penetrator, since the penetrating force will be dissipated over a larger volume of armour.

By 1992 the Russian Defense Ministry announced that it could no longer afford to manufacture two MBTs in parallel. Since both the "quality" T-80U and the cheaper "quantity" T-72B were each being built at one plant, and each plant was critical to the economy of the city it was in, the Government gave small orders to both. Omsk built five T-80Us and Nizhni Tagil 15 T-72s, and both built more against the hope of winning large export orders. Nizhni Tagil had built a few T-72BMs, T-72Bs upgraded with a third generation add-on Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) called Kontakt-5, which was already in service on the T-80U MBT.

Kontakt-5 has been succeeded by the newer Kaktus type, which is currently only seen on prototype tanks such as the T-80UM2 "Chiorny Oriol" (Black Eagle) tank.

To further improve the T-72's export prospects and its chances of being selected as Russia's sole production MBT, the T-80U's more sophisticated fire control system was also added to produce a vehicle designated T-72BU. Finally, since worldwide news coverage during Desert Storm had firmly established the image of the T-72 as a burning Iraqi tank, the new model was renamed T-90.

The Russian Defense Ministry made a selection of a single MBT in 1995. The fighting in Grozny had been shown around the world and the reputation of Russian tanks suffered. Although many casualties were due to bad tactics and many T-72s were also lost, it was the knocked-out T-80s which made an impression. More had been expected of the "quality" T-80 MBT. This is alleged to have tipped the balance against the T-80 in the selection. The T-80 was already more expensive and its delicate, fuel-hungry turbine engine was still giving problems. In January 1996, Col.-Gen. Aleksandr Galkin, Chief of the Main Armor Directorate of the Ministry of Defense, announced that the T-90 had been selected as the sole Russian MBT.

The T-90 went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated as the T-88. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Vagonka Works in Nizhniy Tagil. Initially thought by Western observers to be an entirely new design, the production model is in fact based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. The T-90 features a new generation of armor on its hull and turret. Two variants, the T-90S and T-90E, have been identified as possible export models. Plans called for all earlier models to be replaced with T-90s by the end of 1997, subject to funding availability. By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone into service in the Far Eastern Military District.

Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun. The T-90 is an interim solution, pending the introduction of the new Nizhny Tagil MBT which has been delayed due to lack of funding. Produced primarily mainly due to its lower cost, the T-90 will probably remain in low-rate production to keep production lines open until newer designs become available. Several hundred of these tanks have been produced, with various estimates suggesting that between 100 and 300 are in service, primarily in the Far East.

The T-90 retains the low silhouette of the earlier Soviet tanks. The glacis is well sloped, and is covered by second generation ERA bricks and a large transverse rib that extends horizontally across the glacis. The driver sits at the front of the hull and has a single piece hatch cover that opens to the right, in front of which is a single wide-angle observation periscope. Integrated fuel cells and stowage containers give a streamlined appearance to the fenders. The tank has a toothed shovel/dozer blade on the front of the hull beneath the glacis. There are attachment points beneath the blade for the KMT-6 mine-clearing plow.

The low, rounded turret is centered on the hull. The commander's cupola is on the right side of the turret the gunner's hatch is on the left side. The 125-mm main gun has a four section removable thermal shield. It has two sections in front of, and two sections to the rear of the mid-tube bore evacuator. A 7.62-mm coaxial machine-gun is mounted to the right of the mantlet. The T-90 mounts two infra-red searchlights on either side of the main armament these are part of the Shtora ATGM defense system. The turret is covered with second generation reactive armor on the frontal arc.

This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance. There are ERA bricks on the turret roof to provide protection from top-attack weapons. There are banks of smoke mortars on either side of the turret. The second generation ERA package, combined with the advanced armor technology, makes the T-90 one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world.

The year 1999 saw the appearance of a new model of T-90, featuring the fully welded turret of the Obiekt 187 experimental MBT instead of the cast design of the original T-90. This new model is called "Vladimir" in honor of T-90 Chief Designer Vladimir Potkin, who died in 1999. It is unknown how this design affects the protection and layout of the turret, and whether the frontal armor package was also extensively redesigned (Source: Vasily Fofanov's Modern Russian Armor Page).

There are at least three different variants of the T-90. The Russians confirmed the existence of an export variant in June 1996 with varying equipment and engine fits, and Russian promotional materials have discussed both the T-90S (or "C" in the sometimes-used Cyrillic non-translation) and the T-90SK command variant. The T-90SK command variant differs in radio and navigation equipment and Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds. The T-90 "Vladimir", with a welded turret, is also referred to as T-90M, but it is not an official designation. The official designation for those tanks were T-90A, or T-90SM. Actually, all production T-90s from 2001 onwards have welded turrets, so it only seems logical to assume that the official designation now is T-90S (or "C") - what is confirmed by the fact that all T-90S MBTs sold to India have welded turrets. There are also occasional references to a T-90E, but these appear to be unsubstantiated.


T-90S Main Battle Tank, firing the 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun.

The T-90S armament includes one 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun, stabilized in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without dismantling inside the turret. The gun can fire a variety of ammunition including APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank), HE-FRAG (High Explosive Fragmentation) as well as, the APERS (anti-personnel) ammunition, consisting of shrapnel projectiles with time fuzes. By far the most widely used APERS round is a multi-purpose HE/HE-FRAG/FRAG fin-stabilized round. Its versatility has been lately further increased by introduction of a time-fusing system, Ainet. Other APERS rounds include shrapnel and incendiary, but these are a lot less common.

The 2A46 and 2A46M lines of mainguns (internal designations D-81T, D-81TM) were developed by the Spetstekhnika design bureau in Ekaterinburg (former Sverdlovsk), and are manufactured at the Motovilikha artillery plant in Perm.

The T-90S gun can also fire the 9M119Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper), or the 9M119M Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper-B) anti-tank guided missile system. The 9M119 missile comes in two variants: the 9K120 Svir, which is fired by the T-72B, T-72S, and 2A45M antitank gun and the Refleks, which is fired by the T-80B, T-80U, and T-90 main battle tank. Det Refleks round is 4 kg heavier and has a 5,000 meter maximum range, whereas the Svir has a 4,000 meter maximum range. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m and takes 11.7 sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beam riding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4kg. The gun's automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles. Due to high cost of the system, usually only elite regiments shall have those missiles in a loadout.

The Refleks 9M119 AT-11 SNIPER laser-guided missile with a hollow-charge warhead is effective against both armored targets and low-flying helicopters. The missile, which can penetrate 700-mm of RHAe out to 5,000 meters, gives the T-90S the ability to engage other vehicles and helicopters before they can engage the T-90S. The computerized fire control system and laser range-finder, coupled with the new Agave gunner's thermal sight, permit the T-90S to engage targets while on the move and at night. However, this first generation system is probably not as capable as current Western counterpart systems. The tank is fitted with precision laying equipment and an automatic loader to guarantee a high rate of gun fire.

Also fitted is a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and a 12.7mm air defense machine gun. A 5.45mm AKS-74 assault rifle is carried on a storage rack.

The T-90S has the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS) which is automatic but with manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner's 1A43 day fire control system, gunner's TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight which has a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander's PNK-S sight.

The gunner's 1A43 day FCS comprises: 1G46 day sight/rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabilizer, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge.

The commander's PNK-4S sight includes a TKN-4S (Agat-S) day/night sight which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night). The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.


T-90S, of the indian Army. The T-90S is one of the best protected MBTs in the world.

The T-90S features the low silhouette of the earlier Russian tanks, with a low rounded turret centered on the hull, and is fitted with combined passive and active defenses which make the T-90S one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world. The glacis is covered by second generation explosive reactive armor [ERA] bricks, as is the turret. This ERA gives the turret an angled appearance, with the ERA bricks forming a "clam shell" appearance. ERA bricks on the turret roof provide protection from top-attack weapons.

The T-90S is equipped with the TShU-1-7 Shtora-1 optronic counter measures system, produced by Electronintorg of Russia, which is designed to disrupt the laser target designation and rangefinders of incoming ATGM. The T-90S is also equipped with a laser warning package that warns the tank crew when it is being lased. Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that jams the enemy's semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora-1 is actually a soft kill, or countermeasures system, which is most effective when used in tandem with a hard kill system such as the Arena.


Photos: Lots Of T-90 Main Battle Tanks Supplied By Russia To Syrian Army

The Syrian Military Capabilities blog has released fresh photos of T-90 main battle tanks supplied by Russia to the Syrian army.

More about Russian battle tanks:

Click to see the full-size image

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Ankara Prepares To Plunge Syria’s North Into Pandemonium

When the Syrian nation with Russians win this war and stabilize the country, Syrian will become a major military player in the region! They had learned with the toughest lessons, they are the land where the most powerful military of the world pointed their cannons and proxy warriors. They shall prevail and they will be the strongest.

Best wishes from Brazil to Syrian people. You will win this battle!

The Syrian military has been toughened by years of actual, on the ground combat against the murderers supplied by the US and its puppets. They and the Syrian people have sustained horrific losses in terms of lives lost and destruction to their country. Here in the US we are always exposed to the propaganda generated by the Zionist-allied media that the Israelis are the best fighting force in west Asia. That is utter nonsense. They are only good at killing and tormenting Palestinians. Without the massive military and financial support from Uncle Stupid (Sam) they are lost. Greetings from the Big Apple.

Are you retarded the Palestinians are basicly terrorists who want the deaths of every Israeli jew. you know they did beat Syria and Egypt in one war so the must be better than you think

Tá bravo cara ? Olha só a foto :)

Como não ficar nesses tempos? Salve xD

Lol, estava brincando, tem razão, os tempos não são favoráveis!!

yes God willing thank you!!

1:50 Strange, you didn’t include Kaliningrad as part of Russia.

Nor Kosovo as part of Serbia

Use them well…use them, for good!

Use them against Daesh and al Nusra!

And turkey if they have to!

Syrian needs no less then 300 of these tanks just to fend off the next Zionist invasion of their country, and to counter attack and liberate the Syrian-Golan-Heights from the Jewish-Colonialist.
http://ifamericaknew.org/

Israel won the Golan Heights after a war. If Israel and Syria would go to war again and Syrian would win back the Golan Heights, it would be fair. Israel never built anything really in the GH, it´s pretty wild land however it has a precious view, which made it worth taking at the time.

Hitler won Poland after a war, was that right?

Two totally different cases. By the way part of Poland throughout history pas polish then German then polish again then German again and so on.

syria needs bacteriological weapons against israel

If you say so. What Syria needs is more Kurd autonomy, that would be good for everyone and would keep a power balance translated into peace, Shalom.

The Syrian Kurds and government have recently come to some agreements . They already have autonomy , we will find out soon the new agreements . Peace brother .

such form of autonomy will get kurds. but not that type, that kurds can have own army.

Then Assad will have to convince them that in case of danger, they can rely on SAA. Can they rely on SAA?

i am sure they can. also now is happening this.

i know, kurd say, assad did not protect them before isis. but, in taht time assad lost whole east syria, too.

Besides, kurds do not have an army at least not in Syria, what they have are defense units, hardly an army but still quite effective !

dfense units are form of army.
i think, assad should allow for all minorities use aalso their lenguages in offices in towns, villages whera are present at least 30%.

Zyclon B is another possible option as a bug killer.

It seems you are either proposing another genocide or expressing admiration for the first genocide of jews.

I am surprised and offended that the moderater did not block you for this. The same goes for Krupacek

waepons = regular war
KY camps = genocide.

But the Israeli’s have now discovered natural carbon resources under it – so while always militarily valuable – now potentially financially very valuable as well, so Israel will double down and not give it up.

Yes but i doubt when Israel won the Golan during the war that they knew that there was wealth beneath.

Golan Heights has a pool of oil beneath it estimated to be the equal of Saudi Arabia’s . That is why Israel does not want to give it back to Syria .

Why should they, Syria lost the GH in a war. Maybe all americans should give back the states to the various Indian tribes? Part of Germany was polish before WWII, maybe Germany should give it back to Poland etc…

It is called International Law .
And on Poland , that part that was Polish before WWll , was German before WWl .
Israel should stop playing the victim , and stop victimizing , and settle with the Palestinians . The “two state” solution will not work , because Hamas is Sunni aligned and the West Bank is Shia aligned . A “three state” solution for three separate land masses is achievable . If just the revenue from the Gaza off-shore oil was split three ways , all three countries would be wealthy. The Muslims and the rest of the world can clearly see the injustice to the native Palestinians . Peace is much more enjoyable than war .


Se videoen: T-90 SM Tagil Russian Main Battle Tank