Battle of the Downs, (Søslag), 21. oktober 1639

Battle of the Downs, (Søslag), 21. oktober 1639


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Battle of the Downs, (Søslag), 21. oktober 1639

Stor hollandsk flådesejr over spanierne under trediveårskrigen. En stor spansk armada på 75 skibe indeholdende 13.000 rekrutter på vej til Flandern fra Spanien blev opsnappet af en meget mindre hollandsk flåde på 18 skibe under admiral Maarten Tromp. Den 16. september angreb hollænderne først og tvang spanierne til at trække sig tilbage. Et andet angreb den 18. september af en nu forstærket hollandsk flåde tvang spanierne til at flygte ind i neutrale engelske farvande og søge ly i Downs roadstead. Mens en svag engelsk eskadrille forsøgte at forhindre enhver kamp, ​​leverede Tromp igen, og den 21. oktober iværksatte et angreb i neutrale farvande. Engelske forsøg på at beskytte spanierne var ineffektive, og Tromp påførte den spanske flåde et knusende nederlag. Halvfjerds spanske skibe blev sænket eller fanget. Slaget ødelagde det, der var tilbage af den spanske flådemagt, svækkede deres position i Flandern alvorligt og gav hollænderne ubestridt flådeoverlegenhed. På trods af at han ignorerede engelsk neutralitet, blev Tromp adlet af Charles I i 1642.

Thirty Years War Index - Thirty Years War Books


Slaget ved Portland

Søværnet Slaget ved Portland, eller Tre dages kamp fandt sted i løbet af 18.-20. februar 1653 (28. februar-2. marts 1653 (gregoriansk kalender)), [a] under den første engelsk-hollandske krig, da flåden i Commonwealth of England under general ved havet Robert Blake blev angrebet af en flåde i den hollandske republik under løjtnant-admiral Maarten Tromp, der eskorterer handelsskibsfart gennem Den Engelske Kanal.

Slaget lykkedes ikke at afvikle den engelske kanals overherredømme, selvom begge sider hævdede sejr, og den ultimative kontrol over kanalen kun ville blive afgjort ved slaget ved Gabbard, som tillod englænderne at blokere den hollandske kyst indtil slaget ved Scheveningen, hvor Admiral Maarten Tromp blev dræbt i en ildkamp.


Imperial Spain versus the Dutch: 1621-1639

Inden våbenhvilen udløb, måtte spanierne finde ud af en måde at komme sig på og derefter bekæmpe hollænderne. Don Gaspar de Guzmán, grevhertug af Olivares, troede, han vidste hvordan. Spanien var, ligesom Frankrig, ikke en naturlig flådemagt, og hendes mest frygtindgydende styrke var hæren og ikke flåden. Holland kunne isoleres af hæren i Flandern, troede Olivares, kysten blokerede, dens handel blev nedskåret i kanalen af ​​spanske private og økonomien ødelagt, før spanskerne invaderede kystlinjen.

Spanien måtte sprede sine begrænsede flådestyrker tyndt ud over verden for at beskytte endeløse havbaner og hendes spredte imperium mod hollandsk, fransk eller engelsk angreb. Den vigtigste spanske flåde var Armada del Mar Oceano, eller Atlanterhavsflåden, der blev oprettet for at forsvare alle vigtige søbaner over Atlanterhavet. Uden sølvet i New Spain (Mexico) ville Spaniens økonomi og med dem hendes evne til at føre krig falde sammen. I begyndelsen af ​​1620'erne, efter et forsinket byggeprogram påbegyndt i 1617, talte denne flåde 46 skibe. Den største flådebase, Cadiz, husede 23 skibe og yderligere 18 galleoner var stationeret i Gibraltar. Spanierne havde brugt 2,6 millioner dukater på at bygge omkring 24 galleoner. I 1638 havde den spanske sømagt aldrig været mere imponerende.

Vildstille eller ej, havde hollænderne rundet Hornkappen (Tierra del Fuego) i maj 1615 med seks krigsskibe under admiral Joris van Speilbergen og redet med tab af to spanske skibe, admiral Rodrigo de Mendozas Armada del Mar Sur (sydlige Stillehavsflåden). På flugt til Callao forlod Mendoza de uforfærdede hollændere for at plyndre store dele af Stillehavskysten i det spanske Amerika. For at forhindre lignende katastrofer i Atlanterhavet genopbyggede spanskerne deres konvojeflåde (Armada de la Guardia) specifikt for at beskytte de årlige sølvflåder (Flotas) der sejlede fra Vera Cruz via Havanna til Cadiz med mexicansk sølv. Windward Fleet (Armada de Barlovento) blev oprettet under admiral Fadrique de Toledo og stationeret i Havana eller Cadiz, afhængigt af behovet, for at rydde ud af piraterne, der angreb Vestindien og truede spanske kommunikationslinjer. Men krav knyttet til en anden krig med Frankrig, der brød ud i 1635, udtømte begge kræfter. Disse var stadig hovedsageligt defensive foranstaltninger, der lod hollænderne frit vokse sig stadig stærkere baseret på deres næsten monopol på handel med Østersøen. Uden tømmeret fra denne handel ville de hollandske skibe rådne uden sine flådelager (tjære, pitch, reb og hamp), den hollandske flåde ville blive forringet og uden polsk korn ville dens indbyggere sulte. Olivares lagde derfor planer i 1626 om at samarbejde med Polen om at opbygge en fælles flåde med baser enten i Riga eller Danzig for at byde på hollandsk skibsfart. Planer om en flådebase ved Weimar eller Stralsund blev planlagt indtil 1630, da Sveriges indtræden i trediveårskrigen satte pris på disse planer.
Olivares var en dristig global strateg, der var villig til at spille for høje indsatser. Hvis den hollandske vestlige forbindelse gennem kanalen kunne afbrydes, ville det ødelægge dem lige så meget som hvis deres baltiske livline blev afbrudt. I 1621 tildelte Olivares 20.000 dukater til forbedringen af ​​Dunkerque og bygningen af ​​20 galioner der. Planen var at have 40 galeoner i Dunkerque i januar 1636. Dette var muligt, da de spanske værfter trods mangel på penge og kvalificeret arbejdskraft byggede 50 skibe om året i løbet af 1620'erne og 1630'erne. Fra Dunkirk tog spanske privatpersoner hårdt og støt på vej fra hollandsk skibsfart og på fiskeriet ved Nordsøen og ramte hollænderne i deres lommer og#8211 deres mest sårbare punkt.

The Downs 1638: Spaniens sidste spil
I 1638 virkede den hollandske isoleret og håbløst opdelt og#8211 moden til plukningen. Olivares planlagde at knuse hollænderne i en knibtang mellem kardinal Infantes stamgæster i Belgien, der avancerede nord for Maas-Rhinen og en amfibiel landing på Hollandskysten. Ved at bruge Dunkerque som base for denne invasionflåde ville spanierne sende 20.000 mand i specialbyggede pramme med stumpe ender, lavvandede udkast, 12 kanoner og en kapacitet til at bære 150 musketerer. Der blev udstedt ordrer til de allerede overstrakte værfter til at begynde at masseproducere landingsprammerne. Gennem deres agenter lærte hollænderne snart, hvad Olivares planlagde, og de belejrede Dunkerque og#8211 lynchpin af alle greve-hertugens planer for total sejr. Olivares 'plan var måske fed, men den var alt for afhængig af den enkelte kanalhavn, og den overvurderede Spaniens havkraft. Begge fejl skulle vise sig at være fatale.

Slaget ved Downs 1638
Denne vigtigste af havkampene signalerede hollændernes opstigning som verdens største sømagt, men alligevel er den ofte blevet overset. Den nederlandske admiral Maarten Tromp formåede trods overvældende odds at besejre den spanske flåde ud for den franske kyst. Admiral de Oquendo flygtede med sine skibe for den tvivlsomme sikkerhed for Spaniens tidligere fjende, England, ved Downs. Efter at have ventet på forstærkninger og indset, at spanierne ikke ville komme ud for at give kamp, ​​angreb Tromp den 21. oktober. Skydende hurtige runder og kom tæt på et drab, hans besætninger stolede på deres frækhed mod en uerfaren fjende. De spanske skibe blev revet med skud, og Tromp frigjorde derefter sine ildskibe med ødelæggende resultater. Santa Theresa, flagskib for Admiral de Hoces, eksploderede og tog både admiralen og hans besætning til havets bund. Oquendo formåede at flygte med resterne af sin flåde og leverede nogle, men ikke alle, af de lovede tropper til kardinal-Infantes hær i Flandern.

I juli 1639 koncentrerede Olivares den største Armada siden 1588 under kommando af admiral Antonio de Oquendo. Dette var langt fra et ideelt valg, da hollænderne havde forvirret ham tilbage i 1631, og han var oppe imod en gammel havhund, løjtnantadmiralen i Holland, Maarten Tromp. Tromp havde knust spanierne ved Gravelines i 1588, og han fortsatte nu med at blokere Dunkerque.

Igen var Olivares planer i stor stil. Oquendos store Armada ville feje kanalen op, besejre den hollandske flåde, aflaste Dunkerque og forberede vejen til en invasion af Holland. En flåde på 24 galeoner samlet i Cadiz under Oquendo, mens 63 skibe samledes under viceadmiral Lope de Hoces i Corunna. I alt 30 transporter (inklusive 7 hyrede engelske skibe) skulle transportere 8500 tropper til Flandern. Denne Armada var numerisk mindre end den i 1588 (i både skibe og mænd). Men spanskmændene havde lært de bitre lektioner i det tragiske år: deres galeoner havde ordentlig skudsport, uddannede mandskaber, der godt kunne bruge deres våben og frem for alt masser af artilleri. Galleonerne var hurtigere, bedre udstyret og kraftigere skudt end i nogen tidligere spansk flåde. Oquendo sejlede den 6. september.

Hollandske krydsere opdagede denne enorme Armada på 77 krigsskibe og 55 transporter lige ved Selsey Bill i kanalens vestlige tilgange. Signalet blev givet til at forberede sig til kamp. Tromp havde kun 17 skibe, men tøvede ikke med at angribe. Den spanske Armada holdt god orden og ventede på at skyde, indtil hollænderne var tæt nok. Med overlegne tal og en gunstig vind var Oquendo sikker på, at han ville vinde. Spanierne kæmpede med sædvanlig inderlighed og ved mundingen af ​​Somme lykkedes det at omgive hollænderne. En række spanske skibe, herunder Oquendos flagskib Santiago, blev imidlertid hårdt beskadiget af hollandsk brand. Da han var klar over, at hans flådes første prioritet var at beskytte de spanske tropper, signalerede Oquendo sine kaptajner til at trække sig tilbage. Flåden sejlede nordpå og tog tilflugt ved forankringen af ​​Downs på den engelske kyst.

Selvom de var teoretisk neutrale, spillede de pro-hollandske englænder ekstremt tilbageholdende værter over for deres gæster, der blev opkrævet gennem næsen for forsyninger. Den tøvende og selvtvivlende Oquendo plagede i mellemtiden over, om han skulle blive ved, mens hans skibe blev repareret og gav hollænderne tid til at vokse sig stærkere eller til at løbe til Dunkirk. Tromp udnyttede sin tid bedre. Hollandske søforstærkninger, både krigsskibe og bevæbnede købmænd, væltede ind, og da han havde mere end 100 fartøjer, besluttede Tromp at angribe. Han adskilte 30 skibe under admiral Witte de With for at holde admiral Sir John Peningtons svævende engelske flåde i skak, og den 21. oktober gav han signal om at angribe.

En faldende tåge gav Tromp's slaglinje, sejlbue til akter, godt dækning, da den kom over fjenden, og overraskede spanierne. Hollænderne havde små, kompakte krigsskibe, men godt artilleri og besætninger til at håndtere kanonerne. Generelt stolede hollænderne på aggressive kampe i nærkvarteret, undertiden ombordstigning og den liberale, dødelige brug af ildskibe. I betragtning af den spanske overlegenhed i vægt, i højden på skibssider, i artilleri og frem for alt i bevæbnede mandskaber, besluttede Tromp at holde en forsigtig afstand. Han havde 96 krigsskibe og 12 brandskibe. Hans eget flagskib, Aemelia, havde kun 46 kanoner. Ligesom får i en stald slog de spanske fartøjer sig omkring Oquendos Santiago og det portugisiske flagskib Santa Theresa, mens de hollandske havulve bar ned. Den tykke tåge gjorde det svært at skelne ven fra fjende og mange spanske skibe affyrede i deres egen flådes mange rækker. Hollænderne rykkede tættere på, affyrede på nært hold og rivede de overfyldte spanske dæk med dødbringende skud. Santiago var så gådefuld med skud, at det så ud, spøgede hollænderne som et dørslag.

Tromp spillede nu sit es. Mod en uorganiseret og nervøs fjende, hvis chef havde mistet kontrollen over sin store flåde, frigjorde hollænderne de frygtede ildskibe. Disse skabte ødelæggelse inden for fjendens tæt sammensatte rækker. Blandt deres ofre var Santa Theresa, der brød i brand og sprængte med alle mænd om bord, herunder admiral Hoces.

Oquendo flygtede med de skibe, han kunne mønstre, herunder Santiago, til den belgiske kyst. Det var Spaniens sidste terningekast, og spillet var mislykket. Spaniens engang mægtige flåde var en skygge af sit tidligere jeg, og hollænderne, takket være Tromp og hans frygtløse hollændere, styrede nu bølgerne.


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Dette arbejde er i offentligt domæne i USA, fordi den blev offentliggjort (eller registreret hos U.S. Copyright Office) inden den 1. januar 1926.


Slaget ved Downs

Det Slaget ved Downs fandt sted den 21. oktober under firsårskrigen. / 31. oktober 1639 greg. i Downs i den engelske kanal. Flåden i Det Forenede Holland under admiral Maarten Tromp besejrede den spansk-portugisiske flåde af admiral Antonio de Oquendo.

Den hollandske flåde før kampen, nutidigt maleri

Den spanske flåde på mere end 70 skibe var på vej fra La Coruña til Dunkerque. Der var omkring 24.000 forstærkninger om bord til den spanske hær i Holland. På vej gennem Den Engelske Kanal blev hun i slutningen af ​​september observeret af en hollandsk eskadrille på omkring et dusin skibe under ordre fra Tromp, der sejlede foran hende, men ventede på yderligere støtte til et angreb. Da han efter et par dage modtog forstærkninger fra flere skibe under viceadmiral Witte de With, angreb han spanierne og dannede sine skibe i kølelinje. Dette var den første kendte anvendelse af skibstaktaktik, som senere blev standarden inden for søkrig. Ved at koncentrere ilden fra hans skibe på de stærkeste fjendtlige skibe, var han i stand til alvorligt at skade dem og få spanierne til at vende sig bort.

De Oquendo, der ikke var villig til at risikere at miste de tropper, han havde betroet ham, gav instrukser om at omarrangere flåden i Downs, et lavt havstrækning ud for Kent -kysten. Dette blev betragtet som et engelsk og derfor neutralt område. Han håbede, at sæsonens sædvanlige hårde vejr ville tvinge hollænderne ind i havnene. De brugte den tid, spanierne brugte reparationer til at genopbygge deres pulverlagre. Efter at de fandt den spanske flåde stadig ved Downs ved deres tilbagevenden, bad de om yderligere forstærkninger til et nyt angreb. Det hollandske admiralitet rekvirerede derefter et antal handelsskibe, der var bevæbnet med kanoner og bemandet af frivillige. Dette øgede den hollandske flåde til i alt over 100 skibe i løbet af oktober, herunder flere brandskibe.

I mellemtiden var spanierne begyndt at bringe tropper til Flandern på engelske skibe og under det engelske flag. Tromp reagerede ved at stoppe skibene og få dem gennemsøgt.

Den 31. oktober angreb Tromp de forankrede spaniere med tre eskadriller i en gunstig vind. Andre eskadriller dannede flankebeskyttelse og holdt øje med den nærliggende engelske flåde. Mange spanske befalingsmænd foretrak at sætte deres skibe på grund frem for at overlade dem til hollænderne, mens andre forsøgte gennembrud. De blev modtaget af hollænderne med deres brandskibe. Det portugisiske flagskib Santa Teresa blev også tændt. De Oquendo formåede at bryde igennem til Dunkerque med kun få skibe.

I alt mistede spanierne over 40 skibe og sandsynligvis flere tusinde mænd og kvinder den dag. De nederlandske tab var omkring ti skibe og 1.000 mand. Selvom denne kamp ikke sluttede krigen, svækkede den den spanske flådemagt kraftigt og satte krigen i Flandern tilbage.


Borgerkrigs tidslinje

6. november 1860- Abraham Lincoln er valgt til sekstende præsident i USA, den første republikanske præsident i nationen, der repræsenterer et parti, der er imod spredningen af ​​slaveri i USA's områder.

17. december 1860- Den første Sessionskonvention mødes i Columbia, South Carolina.

20. december 1860- South Carolina løsrer sig fra Unionen.

Januar 1861 - Seks yderligere sydstater løsriver sig fra Unionen.

8-9. Februar 1861 - De sydlige stater, der løsrev sig, opretter en regering i Montgomery, Alabama, og Amerikas konfødererede stater dannes.

18. februar 1861- Jefferson Davis udnævnes til den første præsident for Amerikas Forenede Stater i Montgomery, Alabama, en stilling, han vil have, indtil der kan arrangeres valg.

4. marts 1861- Abraham Lincoln indvies som USA's sekstende præsident i Washington, DC.

12. april 1861 - Sydlige styrker skyder mod Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Borgerkrigen er formelt begyndt.

15. april 1861- Præsident Lincoln udsender en offentlig erklæring om, at der eksisterer en opstand, og opfordrer 75.000 militser til at stoppe oprøret. Som et resultat af denne opfordring til frivillige skiller yderligere fire sydstater sig ud af Unionen i de følgende uger. Lincoln reagerer den 3. maj med en yderligere opfordring til mere end 43.000 frivillige til at tjene i tre år og udvide størrelsen af ​​den almindelige hær.

24. maj 1861- Unionens styrker krydser Potomac -floden og indtager Arlington Heights, hjemsted for den kommende konfødererede general Robert E. Lee. Det er under besættelsen af ​​det nærliggende Alexandria, at oberst Elmer Ellsworth, chef for det 11. infanteri i New York og en nær ven af ​​Lincolns, bliver skudt af ejeren af ​​Marshallhuset lige efter at have fjernet et konfødereret flag fra dets tag.

3. juni 1861- En træfning nær Philippi i det vestlige Virginia er det første sammenstød mellem Unionens og de konfødererede styrker i øst.

10. juni 1861- Slaget ved Big Bethel, det første landslag i krigen i Virginia.

20. juni 1861-Ved kulminationen på Wheeling -konventionen brød regionen, der sammensatte de nordvestlige amter i Virginia, ud af denne stat for at danne West Virginia, officielt udpeget og accepteret som Unionens 35. stat 20. juni 1863.

21. juli 1861- Slaget ved Bull Run (eller First Manassas) udkæmpes nær Manassas, Virginia. Unionens hær under general Irwin McDowell lykkes i første omgang med at drive konfødererede styrker tilbage under general Pierre Gustav Toutant Beauregard, men ankomsten af ​​tropper under general Joseph E. Johnston indleder en række vendinger, der sender McDowells hær i et panisk tilbagetog til forsvaret i Washington . Det er her, Thomas Jonathan Jackson, professor ved VMI, vil modtage evig berømmelse som "Stonewall" Jackson.

Juli 1861-For at modvirke den konfødererede trussel i det nordlige Virginia er en række jordværker og forter konstrueret til at omringe byen Washington, hvilket øger beskyttelsen, der allerede tilbydes af aktive stillinger såsom Fort Washington ved Potomac -floden.

10. august 1861- Slaget ved Wilson's Creek, Missouri. Unionens hær under general Nathaniel Lyon, angriber konfødererede tropper og statsmilits sydvest for Springfield, Missouri, og efter en katastrofal dag, der omfattede Lyons død, bliver de kastet tilbage. Den konfødererede sejr understreger den stærke sydlige tilstedeværelse vest for Mississippi -floden.

28.-29. August 1861- Fort Hatteras ved Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, falder til Unionens flådestyrker. Dette begynder den første EU -indsats for at lukke sydlige havne langs Carolina -kysten.

20. september 1861- Lexington, Missouri falder til de konfødererede styrker under Sterling Price.

21. oktober 1861- Slaget ved Ball's Bluff, Virginia. Oberst Edward D. Baker, senator fra Oregon og en ven af ​​præsident Lincoln, førte tropper over Potomac -floden for kun at blive tvunget tilbage til flodens kant, hvor han blev dræbt. Den efterfølgende EU-tilbagetrækning blev til en rute, hvor mange soldater druknede, mens de forsøgte at krydse Potomac-flodens iskolde vand igen.

19. januar 1862- Slaget ved Mill Springs, Kentucky. Unionens sejr svækkede det konfødererede greb om staten.

6. februar 1862- Overgivelse af Fort Henry, Tennessee. Tabet af dette sydlige fort ved Tennessee -floden åbnede døren til Unionens kontrol over floden.

8. februar 1862- Slaget ved Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Et konfødereret nederlag, slaget resulterede i Unionens besættelse af det østlige North Carolina og kontrol over Pamlico Sound, der skulle bruges som nordlig base til yderligere operationer mod den sydlige kyst.

16. februar 1862- Overgivelse af Fort Donelson, Tennessee. Dette primære sydlige fort ved Cumberland -floden forlod floden i Unionens hænder. Det var her Unionens general Ulysses S. Grant fik sit øgenavn "Ubetinget overgivelse".

22. februar 1862- Jefferson Davis indvies som præsident for Amerikas Forenede Stater.

7-8 marts 1862- Slaget ved Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern), Arkansas. Unionens sejr løsnede den konfødererede besiddelse af Missouri og forstyrrede den sydlige kontrol med en del af Mississippi -floden.

9. marts 1862- Søslaget mellem USS Overvåge og CSS Virginia (den gamle USS "Merrimack"), den første "ironclads", udkæmpes i Hampton Roads, Virginia.

6-7. April 1862- Slaget ved Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), det første store slag i Tennessee. Konfødererede general Albert Sidney Johnston, en veteran fra Texas -uafhængighedskrigen og krigen med Mexico, der anses for at være en af ​​de fineste officerer, Syd har, bliver dræbt på den første kampdag. Unionens sejr sikrer yderligere Union General Ulysses S. Grants karriere.

24.-25. April 1862 - En unions flåde af skibe under admiral David Farragut passerer forbundsfæstede forter, der vogter udløbet af Mississippi -floden. Den 25. april ankom flåden til New Orleans, hvor de krævede overgivelse af byen. Inden for to dage falder forterne i Unionens hænder, og mundingen af ​​den store flod er under Unionens kontrol.

25. maj 1862 - Første slag ved Winchester, Virginia. Efter to ugers manøvrering og kampe ved Cross Keys og Front Royal angriber general "Stonewall" Jackson Unionens styrker ved Winchester og driver dem med succes fra byen. Sejren er kulminationen på hans 1862 Valley Campaign.

31. maj-1. juni 1862- Slaget ved Seven Pines nær Richmond, Virginia. General Joseph Johnston, chef for den konfødererede hær i Virginia, bliver såret og erstattet af Robert E. Lee, der omdøber sin kommando til "Army of Northern Virginia".

6. juni 1862- Slaget ved Memphis, Tennessee. En unionsflotille under Commodore Charles Davis besejrer med succes en konfødereret flodstyrke på Mississippi -floden nær byen, og Memphis overgiver sig. Mississippifloden er nu i Unionens kontrol bortset fra dens forløb vest for Mississippi, hvor byen Vicksburg står som den sidste sydlige højborg på den store flod.

25. juni-1. juli 1862- De syv dages kampe før Richmond. General Lees hær angriber "Army of the Potomac" under general George McClellan i en række kampe, der begynder ved Mechanicsville den 26. juni og slutter på Malvern Hill den 1. juli.

30.-31. August 1862- Slaget ved Second Bull Run (eller Second Manassas) udkæmpes på samme grund, hvor Unionens hær et år før blev besejret og sendt spolende på tilbagetog til Washington. På samme måde er resultatet af denne kamp et unionsnederlag.

17. september 1862- Slaget ved Antietam (eller Sharpsburg), Maryland, den blodigste enkeltdag i borgerkrigen. Resultatet af slaget ender general Lees første invasion af nord. Efter Unionens sejr vil præsident Lincoln introducere Emancipation Proclamation, en bekendtgørelse, der frigjorde hver slave i de konfødererede stater.

13. december 1862- Slaget ved Fredericksburg, Virginia. Army of the Potomac, under general Ambrose Burnside, er forsvarligt besejret af Lees styrker efter en risikabel flodoverskridelse og afskedigelse af byen.

31. december-3. januar 1863- Slaget ved Stones River, Tennessee. Kæmpet mellem Union Army of the Cumberland under general William Rosecrans og Confederate Army of Tennessee under general Braxton Bragg frigør den dyre unionssejr det midterste Tennessee fra konfødereret kontrol og øger den nordlige moral.

1. januar 1863- Emancipationserklæringen træder i kraft. Bifaldet af mange afskaffelsesfolk, herunder Frederick Douglass, er der andre, der mener, at det ikke rækker langt nok til helt at afskaffe slaveriet.

3. marts 1863- Værnepligt eller indkaldelse af soldater til militærtjeneste begynder i nord. Det var begyndt i Syd året før.

April 1863 - Unionens styrker i øst indleder en ny kampagne i Virginia for at flanke Lee's Army of Northern Virginia i Fredericksburg. I vest har en unionshær indledt en kampagne for at omringe og indtage Vicksburg, Mississippi, den sidste konfødererede højborg ved Mississippi -floden.

1-4 maj 1863 - Slaget ved Chancellorsville, Virginia. General Lees største sejr er ødelagt af det dødelige sår på "Stonewall" Jackson, der dør den 10. maj. Kort efter beder Lee Jefferson Davis om tilladelse til at invadere Norden og tage krigen ud af Virginia.

18. maj 1863 - Belejringen af ​​Vicksburg, Mississippi begynder. Unionens styrker under general Ulysses S. Grant angriber konfødererede forsvar uden for byen den 19.-22. Maj. Hvis Vicksburg falder, bliver Mississippi -floden fuldstændig kontrolleret af Unionen.

9. juni 1863 - Slaget ved Brandy Station, Virginia. Unionens kavalerikræfter krydser Rapidan -floden for at angribe general J.E.B. Stuarts kavaleri og opdag, at Lees mænd bevæger sig vestpå mod Shenandoah -dalen. Borgerkrigens største kavalerikamp markerer også begyndelsen på Gettysburg -kampagnen. I mellemtiden er Unionens angreb på Vicksburg, Mississippi blevet en belejring af byen, hvor både soldater og civile lider under konstant bombardement.

14.-15. Juni 1863 - Slaget ved Second Winchester, Virginia. Forbundstropper under general Richard Ewell besejrer unionsstyrker under general Robert Milroy og rydder Shenandoah -dalen for unionsstyrker.

28. juni 1863 - Gettysburg -kampagnen fortsætter. Konfødererede passerer gennem York og når broen over Susquehanna -floden ved Columbia, men Unionens milits satte ild til broen og nægtede adgang til østkysten. Sydlige kavaleri træfninger med Union milits nær Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

1-3. Juli - Slaget ved Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Borgerkrigens blodigste slag ødelægger Robert E. Lees håb om en vellykket invasion af Norden.

4. juli - Vicksburg, Mississippi, overgiver sig til unionshæren under bevilling. Indfangelsen af ​​Vicksburg giver Unionen fuldstændig kontrol over Mississippi -floden, en vital forsyningslinje for de konfødererede stater i vest. I Gettysburg begynder Lee sit tilbagetog til Virginia.

10.-11. Juli 1863 - Unionens flåde- og landstyrker angriber konfødererede forsvar nær Charleston, South Carolina. Blandt Unionens tropper er det 54. Massachusetts Colored Infantry, det første afroamerikanske regiment af frivillige, der så kamp.

13. juli 1863 - Udkast til optøjer begynder i New York City og andre steder som utilfredse arbejdere og arbejdere, der siver over udkastssystemet, der tilsyneladende favoriserer de rige, angriber udkastskontoret og afroamerikanske kirker. Optøjer fortsætter til og med 16. juli.

13.-14. Juli 1863 - Nær Falling Waters, Maryland, træner unionstropper med Lee's bagvagt. Den nat krydser hæren i det nordlige Virginia Potomac -floden, og Gettysburg -kampagnen slutter.

18. juli 1863 - Andet overfald på batteri Wagner, South Carolina. Leder Unionens infanteriafgift er det 54. Massachusetts Coloured Infanteri under kommando af oberst Robert Gould Shaw, der bliver dræbt og begravet sammen med de døde fra sit regiment.

21. august 1863 - Afskedigelse af Lawrence, Kansas. I et morderisk raid i dagslys stormer konfødererede og Missouri -guerillaer under William Clarke Quantrill ind i Lawrence og ødelægger det meste af byen. Cirka 150 mænd og drenge bliver myrdet af Quantrills mænd.

9. september 1863 - Chattanooga, Tennessee, er besat af unionsstyrker under general William Rosecrans, hvis hær i Cumberland snart vil invadere det nordlige Georgien.

19. september -20, 1863 - Slaget ved Chickamauga, Georgien. Unionens hær i Cumberland under general William Rosecrans er besejret og næsten dirigeret af den konfødererede hær i Tennessee under kommando af general Braxton Bragg. Rosecrans hær trækker sig tilbage til forsyningsbasen i Chattanooga, Tennessee.

september - november 1863 - Belejringen af ​​Chattanooga, Tennessee. Konfødererede styrker under Braxton Bragg omgiver den besatte by. General Ulysses S. Grant får til opgave at kommandere tropperne der og begynder øjeblikkelige planer om at aflaste den belejrede unionshær.

5. oktober 1863 - Uden for Charleston Harbour, konfødererede David, et delvist nedsænket, dampdrevet fartøj, angreb New Ironsides, en del af EU -flåden, der blokerer havnen, med en torpedo. Begge skibe overlevede angrebet, selvom chefen for David og en af ​​hans besætning blev taget til fange.

9. oktober -22, 1863 - Bristoe Station -kampagne. I en finte mod Washington marcherer Lees hær i det nordlige Virginia ind i det nordlige Virginia i et forsøg på at flanke Potomac -hæren under general Meade. Lee udmanøvrerede med succes Meade, selvom det ikke lykkes at bringe ham til kamp eller fange ham i det fri. En forlovelse på Bristoe Station, Virginia, den 14. oktober giver kampagnen sit navn.

19. november 1863 - Indvielse af Soldiers 'National Cemetery i Gettysburg. Præsident Abraham Lincoln holder Gettysburg -talen.

23. november -25, 1863 - Slaget om Chattanooga. Fagforeningsstyrker bryder den konfødererede belejring af byen i successive angreb. Den mest bemærkelsesværdige begivenhed er stormen af ​​Lookout Mountain den 24. november og Battle of Missionary Ridge den følgende dag. Den afgørende unionssejr sender den konfødererede hær sydpå i Georgien, hvor general Bragg reorganiserer sine styrker, inden han trækker sig fra kommandoen den 30. november.

26. november -1. december 1863- Mine Run -kampagnen. Meades Army of the Potomac marcherer mod Lees Army i Northern Virginia syd for Rapidan River, øst for Orange Court House. Lee reagerer og kaster en række forsvarsværker langs bredden af ​​Mine Run Creek. Efter flere dage med at have undersøgt forsvaret trækker Meade sig tilbage nord for Rapidan og går i vinterkvarter.

27. november til 3. december 1863 - Belejring af Knoxville, Tennessee. De konfødererede tropper under general James Longstreet belejrede byen Knoxville, som blev holdt af unionens styrker under general Ambrose Burnside. Longstreet angriber endelig den 30. november, men bliver frastødt med store tab. Ankomsten af ​​EU -forstærkninger tvinger ham til at trække sig tilbage til Greeneville, Tennessee, hvor hans korps vil tilbringe vinteren.

8. december 1863 - Lincoln udsender sin erklæring om amnesti og genopbygning, som ville benåde dem, der deltog i det "eksisterende oprør", hvis de afgiver ed til Unionen.

9. februar 1864 - Flugt fra Libby -fængslet, Richmond. Efter uger med at have gravet, flygtede 109 fagforeningsofficerer fra det berygtede Libby -fængsel, den største og mest opsigtsvækkende flugt fra krigen. Selvom 48 af de flugte senere blev taget til fange og to druknede, var 59 i stand til at komme ind i Unionens linjer.

27. februar 1864- I Georgien åbner Camp Sumter Prison Camp. Universelt omtalt som Andersonville Prison Camp, vil det blive berygtet for overfyldte forhold og en høj dødelighed blandt sine indsatte.

14.-20. Februar 1864 - Union Capture and Occupation of Meridian, Mississippi. Unionens styrker under William T. Sherman kommer ind i byen Meridian, Mississippi efter en vellykket måned med kampagne gennem den centrale del af staten. The capture of this important southern town, well known for its industry and storage capabilities, severely hampers the efforts of Confederate commanders to sustain their armies in the deep south, Georgia and west of the Mississippi River.

February 17, 1864 - First Successful Submarine Attack of the Civil War. CSS H.L. Hunley, a seven-man submergible craft, attacked the USS Houstonic outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Struck by the submarine's torpedo, the Housatonic broke apart and sank, taking all but five of her crew with her. Likewise, the Hunley was also lost and never heard from again until discovered in 1995 at the spot where it sank after the attack.

March 2, 1864 - Ulysses S. Grant is appointed lieutenant general, a rank revived at the request of President Lincoln. Grant assumes command of all Union Armies in the field the following day.

March 10, 1864 - The Red River Campaign begins. As part of an overall Union strategy to strike deep into various parts of the Confederacy, a combined force of army and navy commands under General Nathaniel Banks begins a campaign on the Red River in Louisiana.

April 8, 1864 - Battle of Sabine Crossroads or Mansfield, Louisiana, the first major battle of the Red River Campaign in Louisiana.

April 9, 1864 - Battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana. The Union Army under Banks defeats the attempt by Confederate forces under General Richard Taylor to drive them out of Louisiana. Unfortunately, the result of the campaign would be less than desired as it drew to a close in the first week of May with Confederates still in firm control of most of the state.

April 12, 1864 - Capture of Fort Pillow, Tennessee. After a rapid raid through central and western Tennessee, Confederate cavalry under Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked and overwhelmed the Union garrison at Fort Pillow, located on the Mississippi River. Among those garrisoning the fort were African American troops, many of whom were murdered by Forrest's angered troopers after they had surrendered. The affair was investigated and though charges of an atrocity were denied by Confederate authorities, the events at Fort Pillow cast a pall over Forrest's reputation and remained an emotional issue throughout the remainder of the war and after.

May 4-5, 1864- Battle of the Wilderness, Virginia , the opening battle of the "Overland Campaign" or "Wilderness Campaign". General Ulysses S. Grant, accompanying the Army of the Potomac under General Meade, issued orders for the campaign to begin on May 3. Lee responded by attacking the Union column in the dense woods and underbrush of an area known as the Wilderness, west of Fredericksburg, Virginia.

May 7, 1864- Beginning of the Atlanta Campaign. With three Union armies under his command, General William T. Sherman marched south from Tennessee into Georgia against the Confederate Army of Tennessee under General Joseph Johnston, the objective being the city of Atlanta.

May 8-21, 1864- Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia . Lee successfully stalls Grant's drive toward Richmond.

May 11, 1864 - Battle of Yellow Tavern. Six miles north of Richmond, Confederate cavalry under General J.E.B. Stuart blocked a force of Union cavalry under General Philip Sheridan. General Stuart was mortally wounded during the encounter.

May 14-15, 1864 - Battle of Resaca, Georgia. General Sherman's armies are blocked at Resaca by General Johnston's Army of Tennessee. After two days of maneuvering and intense fighting, Johnston withdraws. Sherman will advance but take precautions against ordering any further massed assaults where high casualties may occur.

June 1-3, 1864 - Battle of Cold Harbor, Virginia. Relentless and bloody Union attacks fail to dislodge Lee's army from its strong line of defensive works northeast of Richmond.

June 8, 1864 - Abraham Lincoln is nominated by his party for a second term as president.

June 10, 1864- Battle of Brice's Crossroads, Mississippi- In spite of being outnumbered almost two to one, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest attacks and routs the Union command under General Samuel Sturgis.

June 15-18, 1864- Assault on Petersburg, Virginia. After withdrawing from the lines at Cold Harbor, the Army of the Potomac crossed the James River and with troops from the Army of the James attacked the outer defenses of Petersburg, the primary junction for several southern railroads. After four days of bloody attacks, Grant accepts that only a siege can systematically isolate the city and cut off Confederate supplies to the capital of Richmond.

June 19, 1864 - The USS Kearsarge sinks the Confederate raider CSS Alabama near Cherbourg, France.

June 27, 1864 - Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. After weeks of maneuvering and battles, Sherman's Army of the Cumberland and Army of the Tennessee smash headlong into Johnston's carefully planned defenses at Big and Little Kennesaw. Johnston remains on this line until July 2, when he retreats at the threat being flanked by Sherman's mobile force.

July 9, 1864 - Battle of Monocacy, Maryland. In an attempt to draw Union troops away from the ongoing siege of Petersburg and Richmond, a Confederate force under Jubal Early quietly moved north into Maryland. Early had made excellent progress until he reached Frederick, Maryland, where a force of 6,000 Federal troops under General Lew Wallace, was arrayed to delay his advance. Though the battle was a Union defeat, it was also touted as "the battle that saved Washington" for it succeeded in holding back Early's march until troops could be sent to the capital's defense.

July 11-12, 1864- Attack on the Defenses of Washington. Jubal Early's troops arrive on the outskirts of Washington, DC, and trade cannon fire with a token Union force remaining in the forts around the city. President Lincoln observes the skirmishing from Fort Stevens as reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac arrive and quickly fill in the works. Early withdraws that evening.

July 14-15, 1864- Battles near Tupelo, Mississippi. The Union defeat of Nathan Bedford Forrest secured the supply lines to Sherman's armies operating against Atlanta, Georgia.

July 17, 1864 - General John Bell Hood replaces General Joseph Johnston as commander of the Army of Tennessee. This change in command signals a new Confederate strategy to thwart Sherman's campaign, though the end result will be disastrous for the southern cause.

July 20, 1864 - Battle of Peachtree Creek, Georgia, the first major battle around the city of Atlanta. General Hood sends his army out of the city's defenses to attack the approaching Federal troops under George Thomas. After several hours of fierce fighting, Hood withdrew back to his own defensive works.

July 21, 1864 - The Battle of Atlanta. Hood's second effort to throw back Union forces under Sherman brings him heavy casualties with no positive results. General James McPherson, commander of the Union Army of the Tennessee, is killed during the fighting.

July 30, 1864 - The Battle of the Crater at Petersburg, Virginia. After a month of tunneling by soldiers of the 48 th Pennsylvania Infantry, a massive mine was exploded under a Confederate fort in the Petersburg siege lines. The infantry charge that followed was poorly coordinated and by day's end, Confederate counterattacks had driven out the Union troops and the siege lines remained unchanged.

August 5, 1864 - Battle of Mobile Bay. A Union fleet under Admiral David Farragut steamed into Mobile Bay outside the city of Mobile, Alabama, defended by two strong forts and a small southern flotilla, including the formidable ironclad CSS Tennessee. Farragut's ships defeated the Confederate ships and bypassed the forts, capturing the important southern port.

August 18-19, 1864 - Battles on the Weldon Railroad near Petersburg, Virginia. Union attempts to capture this important railroad into Petersburg were stopped by Confederate counterattacks. Despite southern efforts, the Union remained in firm possession of their gains and the railroad.

August 25, 1864 - Battle of Ream's Station, near Petersburg, Virginia. A surprise Confederate counterattack briefly stopped Union destruction of the Weldon Railroad near Ream's Station, though failed to release the Union grip on this important supply line into Petersburg.

August 31- September 1, 1864 - Battle of Jonesborough, Georgia. The final southern counterattack against Union troops outside the city of Atlanta fails.

September 1, 1864 - Fall of Atlanta, Georgia. Confederate troops under General Hood evacuate the city of Atlanta. General Sherman's army occupies the city and its defenses the following day.

September 19, 1864 - Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia. Union forces under General Philip Sheridan attacked the Confederate army under Jubal Early near the city of Winchester and drove them southward, up the Shenandoah Valley.

September 22, 1864 - Battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia. The Union Army of the Shenandoah under General Philip Sheridan attacked Jubal Early's Confederates near Fisher's Hill, overpowering the southerners and again forcing them to flee the battlefield. Union officers and officials in Washington believe this to be the final battle in the Shenandoah Valley.

September 29-30, 1864 - Battle of Fort Harrison near Richmond, Virginia. In a sweeping assault, the Confederate stronghold known as Fort Harrison falls to the Army of the James. Confederate efforts to retake the fort fail.

October 19, 1864 - The Battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia. In an early morning surprise attack, Jubal Early's Confederates successfully attack and drive troops of the Army of the Shenandoah from their camps on the banks of Cedar Creek south of Middletown, Virginia. Hearing the fight from his headquarters at Winchester, General Philip Sheridan rides southward, rallying dispirited troops who return to the battlefield. By day's end, Early's forces are put to flight. Despite several attempts to disrupt the Union advance in the coming weeks, the battle for control of the Shenandoah Valley is over.

November 8, 1864 - Abraham Lincoln is reelected president of the United States.

November 16, 1864 - General Sherman's Army of Georgia begins the "March to the Sea"

November 30, 1864- Battle of Franklin, Tennessee. After a month of raiding Sherman's supply lines and attacking Union outposts, John Bell Hood's army confronts Union troops from General John Schofield's command, who they had encountered the day before near Spring Hill, Tennessee. A massive frontal assault on the well entrenched Federal line meets with disaster. Despite some taking of outside works and defenses, the toll for Hood's forces is too heavy including the loss of six of his generals. Union troops retreat in the direction of Nashville.

December 10, 1864- Harassed only by scattered Georgia militia, Sherman's Army of Georgia arrives at Savannah, Georgia, completing the famous "March to the Sea". At Savannah, his troops will take Fort McAllister and force Confederate defenders to evacuate the city.

December 15-16, 1864 - The Battle of Nashville, Tennessee. The Confederate Army under John Bell Hood is thoroughly defeated and the threat to Tennessee ends.

January 15, 1865 - Assault and capture of Fort Fisher, North Carolina. Union occupation of this fort at the mouth of the Cape Fear River closes access to Wilmington, the last southern seaport on the east coast that was open to blockade runners and commercial shipping.

February 1, 1865 - Sherman's Army leaves Savannah to march through the Carolinas.

February 17, 1865 - Sherman's Army captures Columbia, South Carolina while Confederate defenders evacuate Charleston, South Carolina.

February 22, 1865 - Wilmington, NC, falls to Union troops, closing the last important southern port on the east coast. On this same day, Joseph E. Johnston is restored to command the nearly shattered Army of the Tennessee, vice John B. Hood who resigned a month earlier.

March 4, 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for his second term as president in Washington, DC.

March 11, 1865 - Sherman's Army occupies Fayetteville, North Carolina.

March 16 and 19-21, 1865 - The Battles of Averasborough and Bentonville, North Carolina. Sherman's army is stalled in its drive northward from Fayetteville but succeeds in passing around the Confederate forces toward its object of Raleigh.

March 25, 1865 - Attack on Fort Stedman, Petersburg, Virginia. Touted as "Lee's last offensive", Confederate troops under General John B. Gordon attack and briefly capture the Union fort in the Petersburg siege lines in an attempt to thwart Union plans for a late March assault. By day's end, the southerners have been thrown out and the lines remain unchanged.

April 1, 1865 - The Battle of Five Forks, Virginia. The Confederate defeat at Five Forks initiates General Lee's decision to abandon the Petersburg-Richmond siege lines.

April 2, 1865 - The Fall of Petersburg and Richmond. General Lee abandons both cities and moves his army west in hopes of joining Confederate forces under General Johnston in North Carolina.

April 3, 1865 - Union troops occupy Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia.

April 6, 1865 - The Battle of Sailor's Creek, Virginia. A portion of Lee's Army- almost one-third of it- is cornered along the banks of Sailor's (or "Saylor's") Creek and annihilated.

April 9, 1865 - Battle of Appomattox Court House and Surrender, Appomattox Court House, Virginia. After an early morning attempt to break through Union forces blocking the route west to Danville, Virginia, Lee seeks an audience with General Grant to discuss terms. That afternoon in the parlor of Wilmer McLean, Lee signs the document of surrender. On April 12, the Army of Northern Virginia formally surrenders and is disbanded.

April 14, 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by actor John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, DC. On the same day, Fort Sumter, South Carolina is re-occupied by Union troops.

April 26, 1865 - General Joseph Johnston signs the surrender document for the Confederate Army of the Tennessee and miscellaneous southern troops attached to his command at Bennett's Place near Durham, North Carolina.

May 4, 1865 - General Richard Taylor surrenders Confederate forces in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana.

May 10, 1865 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured near Irwinville, Georgia.

May 12, 1865 - The final battle of the Civil War takes place at Palmito Ranch, Texas. It is a Confederate victory.

May 23, 1865- The Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac in Washington, DC

May 24, 1865- The Grand Review of General Sherman's Army in Washington, DC

May 26, 1865- General Simon Bolivar Buckner enters into terms for surrender of the Army of the Trans-Mississippi, which are agreed to on June 2, 1865.The Civil War officially ends.


Maarten Tromp

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Maarten Tromp, (born April 23, 1598, Breille, Holland—died Aug. 9, 1653, at sea off Terheijde, near Scheveningen), Dutch admiral, the highest ranking sea commander (from 1636) under the stadholder during the Dutch wars with Spain and England during the first half of the 17th century. His victory over the Spanish in the Battle of the Downs (1639) signalled the passing of Spain’s power at sea.

At the age of nine, he sailed with his father, Harpert Maartenszoon, the captain of a small man-of-war. When his father changed to the merchant fleet, Maarten accompanied him, but in 1609 the ship was taken by an English pirate, his father was killed, and Maarten was forced to serve the pirate captain for two years.

After his return to Holland, he rejoined the navy in 1617 and took part in a successful expedition against Algerian pirates. In 1619 he left the navy to sail with a merchant fleet to the Mediterranean, but in 1621 he fell once more into the hands of pirates. Set free after a year, he became a lieutenant in the Dutch navy. In 1621 the Twelve Years’ Truce between the Netherlands and Spain expired, and it became necessary to prepare the fleet for war. In 1624 Tromp received his first commission as a captain, and five years later he commanded the flagship against pirates from Ostend. In 1634 he again left the navy, but in 1636 he returned and was soon appointed lieutenant admiral of Holland, at that time the highest post in the navy under the stadholder, who was also the admiral general of the republic. In February 1639, he defeated a fleet of Dunkirk privateers he then met a large Spanish armada that was transporting some 13,000 Spanish recruits to Flanders. Commanded by Adm. Antonio de Oquendo and several other experienced captains, the fleet consisted of 45 warships and 30 merchantmen hired as troopships. When Tromp spotted the armada off Beachy Head on Sept. 15, 1639, he had only 13 vessels at his command his other detachments were cruising in the Strait of Dover and off Dunkirk. Five more Dutch ships arrived the next day, and the Dutch captains decided to give battle. After six hours of fighting, the armada—overcrowded with recruits who accounted for an extremely high number of casualties—withdrew to repair damages. The next day no action could take place for lack of wind, but the Dutch were reinforced by a Zeeland squadron, and, in the early morning of September 18, Tromp attacked the Spaniards in the Strait of Dover. In the afternoon Oquendo withdrew into the neutral roadstead of the Downs. Tromp, after taking in fresh supplies of gunpowder at Calais, soon followed him there, only to be separated from him by an English squadron under the command of Sir John Penington. By October 10 the Dutch fleet was strong enough to challenge the Spaniards, and on October 21 Tromp attacked Oquendo, and Penington’s efforts at protection were of little avail. In the Battle of the Downs, the armada was completely defeated, suffering severe losses in both ships and manpower. Tromp was knighted by Louis XIII in 1640 and by Charles I in 1642 when he visited Dover to escort Queen Henrietta Maria and Princess Mary to Holland. By 1640, thanks to his share of prize money, Tromp valued his assets at 90,000 guilders (at a time when ordinary seamen under his command made 10 guilders a month).

Tromp’s main task during the next years was action against the Dunkirk pirates who continued to attack the Dutch merchant fleet. In 1646 Tromp helped the French capture Dunkirk, after which the Order of St. Michael was conferred upon him. After the Peace of Munster in 1648, which concluded the Eighty Years’ War, the activities of the Dutch navy diminished until, in 1651, growing privateering between Scandinavia and Gibraltar made it necessary to reinforce the neglected fleet and to protect maritime trade. Relations with England became increasingly strained after the Navigation Act (1651), which was passed to restrict Dutch trade with British possessions, while much resentment was also caused by the English claim to sovereignty over the seas.

A skirmish with Adm. Robert Blake off Dover in May 1652 resulted in the First Anglo-Dutch War, which marked a crisis in the rivalry between England and the Netherlands as carriers of world trade. Although Tromp was unable to stir the English admirals to action later in the year—for which he was censured by the Dutch authorities, who even kept him from his command for some months—he defeated Blake off Dungeness in December. But the English fleet was superior to the Dutch Tromp was unable to continue his successes and lost the three-day battle between Portland and Calais (March 1653), as well as the Battle of Gabbard in June. Tromp was killed in the battle off Terheijde near Scheveningen.

Denne artikel blev senest revideret og opdateret af William L. Hosch, associeret redaktør.


Born in Brielle, Tromp was the oldest son of Harpert Maertensz, a naval officer and captain of the frigate Olifantstromp ("Elephant Trunk"). Efternavnet Tromp probably derives from the name of the ship it first appeared in documents in 1607. His mother supplemented the family's income as a washerwoman. At the age of nine, Tromp went to sea with his father, and he was present in a squadron covering the Dutch main fleet fighting the Battle of Gibraltar in 1607.

In 1610, after his father's discharge because of a navy reorganization, the Tromps were on their way to Guinea on their merchantman when they were attacked by a squadron of seven ships under command of the English pirate Peter Easton. During the fight, Tromp's father was slain by a cannonball. According to legend, the 12-year-old boy rallied the crew of the ship with the cry "Won't you avenge my father's death?" The pirates seized him and sold him on the slave market of Salé. Two years later, Easton was moved by pity and ordered his redemption.

Set free, he supported his mother and three sisters by working in a Rotterdam shipyard. Tromp went to sea again at 19, briefly working for the navy, but he was captured again in 1621 after having rejoined the merchant fleet, this time by Barbary corsairs off Tunis. He was kept as a slave until the age of 24 and by then had so impressed the Bey of Tunis and the corsair John Ward with his skills in gunnery and navigation that the latter offered him a position in his fleet. When Tromp refused, the Bey was even more impressed by this show of character and allowed him to leave as a free man.

He joined the Dutch navy as a lieutenant in July 1622, entering service with the Admiralty of the Maze based in Rotterdam. On 7 May 1624, he married Dignom Cornelisdochter de Haes, the daughter of a merchant in the same year he became captain of the St. Antonius, an advice yacht (fast-sailing messenger ship). His first distinction was as Lieutenant-Admiral Piet Hein's flag captain on the Vliegende Groene Draeck during the fight with Ostend privateers in 1629 in which Hein was killed.

In 1629 and 1630, the year that he was appointed full captain on initiative of stadtholder Frederick Henry himself, Tromp was very successful in fighting the Dunkirkers as a squadron commander, functioning as a commandeur on the Vliegende Groene Draeck. Despite receiving four honorary golden chains, he was not promoted further. Det Vliegende Groene Draeck foundered and new heavy vessels were reserved for the flag officers while Tromp was relegated to the old Prins Hendrik.

In 1634, Tromp's first wife died, and he left the naval service in 1634 in disappointment. He became a deacon and married Alijth Jacobsdochter Arckenboudt, the daughter of Brill's wealthy schepen and tax collector, on 12 September 1634.

In 1637, Tromp was promoted from captain to Lieutenant-Admiral of Holland and West Frisia in 1637, [1] following the dismissal of Lieutenant-Admiral Philips van Dorp, Vice-Admiral Jasper Liefhebber, and other flag officers due to incompetence. Although formally ranking under the Admiral-General Frederick Henry of Orange, he was the de facto supreme commander of the Dutch fleet, as the stadtholders never fought at sea. Tromp was mostly occupied with blockading the privateer port of Dunkirk. Both Tromp and Witte de With, who was named as Vice-Admiral, had been born in Den Briel and served as flag captains of Piet Heyn. [2]

In 1639, during the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain, Tromp defeated a large Spanish fleet bound for Flanders at the Battle of the Downs, marking the end of Spanish naval power. In a preliminary battle, the action of 18 September 1639, Tromp was the first fleet commander known for the deliberate use of line of battle tactics. His flagship in this period was the Aemilia.

In 1643 the subject was the center of a parliamentary investigation of naval intrigue with the Queen of England and the Prince of Orange who had allegedly instructed the Vice-Admiral to allow passage of two frigates purchased by English royalists in Dunkirk. [3]

In the First Anglo-Dutch War of 1652 to 1653, Tromp commanded the Dutch fleet in the battles of Dover, Dungeness, Portland, the Gabbard and Scheveningen. In the latter, he was killed by a sharpshooter in the rigging of William Penn's ship. His acting flag captain, Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer, on the Brederode kept up fleet morale by not lowering Tromp's standard, pretending Tromp was still alive.

Tromp's death was a severe blow to the Dutch navy but also to the Orangists, who sought the defeat of the Commonwealth of England and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy. Republican influence strengthened after Scheveningen, which led to peace negotiations with the Commonwealth, culminating in the Treaty of Westminster.

During his career, his main rival was Vice-Admiral Witte de With, who also served the Admiralty of Rotterdam (de Maze) from 1637. De With temporarily replaced him as supreme commander for the Battle of Kentish Knock. Tromp's successor was Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam.


Battle in the Bay of Matanzas

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Det Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years' War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet.

In 1628, Admiral Piet Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, sailed out to capture the Spanish treasure fleet loaded with silver from their American colonies. With him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck and he was later joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert. Part of the Spanish fleet in Venezuela had been warned because a Dutch cabin boy had lost his way on Blanquilla and was captured, betraying the plan, but the other half from Mexico continued its voyage, unaware of the threat. Sixteen Spanish ships were intercepted one galleon was taken after a surprise encounter during the night, nine smaller merchants were talked into a surrender two small ships were taken at sea fleeing, four fleeing galleons were trapped on the Cuban coast in the Bay of Matanzas. After some musket volleys from Dutch sloops their crews surrendered also and Hein captured 11,509,524 guilders of booty in gold, silver and other expensive trade goods, as indigo and cochineal, without any bloodshed. The Dutch didn't take prisoners: they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana. The released were surprised to hear the admiral personally giving them directions in fluent Spanish Hein after all was well acquainted with the region as he had been confined to it during his internment after 1603. The treasure was the company's greatest victory in the Caribbean.

As a result, the money funded the Dutch army for eight months, allowing it to capture the fortress 's-Hertogenbosch, and the shareholders enjoyed a cash dividend of 50% for that year. Hein returned to the Netherlands in 1629, where he was hailed as a hero. Watching the crowds cheering him standing on the balcony of the town hall of Leiden he remarked to the town mayor: "Now they praise me because I gained riches without the least danger but earlier when I risked my life in full combat they didn't even know I existed." He was the first and last to capture such a large part of a Spanish "silver fleet" from the Americas, which were very well-protected.

Plan of the West Indies Company (WIC)

One squadron of 12 ships (180 cannons) under the command of Direck Symensz went to Brazil at Pemambuco. He took several sugar ships. The second squadron, also 12 ships, bigger and more heavily armed. The commander was Pieter Adriaansz from Vlissingen. His order was to operate in the waters of the West Indies to attack ships from Honduras and Mexico. This squadrons were nothing compared to the main force of the WIC consisting 31 ships (14 more than 250ton). Among them the Amsterdam og Hollandsche Thuyn (500ton). Enormous ships for those days. Amsterdam (625ton – 22 x 48 pounders and 30 x 25 pounders). The rest of the fleet had 32 and 42 pounders. They had 65 ships in the region.

The big fleet left Texel out of the sight of the Portuguese to Brazil. What admiral Heyn didn’t know was that the Spaniards knew about the plans. July 10, 1628

A cannon shot was fired when they sighted land. Short after they anchored at St Vincent. Here the put in water and food, except flesh that they couldn't get here. So they decided to go to the island Islas Blanca where were a lot of goats. When the fleet left there, they were missing a crewmember. They tried to find the man but didn't found him. They left him behind but this would be a disaster. Short after that a privateer ship landed on the island who found the crewmember sleeping. After an interrogation and arresting him, the ship continued his voyage to La Guayara where the man was put on a transport to Cartagena. Here he was extremely interrogated and gave the necessary information. By this way the Spaniards were informed about the plans to attack their silver fleet from Terra Firma. Piet Heyn was lucky that the news didn't reached Vera Cruz and the silver fleet sailed out from there. Meanwhile, the squadron of Pieter Adriaensz, that sailed in the West Indies waters had no problems, but on the island Grenada it went wrong. 16 crewmembers lost their life during the fishing. They were killed by natives. Later were some prices or bounty ships taken. The reconnaissance of the copper harbor of Santiago de Cuba had no result. They were cruising before the Cuba coast around Cape Antonio.

The 1628 Spanish silver fleet of Mexico departed early. It contained 30 cargo ships and 5 galleons. The lasts under the command of Don Juan de Benevides y Bazan as "Capitan-General" with Don Juan de Leoz as second in command or "Almirante" and Don Francisco Denneboa as commander of the soldiers. Immediately after they left Vera Cruz bad luck began already for the fleet. Not far from the coast, they were surprised by a storm coming from the north. Det Capitana, the admiralship, stranded on a beach and the rest returned confused. Some ships were damaged so they couldn’t continue.

Piet Heyn reached with his 31 ships Cap Tiburon in Hispaniola. From there they went to Isla de Pinos.

The squadron of Pieter Adriaensz sighted the Honduras sailors. These large ships seamed to be warned and were sailing near the coast and tried to reach by this way the harbor of Havana. They were intercepted by the Leeuwin, the best sailing ship of the Dutch fleet. During this action it ran aground and was heavily damaged by the gunfire of two Spanish ships. Finally both ships were overpowered. One was so heavily damaged that was decided to put the precious cargo onto the other ship. Det Nuestra Señora de Los Remedios was put on fire in front of the coast of Florida. Everything happened very fast because they were waiting for the arrival of the other Spanish ships. Al of this was unknown to Piet Heyn and he didn't know that the Spaniards know about his presence in the region.

During Piet Heyn’s voyage from Cap Tiburon to Isla de Pinos, between both capes they saw 2 sails. They immediately began the purchase. It seems to be two Dutch ship that came lose from the fleet. Det Rode Leeuw og Pinas both from the chamber of Amsterdam. It seemed they sailed more to the south that the rest of the convoy. Det Roode Leeuw og Pinas joined the fleet after recovery of the attack by the Dunquerk privateers.

The ships arrived in San Antonio and were keeled. Between august 5th and 10th the ships were cleaned near Cape Antonio. Because the course of the ships of New Spain was more to the north, Piet Heyn went to the Tortugas, a group of islands that continued the Keys at the Westside of Florida. There was told by fishermen that the fleet from New Spain from Vera Cruz could arrive every moment. But due to unforeseen circumstances it would last three more weeks. But now they knew for sure at the Dutch side that they still had a chance.

The Spanish silver fleet from Mexico left again from Vera Cruz. Their force was reduced to eleven cargo ships and four galleons. The cargo of the ships that were left behind was dispersed under the other ships and also on the war ships. This meant that the warships were packed so full that the guns could just be partly served.

The Dutch fleet met two Spanish ships who thought that this was the fleet from New Spain. When they saw he mistake, skipper Marcus d’Almeida told that he was sailed out by order of the governor of Havana. He knows nothing from the position of the Spanish, or the Dutch fleet but had to warn them. He was captured during 29 days on the Dutch fleet.

To verify the new information the ships went immediately to the North coast of Cuba because the Spanish fleet from Terra Firma or the fleet from New Spain were not here.

They arrived at Havana. The castle of El Morro was seen very clear but it seemed very difficult to sail in that region. The east orientated stream, that goes by the Great Antilles made the ships continuously drifting so they lost very soon Havana out of their viewing and saw a mountain, that seen from the sea, had the form of a bread and was called by the Spanish "Pan de Matanzas". While the main force was trying to fight the stream, what was difficult because of the stormy weather, Piet Heyn sent out some ships for look out.

Around this day they had a council because they were already 14 days overdue to the orders of the “Lords of 19”. There was proposed to stop the operation and to sail back to Europe.

Another Spanish ship was sighted. Witte de With asked to attack and got the permission. The ship with his 50men crew was overwhelmed. The prisoners were brought to the admiralship were they were questioned. This ship was also sent out by the governor of Havana to warn the Spanish fleet. Out of the questioning seemed that they were coming. So they didn’t left for Europe and thanks to De With the mission became successful. From the captured prisoners they also heard that the cruising Dutch fleet was seen by El Morro, that there were 400 to 500 men and 70 guns in the castle. In the 2 forts in front of the castle were 20 and 28 cannons. So it was the plan to catch the fleet before they could arrive in the strong harbor. There was no danger for this because there were no warships in the harbor of Havana, only a just finished galley and one who was still under construction. Although hey were now very sure that the silver fleet could not escape, they didn't knew why the fleet was so late.

Piet Heyn send out his fastest ship, De Vos again in the direction of the Tortugas to know something about Banckerts, who’s fleet was still missing. They were not found there.

In the morning at sunrise sails were seen at the horizon sailing towards the fleet. It seemed to be the squadron of Banckert Neptunus, De Goude Sonne, De Goude Leeuw, det Dolphijn (dolphin) and the yacht Postpaert. Finally the fleet was complete.

During the night the guard of the Witte Leeuw sighted down under their bow a Spanish merchant ship that was lost from the Spanish silver fleet. He shouted to stay away and the Spaniards answered "Que quereis". The sloops were immediately manned and the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción was captured. The captain of the ship was brought to the Dutch commander. When the sun came up, about 20 sails were sighted of which nine with some difficulty were captured. Afterwards it seemed that, without knowing of the Dutch presence, they followed the shooting of the enemy ships during the night. This seems to be cargo ships. At a large distance were seen some numbers of big ships. Once they saw the Dutch they went to the coast, trying to reach the bay of Mantanza because Admiral Hendrick Loncq could cut off the way to Havana. The only reachable harbor for the Spaniards was now in the Bay of Matanza disambiguation needed . But these waters were not known to the Spanish steersmen. Meanwhile there was a race going on. The Dutch did all efforts to overtake the Spaniards.

The next morning the Dutch fleet also entered the bay. (There is no agreement in the archives about the time that the Dutch fleet entered the bay of Matanza. Netscher writes “the next day at 9 o clock”, other archives mentioned that Piet Heyn was close upon his heels of the Spaniards. Piet Heyn was probably not in the possession of good maps of the Cuban coast. Even those of the Spaniards were not accurate because some of their ships stranded on sand banks or other shoal that were not marked on the maps. This made it probable that the Dutch attack happened in the morning. The Spaniards also tried to unload their ships and trying to make an entrenchment on the shore, points into that direction. They wouldn’t have the time if Piet Heyn followed them close. The evening before the Dutch tried in vain to cut of the way, although all sails were set and Piet Heyn even let them make wet to let them catch more wind. The whole Spanish fleet was confused when the Dutch arrived. Some ships were run aground when night fell and were lying in a way that the cannons that could be used couldn’t reach the entrance of the bay. The Dutch reached the bay in time. Some of their ships also ran aground. Piet Heyn had to handle quickly because the Spaniards planned to build a stronghold on land and defend the treasures there. When admiral Heyn anchored in the bay, he found already several boats around his ship that were set out by admiral Loncq and vice admiral Banckert to enter the ships. Heyn went on board of a sloop of the Hollandsche Thuyn and ordered to go first to the ship of the vice admiral Benavidez. The crew of the Spanish ship, who already partially left in panic, shoots some musket fire, but where talked by the “General”, that is how the Spaniards called Piet Hein. The same was done with the rest of the fleet.

During one week they were working of transferring the cargo of the captured ships to the Dutch fleet. They had not much confidence in the seaworthiness of the Spanish ships. They hurried up because they feared that the fleet of Terra Firma showed up. But this fleet was lying safe and well in the harbor of Cartagena. When making inventory of the booty, it consisted 177.000 pound silver, some gold (some chains and a crown), skins, chests with sugar,…etc. The Spanish galleons were partially unloaded. He took 4 Spanish galleons (Santa Ana María, Santa Gertrudis, San Juan Bautista og Nuestra Señora de la Antigua) and one new smaller ship with the same name. All other ships were burned or sunk on site. The Galleon Señora de la Antigua was renamed to Santa Lucia. The smaller ship Señora de la Antigua was renamed to Medemblik.

Two hours before sunrise Piet Heyn's fleet left the bay on their way back. The governor from Havana sent out two ships to the street of Florida to watch for the Dutch fleet, one in the north and one in the south. It was sent 140 miles west of the Bermudas. It was given to the yachts Ooievaar og Vos.

On his way back admiral Heyn wrote the Lords of 19 a letter of the event. It is dated September 26, 1628.

The Spanish ships signalled Piet Heyn's fleet passing the passage of Florida.

During the night the Santa Gertrudis lost his foremast and the stem of the ship.

After installing a new mast she was seen the 31st for the last time. In a short time the admiral had left only 14 ships. Afterwards some ships rejoined the convoy.

Det Ooievaar arrived in Rotterdam with the news of the captured fleet. Due to many storms the master fleet had it very hard. December 4, 1628

Further they lost a lot of men by scurvy. The main fleet arrived at the island Wight were the met Jan Evertsen with 3 warships. Det Santa Gertudis, full with sick men, arrived in the harbor of Falmouth in sinking condition and was sold there for 200 pound.


The Battle of Slak (1631)

A battle was fought on the Zeeland inland waters that received far less attention by historians than the Battle of the Downs (1639). This confrontation with the Spaniards was no less than an attempt to break the connection between the Rhine and the Scheldt and to separate Zeeland and Holland. The intention was to attack the two large forts on either side of the Volkerak. In this inland waters fight, on the night of 12 and 13 September 1631, both Johan and Cornelis Evertsen were involved. The Zeeland Vice-Admiral Marinus Hollaer ran into the ships. In the minutes of the Admiralty of Zeeland and the great roll in the Rekencamer, Johan Evertsen and the captains Clocq, Frans Jansen, and Andries Pietersen are named. Vice-Admiral Hollaer is not named, but he possibly had already been mentioned.

From the preceding, it is clear that he Republic was aware of the fleet preparations at Antwerp. The Spanish fleet consisted mainly of boats, defenses, pontoons, and launches, for a total of 90 vessels with 5,000 soldiers and boatsmen. A firefight took place at Saeftingen between the Zeeland ships and the Spaniards who wanted to enter the Mosselkreek. The many Dutch and Zeeland inland watercraft were smaller vessels with spritsail rigging. The deepwater ships, despite their draft, also had a chance to strike a blow, to saild and to divide the enemy in the fight.

Just as in the year 70 of the Sixteenth Century, success in Zeeland waters went to those with a good knowledge of the banks and channels and an acquaintance with the flow and tide. Among the list of booty lost by the Spaniards were many inland watercraft and cannons belonging to them. There were also four thousand prisoners taken. The Admiralty of Amsterdam wanted to dump these into the sea, but were prohibited by the Prince.

The result of the Battle of Slaak meant that the enemy would not be able to separate Holland and Zeeland. This was very important for the further course of the struggle against Spain and for the continued existence of the Republic.


Se videoen: BATTLE OF TEXEL A NAVAL BATTLE BETWEEN CAVALRY u0026 WARSHIPS