Gamle persiske/iranske kunst

Gamle persiske/iranske kunst


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En fremragende samling af persisk-iransk kunst fra et kort besøg på Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA. Herunder nogle sumeriske stykker.


Episke Iran

★★★★★ Udforsker fem forbløffende årtusinder af kulturhistorie.

Nu til søndag den 12. september 2021

Galleri 39 og Nordretten

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Epic Iran udforsker 5.000 års kunst, design og kultur og skinner lys over en af ​​de største historiske civilisationer, sin rejse ind i det 21. århundrede og dens monumentale kunstneriske præstationer, som stadig er ukendte for mange.


Seks milepæle for at kende historien og betydningen af ​​persisk kunst og kultur.

URUK -perioden - Keramik- og keramikfartøjer

Uruk -perioden dateres tilbage omkring 4000 til 3100 f.Kr., som var baseret i det sydlige Mesopotamien, også kendt som det gamle Irak. Bosættelsen var hjemsted for forskellige landmænd og jægere, der etablerede deres liv ved siden af ​​floder. Syrien, Tyrkiet,

Syrien, Tyrkiet, Iran og Irak, som blev kaldt med forskellige navne på det tidspunkt, så en stor del af Uruk -perioden. Sammen med fascinerende arkitektur og kunstneriske mosaikker oplevede Uruk-perioden en vækst i keramikfremstilling og protoskrivning.

URUK Pottery – persisk kunst

Susa var en vigtig koloni i Uruk -perioden og havde de mest indflydelsesrige protowriting -evner sammen med keramik og cylinderforseglinger. Kunstnernes færdigheder og detaljer er prisværdige, fordi de små fejl eller asymmetri i kreationerne viser, at alle var håndlavede. Det, der gør det utroligt, er på et tidspunkt, hvor hverken maskineri eller teknologi eksisterer, størrelsen på kunstfærdighed og talent var overlegen.

En anden interessant faktor, der spillede en vigtig rolle i Uruk -perioden, var at føre registre over varer og arbejdere gennem piktogrammer. Selvom de var beregnet til ledelsesformål, er piktogrammerne et eksempel på udsøgte kunstværker.

Den tidlige jernalder - kunstværk på metaller

Den tidlige jernalder fandt sted omkring 900 - 600 f.Kr. periode, og denne æra oplevede fremkomsten af ​​metal kunst. Det mest almindelige metal, der blev brugt til at udskære indviklede og detaljerede skulpturer, var bronze. Skulpturerne lavet af bronze blev kaldt Luristan Bronzes, og de blev fundet mange steder i det vestlige centrale Iran af arkæologer.

Luristan Bronzes persisk kunst

Brugen af ​​metal i stor skala blev skulptureret i en række kunstværker, herunder våben, værktøjer, hestebeslag, fartøjer og ornamenter. De værktøjer, der bruges til at skære og hamre stykkerne, var ganske enkle, men teknikkerne var innovative. Indviklede udskæringer over det metalliske kunstværk var manuelle og tidskrævende. Denne æra oplevede dannelsen af ​​repræsentative dyr, mest almindelige af dem var geder eller får med store horn i en række forskellige former og stilarter.

Den islamiske guldalder

Denne æra opstod i løbet af det 9. og 10. århundrede. Det sasaniske imperium regerede i 651, hvilket sluttede efter "muslimsk erobring af Persien" eller "arabisk erobring". Det førte også til tilbagegangen for den zoroastriske religion i Iran. Efter at denne æra var slut, viste kunstnere i regionen eksponentiel vækst og potentiale, hvilket visualiserede det 9. århundrede som den gyldne periode. Steder som Greater Iran og østlige dele så det tyrkiske folks stigende betydning, og det førte til en kulturel tyrkisk-persisk tradition.

Iran oplevede fremkomsten af ​​to vigtige dynastier, som var Samanid -dynastiet og Seljuq -dynastiet, som begge forstærkede betydningen af ​​persisk kunst i løbet af deres tid. Keramik, keramik, metalarbejde og bogmaleri steg især efterspurgt. Under Samanid -dynastiet regerede et sunniimperium over mange dele, herunder Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Usbekistan, Tadsjikistan, Kasakhstan og Pakistan. Denne æra specialiserede sig i epigrafisk keramik, som var et fajancefartøj med bogstaver, der involverede ordsprog og velsignelser indskrevet på det, som blev brugt til at servere mad. Bogstavet var i Kufi -skrift med sort slip på den hvide bund.

Epigrafisk keramik persisk kunstkultur

Seljuq -dynastiet, der regerede i løbet af det 10. århundrede, var ansvarlig for forvirrende innovationer inden for materialer og teknikker. Materialer som minai ware brugt på en hvid baggrund sammen med emaljerede figurer, fritware og en siliciumbaseret pasta blev introduceret, og derfor erstattede de ler.

Disciplinen metalarbejde og skulptur i perioden med islamisk kunst tog også nye innovationer. Sammen med metallets hamring for at skabe detaljerede designs tilføjede kunstnere i den iranske kunstperiode også ædelmetalindlæg for at fremhæve kunstværket. Bogmalerier blev også skudt til berømmelse fra Iran til Irak, som indeholdt animalistiske figurer for at skildre troskab, forræderi og mod. Bogmalerier førte også til udbredelsen af ​​persisk kalligrafi, som blev en af ​​de mest eftertragtede discipliner.

Mongolen under ledelse af Djengis Khan

Denne æra dannede mange dynastier i hele det 13. århundrede på grund af opdelingen af ​​imperiet blandt sønner af Djengis Khan. Hvert dynasti bidrog til kunst og hjalp det med at vokse, hvilket førte til guldalderen for persisk maleri. De vigtigste discipliner, der var udbredt på persisk kunsttid, var kalligrafi, illustration og malerier, der repræsenterede mongolernes kultur. Der var imidlertid kritik mod herskerne om at vise perserne som mongoler på det tidspunkt.

Safaviderne - højdepunkt for litteratur og arkitektur

Denne æra bidrog også meget til udviklingen og spredningen af ​​en række kunstdiscipliner som vævning, miniaturemalerier og keramisk kunst. Persiske tæpper og tæpper var i stor efterspørgsel på grund af repræsentationen af ​​stammens kultur og fremragende håndværk. Det var da kunsten med vævning fik et løft.

Persiske miniaturemalerier

Bogillustrationer og persiske miniaturemalerier blev praktiseret grundigt, og de viste ofte fortælling og tænkningsevner. Kunstnerne brugte også mange menneskeskikkelser til at fortælle deres historier. Selvom persisk kunst aldrig forsøgte helt at forbyde den menneskelige figur, indeholdt miniaturemalerier dem som det centrale plot på grund af dets privatliv. Nye typer fartøjer og keramiske genstande blev praktiseret, såsom bæger, flaske med lang hals og tallerkener. Den nye form af fartøjet, der blev opfundet, var et kolbeformet kar med en meget lille hals og flad krop på den ene side og afrundet krop på den anden.

Qajar -art

Qajar -dynastiet, der regerede fra 1781 til 1925, havde stor indflydelse på imperiets kunst, arkitektur og kunstformer. Malerier og store vægmalerier var en integreret del af Qajar -kunsten. Perioden med relativ fred sammen med regeringen for Agha Muhammad Khan og hans efterkommere gav et stort udbrud til det kunstneriske udtryk. Malerierne og vægmalerierne skildrede historiske scener og festligheder, som specifikt blev skabt til at blive sat op i paladser og kaffehuse. Særlige buede toppe på malerierne blev fastgjort for at passe dem ind i vægge.

Qajar -dynastiet persisk kunst

Maleriets stil og fremstilling skaber en antagelse om, at Qajar -dynastiet har sine rødder knyttet til Safavid -imperiet. Fremstillingen af ​​livløse objekter og mennesker blev afbildet modsat deres natur. Mens mennesker bestemt blev idealiseret og placeret med standardiserede træk, blev livløse objekter vist som virkelige objekter. Dette blev korrigeret af den stigende disciplin inden for fotografering i det 19. århundrede.

Iransk kunst – Et charter for kunstfærdighed, vidunderlighed og livskraft

Alle discipliner og deres oprigtige opfølgninger gør Iran til et rigt og levende land med den mest interessante tradition og kultur. Ikke kun traditionel kunst, men moderne iransk kunst stiger også og danner en platform for sig selv, hvilket er lige så rosværdigt. Iransk kunst eller persisk kunst har udviklet sig og ændret ansigt inden for alle discipliner på grund af et stort antal dynastier. Den elegante stil med kunstneriske færdigheder, f.eks. Vævning, har efterladt en stor indflydelse på verden med deres færdige og undervisningsevner.

Persisk kunst bidrager effektivt til verden med sine ældste og innovative teknikker, som danner en enorm efterspørgsel i nutidens verden og også har været et referencepunkt for dets kunstfærdighed og fantastiskhed!

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Den gamle persiske kunst

Den gamle persiske kultur tildelte en overvældende betydning dekorativt aspekt i deres kunst, som de brugte som ressource og udtryksmiddel med en dyb filosofisk mening om livet. Dette dekorative aspekt viser mandens daglige begivenheder i hans flerårige kamp for overlevelse. Selvom vi i andre artikler vil beskrive deres kunstneriske manifestation, er det vigtigt at begynde med generelle aspekter af deres historie og særegenheder for bedre at forstå, hvorfor de producerede deres kunst på den måde, de gjorde det.

Den overdådige dekorativ symbolik udtrykke deres ønsker og ambitioner samt dens særlige måde at se livet på med sikkerhed, selvtillid og stor indre kraft. Deres kunst Det er en attraktiv form for at udtrykke deres poetiske måde at se livet på, hvilket gør det med et raffineret show af og detaljeret udsøgt dekoration rettet direkte mod beskuerens hjerte gennem de følelser, der kommunikerer.

De designede disse objekter ved hjælp af figurative mønstre, hvor billederne af de originale objekter i det virkelige liv såvel som den menneskelige figur i det let genkendes. Den langsomme proces med at finde og etablere en ideel formel for en dekoration til at udtrykke deres følelser og begreber om livet begyndte siden de første kunstnere, de primitive malere af keramik lavede konventionerne med stor klarhed og udtrykskraft, som lagde grundlaget for typen af dekorativt design, der er så karakteristisk for fantasien i perserne ’s. De åbnede dørene for uendelige muligheder for illustrationer, teknikker og udviklingsmåder, hvor deres kunst udviklede sig siden tusinder af år.

Achaemenid -dynastiets guld- og sølvværk

Persisk kunst har et tæt forhold til poesi såvel som den religiøse og filosofiske tankegang. Tusind års litterær udvikling bekræfter, at perserne handler om andre kulturer, der er mest digtere og fantasifulde. Denne egenskab ved desbordable fantasi oversætte såvel til deres kunstværker i alle dens kunstneriske manifestationer.

Persiske håndværkere og kunstnere opnår bestemt i deres design at udtrykke følelsesmæssig styrke, de er ikke kun begrænset til at repræsentere objektets rent iboende karakter, for i disse hænder kommer disse kunstværker til live, de opnår at repræsentere udtryk som glæde eller sorg, samt en bred vifte af dybe og intense fornemmelser på en måde kan sammenlignes med de fornemmelser, vi føler, når vi lytter til musik.

Fremkaldt af det altoverskyggende behov for at vise følelsesmæssigt udtryk, så specifik for kulturen og traditionen for det persiske folk, udforsker kunstneren en bred vifte af muligheder for at udtrykke skønheden ved hjælp af mange ressourcer, hvor der ikke er udelukket selv elementer fra andre menneskers kultur.

Persisk kunst langsomt modnet og udviklet deres egne specifikke kanoner, der viste sig at være så effektive, at de bestod tidstesten og de grænser, de påvirkede.

Fantastiske sagn, eventyrhistorier eller endda den måde, de afgrænsede monstreegenskaberne, havde altid en realistisk og overbevisende luft med en dramatisk og følelsesmæssig belastning, hvor det opfattes, at de afviste de mørke, forvirrede og irrationelle aspekter.

Perser Miniaturemaleri

Perserne var dygtige mestre i udviklingen af ​​miniaturer, som de udførte med udsøgte detaljer, men kunne også udvikle monumentale værker med forbløffende opfindsomhed og fantastisk teknisk fanfare.

Denne vægt på oplysningen frembringer ikke en kold eller abstrakt kunst, fordi de administrerer måden at udtrykke bevægelse i linjer, udtryksfuldhed og dristige farver. De opnår definition af formerne ved brug af kontraster mellem figuren og baggrunden. Selvom det er rigtigt, at det nogle gange virker lidt beregnet eller overdrevent bevidst og nøjeregnende på jagt efter konsekvens, koncentration og balance. Disse elementer til sidst hjælper med at opnå udtryksfuldhed i deres arbejde og en vellykket kommunikation af følelser frem for at forringe effektiviteten af ​​deres hensigt.

De persiske designere var i stand til at opnå balance, selv i værker med indviklede motiver. De viste sig at have en ejendommelig evne til at reducere billeder til dets enkleste vilkår uden at miste udtryksfuldheden.

De kunne opnå i disse miniaturiserede værker en perfekt kommunikation med beskueren, selv med bare silhuetter. De vidste, hvordan de skulle repræsentere fakta eller abstrakte ideer uden at krænke vilkårene for sammenhængende visuel påskønnelse, hvilket eliminerede den frustration, tvetydighed kan frembringe hos seerne.

Persiske kunsttendenser og evolution i deres stil

I udforskningerne for at finde og udvikle deres egen identitet gennem så lang tid, kan vi i visse øjeblikke se, at der opstår en tvang mod enten realismen eller naturalismen. De blev også påvirket af kunsten i Rom eller Grækenland. Men deres stil tilfredsstilte ikke perserne, det virkede relativt overfladisk, særligt og individuelt. De gik mere ind for en universel og tidløs præsentation.

Selvom de formler, de blev udviklet i persisk kunst, var mange og mange af dem effektive og rationelle for ofte blev de standardiserede modeller udført med gentagelse.

Ikke desto mindre må denne kultur anerkendes som en, der indtager en fremherskende plads med hensyn til mængden af ​​kunstneriske formler implementeret i deres kunst, den opnåede overlegenhed på mange måder, som skiller sig ud i kalkmalerierne, og som viser universelt gyldige former for kunstnerisk udtryk, der følger med med resten af ​​de persiske værker, bestemt været en værdifuld arv for nuværende og kommende generationer.

Besøg venligst de andre artikler om denne interessante kultur, hvor man kan værdsætte mere særlige aspekter af deres kunst som arkitektur og andre manifestationer af deres poetiske, geniale og særlige kunst.


Persisk kunst og litteratur

Persisk kunst og litteratur eller iransk kunst har en af ​​de rigeste kunstarv i verdenshistorien og har været stærk i mange medier, herunder arkitektur, maleri, vævning, keramik, kalligrafi, metalbearbejdning og skulptur.

På forskellige tidspunkter har påvirkninger fra nabocivilisationers kunst været meget vigtige, og sidst gav og modtog persisk kunst store påvirkninger som en del af de bredere stilarter inden for islamisk kunst.

Rock art i Iran er dens ældste kunst, der overlever. Iransk arkitektur er dækket af denne artikel. Fra Achaemenid Empire i 550 f.Kr. – 330 f.Kr. i det meste af tiden har en stor iransktalende stat regeret over områder, der ligner Irans moderne grænser, og ofte meget bredere områder, undertiden kaldet Greater Iran, hvor en proces med kulturel persianisering levede varige resultater, selv når herredømme adskilt. Domstolene i successive dynastier har generelt ført stilen med persisk kunst, og domstolssponseret kunst har efterladt mange af de mest imponerende overlevende.

I oldtiden er de overlevende monumenter for persisk kunst kendt for en tradition, der koncentrerer sig om den menneskelige figur (for det meste mandlige og ofte kongelige) og dyr. Persisk kunst fortsatte med at lægge større vægt på figurer end islamisk kunst fra andre områder, dog af religiøse årsager nu generelt undgå store eksempler, især inden for skulptur. Den generelle islamiske stil med tæt dekoration, geometrisk anlagt, udviklet i Persien til en yderst elegant og harmonisk stil, der kombinerer motiver afledt af planter med kinesiske motiver som skybåndet og ofte dyr, der er repræsenteret i en meget mindre skala end planteelementer, der omgiver dem. Under Safavid -dynastiet i det 16. århundrede blev denne stil brugt på tværs af en lang række medier og spredt fra shahens hofkunstnere, de fleste var hovedsagelig malere.

Persisk litteratur:
Persisk litteratur, tekst i ny persisk (også kaldet moderne persisk), formen for det persiske sprog skrevet siden det 9. århundrede med en lidt udvidet form for det arabiske alfabet og med mange arabiske lånord. Den litterære form for ny persisk er kendt som farsi i Iran, hvor det er landets officielle sprog. det er skrevet med et kyrillisk alfabet af tadsjikere i Tadsjikistan og Usbekistan. Nye persere har i århundreder også været et prestigefyldt kultursprog i det vestlige Centralasien, på det indiske subkontinent og i Tyrkiet.

Iransk kultur er måske bedst kendt for sin litteratur, der opstod i sin nuværende form i det 9. århundrede. De store mestre i det persiske sprog Ferdowsi, Neẓami Ganjavi, Ḥafeẓ Shirazi, Jam og Moulana (Rumi) fortsætter med at inspirere iranske forfattere i moderne tid.

Persisk litteratur var dybt påvirket af vestlige litterære og filosofiske traditioner i det 19. og 20. århundrede, men er stadig et levende medium for iransk kultur. Uanset om det var i prosa eller i poesi, kom det også til at tjene som et redskab for kulturel selvindsigt, politisk uenighed og personlig protest for så indflydelsesrige iranske forfattere som Sadeq Hedayat, Jalal Al-e Ahmad og Sadeq-e Chubak og digtere som Sohrab Sepehri, Mehdi Akhavan Saales, Ahmad Shamlu og Forough Farrokhzad.

Persisk traditionel musik:
Iransk klassisk musik består af egenskaber udviklet gennem landets klassiske, middelalderlige og nutidige epoker. På grund af udvekslingen af ​​musikvidenskab gennem historien er mange af Irans klassiske melodier og tilstande relateret til dem fra dets nabokulturer. Irans klassiske kunstmusik fungerer fortsat som et åndeligt redskab, som det har gjort gennem historien og langt mindre en rekreativ aktivitet. Det tilhører for det meste den sociale elite, i modsætning til den folkloristiske og populære musik, som samfundet som helhed deltager i. Parametrene for klassisk musik fra Iran er imidlertid også blevet inkorporeret i folkemusik og popmusikkompositioner.

Indfødte iranske musikinstrumenter, der bruges i traditionel musik, omfatter strygeinstrumenter som chang (harpe), qanun, santur, rud (oud, barbat), tjære, dotar, setar, tanbur og kamanche, blæsere såsom sorna (zurna , karna), ney og neyanban og slagtøjsinstrumenter som tompak, kus, daf (dayere), naqare og dohol. [nødvendig citat] Nogle instrumenter, såsom sorna, neyanban, dohol og naqare, er normalt ikke brugt i det klassiske repertoire, men bruges i folkemusikken. Op til midten af ​​Safavid -imperiet var chang en vigtig del af iransk musik. Det blev derefter erstattet af qanun (citer) og senere af det vestlige klaver.

Tjæren fungerer som det primære strengeinstrument i en forestilling. Setaren er især almindelig blandt sufimusikere. Den vestlige violin bruges også, med en alternativ tuning foretrukket af iranske musikere. Ghaychak, der er en type fele, genindføres i klassisk musik efter mange års eksklusion.


Gammel persisk/iransk kunst - historie

Med samarbejdet mellem R. H. Dyson og bidrag fra C.K. Wilkinson

De tidligste genstande fundet i Iran, der viser ønsket om at udtrykke en idé ved hjælp af former, der er effektive og måske endda glædelige, er lerfigurer, der blev fundet ved udgravningen af ​​en neolitisk landsby ved Tepe Sarab nær Kermanshab. To af disse, som blev mest omhyggeligt udført, er her gengivet. Den ene er en kvindelig figur kaldet her 'Venus' af Tepe Sarab den anden er et lille vildsvin.

Hunfiguren er repræsenteret siddende med strakte ben. Balder, lår og ben er opsummeret i klub-lignende former, der tilspidses mod enden. Hvert 'ben' har en skrå lund på siden, måske beregnet til at angive opdelingen mellem ben og lår. Enderne på de køllignende former er afbrudt, men det er usandsynligt, at fødderne var formet separat. Der kan højst have været en linje, der adskiller enden fra resten af ​​formen og angiver ankelleddet. Den øverste del af kroppen, hvor armene ikke er angivet, er formet som en bred kegle, hvorfra den høje hals rejser sig som en stejlere og meget smallere kegle, der ender i en kort, lidt forlænget vandret ryg med en afrundet kant. De pæreformede bryster rager ud fra kroppens kegle cirka ved halsens begyndelse. Man kan bemærke, at figuren er sat sammen af ​​flere enkelte dele, og at benformen ikke er ulig brysternes, hvilket giver skulpturen en vis visuel enhed.

Abstraktionen af ​​gengivelsen antyder med det samme, at der ikke var hensigten her med at vise et specifikt individ i stedet, stress blev lagt på de generelle kvindelige egenskaber, bryster og lår, som naturligvis er beregnet til at udtrykke ideer om frugtbarhed. Talrige fragmenter af figurer af denne type og også meget mere klare blev fundet på Tepe Sarab. Andre sådanne kvindelige figurer med mere eller mindre skematiserede former blev fundet i resterne af de tidlige landsbykulturer i Mellemøsten [omkring 6000-4000 f.Kr.] Fra Tepe Sarab i Iran til Çatal Hüyük og Hacilar i Tyrkiet. [1] De må have haft en bestemt betydning, som vi kun kan forstå og gengive i de mest generelle termer: der var utvivlsomt en tro på sympatisk magi, ifølge hvilken frugtbarhed og rigdom kunne øges ved effektive gengivelser i skulptur og maling af de genstande, der var forbundet med dem . Således var kunsten et instrument, der var i stand til at udøve indflydelse på naturen, mennesket og måske endda gud-selvom vi i denne tidlige periode ikke kan antage eksistensen af ​​begreber om antropomorfe guder, der ligner dem, der senere blev kendt i kulturerne i det gamle nærøst.

Den anden figur fra Tepe Sarab repræsenterer et vildsvin, der gengives meget naturalistisk, i modsætning til Venus 'abstrakte form. Benene gengives på den enkleste måde ved at trykke sammen og bøje leret til mere eller mindre kantede former. Alligevel skaber de indtryk af et dyr i hurtig bevægelse. De uregelmæssige krydsninger på kroppen kan repræsentere børster, men mere sandsynligt og mere i overensstemmelse med gengivelser andre steder angiver de sårene modtaget fra jagtmandens våben. Uanset hvilken betydning denne detalje har, synes det sandsynligt, at figuren på en eller anden måde blev sikret fremtidig succes med jagten på ornen. Denne magiske, eller skal vi hellere sige 'praktisk', kunstbetydning for de mennesker, der ønskede disse genstande og for dem, der henrettede dem, ser ud til at have overlevet i Iran indtil den sasaniske periode. På samme tid bør man ikke se bort fra ønsket om at dekorere et objekt for at genoplive dets udseende. Benhåndtaget på en flintkniv fundet i en meget tidlig [s. 21] udgravningerne ved Tepe Sialk nær Kashan kan tolkes på denne måde. Håndtaget viser en mand i det, der senere var den persiske hilsenstilstand, og bøjede sig fra hofterne med armene i kors. Hovedet kan være dækket af en rund hætte af en type, der stadig bæres i dag, men ansigtet er fliset af. Han bærer en kilt rullet op i taljen. Adskillelsen af ​​benene er angivet med en lav rille foran, under hvilken fødderne er vist med et meget let fremspring. Under fødderne var en dyb lund til flintbladet, som ikke er bevaret. Andre håndtag lavet af ben fra Tepe Sialk har almindelige dyrehoveder. Vi ved ikke, om disse håndtag var lavet til magiske formål eller blot for glæden ved at dekorere. I begge tilfælde er der opnået en overbevisende gengivelse af menneske- og dyreformer her som i Tepe Sarab på de enkleste måder.

Keramik, der optrådte i Iran tidligt i den yngre stenalder, gav en billig erstatning for omhyggeligt slebne stenfartøjer og mindre permanente træ- og hudbeholdere. Det opfyldte behovet for en række sådanne beholdere i former, der spænder fra drikkekopper til gryder og opbevaringsglas. Mange af de fartøjer, der blev udgravet på forhistoriske steder, er derfor utilitaristiske med tykke vægge og lidt eller ingen dekoration.

Fra begyndelsen producerede den iranske keramiker dog nogle dekorerede varer. Snart udviklede en hel række fine keramik med lokale dekorationsstile baseret på keramikerens opfindsomhed, der var inspireret af materialer og temaer, der allerede var etableret i hans kultur og af stimulansen fra de naturlige former for det omkringliggende landskab. Det nye medium, keramik, gav den brede vifte af kreative muligheder. Ikke alene kunne plastmaterialet formes til forskellige former, men dets farve kunne ændres ved at ændre fyringsmetoden, og dens overflade kunne dekoreres ved at imponere eller male mønstre på den. Det er næppe overraskende, at formning og maling af keramik i over to tusind år, fra omkring 5500 til omkring 3000 f.Kr., var en af ​​de vigtigste kunstneriske aktiviteter for landsbyboerne i Iran. Selv efter 3000 f.Kr., den omtrentlige dato, hvor den første virkelig bycivilisation var opstået i Susa i det sydvestlige Iran, fortsatte produktionen af ​​malet keramik i landsbyerne i nogle områder i århundreder.

En undersøgelse af Irans kunst kræver, at kun keramik, der repræsenterer højdepunkter i landets kunstneriske produktion, nævnes her. Det skal naturligvis forstås, at sådan udvalgt keramik på ingen måde afspejler hele den keramiske industris tilstand i en given landsbykultur.

Relevansen af ​​tidlig keramik for den generelle kunstudvikling er blevet påpeget af Sir Herbert Read, der sagde: 'Keramik er på én gang det enkleste og det vanskeligste af alle kunstarter. Det er det enkleste, fordi det er det mest elementære, det er det sværeste, fordi det er det mest abstrakte. ' Og fortsætter: 'Bedøm et lands kunst, bedøm dens følsomheds finhed efter dets keramik, det er en sikker berøringssten. Keramik er ren kunst, det er kunst befriet fra efterligning. Skulptur, som den nærmest er relateret til, havde fra det første en efterlignende hensigt, og den er måske i den grad mindre fri for udtryk for viljen til at danne end keramik er plastik i sin mest abstrakte essens. ' [2]

Sagen om keramik præsenteres således i en noget overdrevet form og uden behørig hensyntagen til de begrænsninger, som pottemageren pålægger sit håndværk og formålet med de genstande, han formede. Ikke desto mindre læser møbler [s. 22] argumenter for en overvejelse af keramik ud over arkæologisk kronologis og undersøgelse af spredning af keramiske træk fra en region til en anden. De to sidstnævnte undersøgelser giver imidlertid vores eneste guide til arrangementet af tidlige iranske kulturer i rum og tid, da skriftlige kilder mangler for de fleste regioner indtil midten af ​​det første årtusinde f.Kr. -undtagen ved Susa, hvor mesopotamisk indflydelse forårsagede output af kileskriftstekster fra det tredje årtusinde og fremefter.

Det begrænsede omfang af systematisk arkæologisk undersøgelse af Iran og i flere tilfælde dens dårlige kvalitet gør en oversigt over keramisk og dermed stilistisk udvikling meget foreløbig. Ikke desto mindre er den brede kontur for det piedmontale område på det centrale plateau og lavlandet omkring Susa synlig, såvel som for nylig den for tidlige bosættelser i Azarbaijan.

I bjergbuen omkring den centrale ørken og nåede cirka fra Persepolis og Kerman rundt til Teheran og Meshed er flere tidlige steder blevet undersøgt, som viser en lignende type groft, brunbrun håndlavet keramik. Leret indeholder meget hakket halm, der bruges som et tempereringsmiddel for at forhindre revner under tørring og brænding. Overflader fik sædvanligvis en glansfuld finish ved overbrænding. På flere udgravede steder, såsom Tall-i Bakun nær Persepolis, og Bælte- og Hotu-hulerne, nær Beshar ved den kaspiske kyst, har denne vare, der undertiden kaldes software, fordi den let smuldrer, fundet sig forud for mere dekorerede varer malet sort på en rød eller buff jord. På to andre tidlige steder af betydning, Tepe Sialk nær Kashan og Cheshm-i Ali nær Teheran, forekommer lignende blødgods uden dekoration sammen med det senere malede keramik. Tæt relaterede almindelige varer forbundet med malet keramik forekommer også i jarlestederne i Tepe Sarab nær Kermanshah, i basale Tepe Giyan nær Nihavend og ved Hajji Firuz Tepe i det sydlige Azarbaijan. Denne udvidede optælling af steder med en nært beslægtet keramik bliver interessant, når det indser, at lighed i keramik indebærer kontakt mellem landsbyer. På en eller anden måde er kendskabet til, hvordan man laver keramik af ler blandet med agnespreder-hvad enten det er ved handel eller på andre måder, ukendt. Centret for den tidligste keramikfremstilling i Nærøsten kendes heller ikke, for de iranske prøver er endnu ikke tilstrækkelige til at antyde, at de repræsenterer de steder, hvor keramik blev opfundet.

Mere karakteristisk for tidlig iransk kunst end det mere primitive keramik er de kalkolitiske malede varer, der udviklede sig på plateauet og også i de vestlige bjerge. Deres fordeling falder på den ene side sammen med landbrugszonen omkring den nordlige ende af det centrale piemont og på den anden side med større landbrugsdale i Zagros. I det centrale område er de fundet på steder nær Kashan, Qum, Saveh, Rayy, Tepe Hissar Damghan og Nishapur, samt på den kaspiske kyst ved Hotu -hulen. I Zagros forekommer de i nord ved Hajji Firuz Tepe og Dalma Tepe i Solduz-dalen i Azarbaijan nær Kermanshah, de findes ved Tepe Siahbid, og på sletterne ved Pasargadae og Persepolis kan vi nævne Tall-i Bakun og Tall-i Nokhodi , [3] et nyt websted. Historien om en af ​​disse regionale udviklinger i malet keramik er bedst registreret på Tepe Sialk, hvor den tidligste fase er en rent abstrakt dekoration. Typisk for denne fase er enkle geometriske mønstre som pastiller malet i sort på en rød bund inde i den dybe fragmentariske skål, der ses i figur 2. Udklækkede og krydsskraverede pastiller, zigzags og bølgende linjer blev ofte brugt i grupper på fire, først på indvendigt og senere på ydersiden af ​​skåle. En anden ware brugte en buff slip som jorden til en sart type panel [s. 23] mønster, der kan være afledt af kurv. Alle de geometriske designs er kendetegnet ved, i hvilket omfang de fremstår som netmønstre pålagt baggrunden, hvilket dermed udgør en integreret del af ethvert design. Kun et par mønstre sammensat af solide sorte trekanter forekommer. Det finere keramik med en smal flad bund, hvorfra væggene blusser ud og derefter skifter til en mere lodret retning. The same basic form, but with the shoulder placed higher in the bowl, was still used in the third period of Sialk about a thousand years later. Another early Sialk form which has been associated with later shapes by the excavator, R. Ghirshman, is the open bowl on a large foot. The walls are much thicker than those previously described. Vessels of both types were covered with a buff slip and decorated with a panelled pattern. Radio-carbon tests indirectly suggest a date of around 5000 B.C. for this early phase on the plateau.

We speak here of one phase because there is consistency in the pottery found in the excavated layers or levels, of which there were five in Period I at Sialk. The first yielded no walls, but the other four present four subsequent levels of construction of pisé walls, which correspond to four levels of occupation. When the pottery changes, when new forms of decoration, new colours, new shapes appear, it is assumed that a new period or phase has begun. Such changes may have been brought about by the addition of a new element in the population, or they may have been independently evolved. The latter seems unlikely when a change in pottery is accompanied by changes in the other remains such as building materials and methods. Such changes occurred between Periods I and I at Sialk when the pisé walls of Period I were replaced by the mud brick of Period II and [p. 24] the pottery of Period II appeared, which is more evolved than that of Period I. It is thin-walled, generally fired a brick red, and contains less straw than the foregoing wares. Patterns now expand. The interiors of deep bowls are divided into segments of different design or are covered by over-all designs. Often the pattern consists of geometric forms and lines so combined as to suggest organic forms. Most distinctive of this new departure are ibexes obtained by adding two short curved lines as horns to a form composed of two semicircles with the space between filled by vertical hatching. A bowl in the Metropolitan Museum, with linked ibex horns in a delicate pattern inside, is a fine example of the style of Period II which has been found at numerous sites other than Sialk--for example, at Kara Tepe in Shahriyar province west of Teheran, where an almost identical bowl was discovered. [4]

The third period at Sialk witnessed the emergence of more naturalistic animal forms than before and the combination of motifs into more complex compositions. By the middle of the period vertically and horizontally directed motifs had appeared. The vertical ones consisted of four elements: superimposed volutes, horizontal 'bird' chevrons, horned lozenges and vertical placed snakes. Horizontal motifs consisted of geometric forms like chequer-boards, but the more interesting vessels have rows of animals, felines, birds or a snake. At the end of the period horned animals are seen, first in panels, then in cursorily executed rows. Man appears fairly frequently with triangular thorax and summarily rendered head. To the same period belongs a vase in the shape of an animal such vases are called theriomorphic.

The change in decoration corresponds to the change in the consistency of the clay and in the manner of manufacture. At the beginning of the period the clay still [p. 26] contains some straw, but by the middle the clay is very compact with virtually no straw and the surface is smooth, with a soapy feeling. Increased firing temperatures due to improved kilns changed the red colouring to buff or cream [the entire range often occurring on a single vessel] to which a slight lustre is added by light burnishing. Later the surface and paint are again left mat and the colour of the clay has a greenish cast reminiscent of the clays of south-western Iran and Mesopotamia. A most important technological revolution, which occurred during Period III, was the introduction of the potter's wheel, which permitted mass production of new and more regular shapes. The appearance of the actual 'fast' wheel may have been preceded by use of a turn-table, or tournette, as it is called in French. This was a device by which the potter could easily bring every side of the vessel within his reach by turning it on a movable base--a mat or perhaps a clay or stone disk--which in some instances may have been pivoted. The actual potter's wheel can be made to spin fast enough to impart centrifugal force to a centered lump of clay. The result is a more regular form with more sharply defined profiles. A footed beaker was one of the characteristic forms of this new technique, but older forms carried on as well. [s. 27]

In the middle of Period III at Sialk connections can be observed with the potter of other sites, for example, with that of Tepe Hissar at Damghan several hundred miles to the north-east. The main body of Hissar painted pottery [Period IB and IC] is very similar to its Sialk counterpart. Footed beakers with rows of animals and animals in panels, for example, are also found at both sites. One would like to theorize on the nature of this relationship. Why was one pottery essentially duplicated in another place? How did it become known: through trade, through migrant workers or through migration of a people? At any rate the fact that there were connections not only with Hissar but also with the pottery of Tepe Giyan--far to the west, over steep mountain passes--and with other sites indicates that the art of pottery-making was widespread and subject to influences from afar. The technique of mass production which had been created with the potter's wheel and the form of decoration, a combination of geometric and animal forms tastefully adjusted to the form of the vessel, laid the foundation for much of the stylistic tradition which subsequently characterized the pottery of Iran and which eventually found its way even to central India.

The sequence of south-western Iranian pottery cultures is known from two areas, Susiana and the Persepolis plain. Susiana, the region surrounding Susa, has prior claim to our interest because of the fact that prehistoric Iranian pottery was first discovered there and because, owing to its inherent aesthetic appeal, this pottery was the subject of a major essay in stylistic analysis made by the classical archaeologist E. Pottier. [5] Prehistoric Iran was thereby brought for the first time into the field of vision of general art history. When the painted pottery of Susa with its marvelously balanced panelled animal designs was first discovered, it was considered the earliest in the area. Recent excavations however, have shown that it came very late indeed in a development which began before 6500 BC., at a time when pottery was not yet used in the region. [6] Once painted pottery had been developed, several stages followed each other in the Susiana before the exceptional quality of the Susa I pottery had been attained [see Appendix, Chart I: Painted Pottery of Iran].

The example of Susa pottery usually shown is one of the large goblets with ibexes. Of all the painted pottery objects of the ancient Near East, the one here reproduced, which is in the Louvre, is the most successful. The design consists of three panels in each of which the principal figure is an ibex, its body formed by two connected triangles with curved sides. The curve of the back is continued in the marvelous sweep of the horns, which enclose an unidentifiable round object, marked with a central line of chevrons suggesting a plant and, at the side, cross-hatched segments. It may be only a filler design for an otherwise empty space at the same time it may also give a shorthand indication of plant and pasture. The frame surrounding the ibex becomes slightly narrower toward the bottom and thereby emphasizes the shape of the vessel. A stress on the circular circumference of the goblet is produced by a row of running saluki-like dogs with elongated bodies and also by the dark bands which border each register of [p. 28] animals. The top is formed by birds with long thin necks these create a very light design in contrast to the bottom, which has a thick band of dark paint that gives solidity to the base. Our short description can only enumerate the elements of the design it cannot render adequately in words the extraordinary feeling for balance in every detail expressed by the decoration of this vessel.

In addition to the goblets, the insides of open bowls show paintings of similar character, also with a remarkable equipoise between geometric ornament and animal form. The latter is so adjusted to decorative purposes that the over-all effect is entirely harmonious. The composition of the design stresses the circular form of the bowl in various ways: by bands which partly follow the curve of the bowl but turn several times at right angles, by three or four circles arranged within the bowl, or by lines which form counter-curves to the circumference of the bowl. Less artful arrangements involve concentric circles or radial compositions.

In the Persepolis region, at Tall-i Bakun, the probably contemporary painted pottery did not reach quite the degree of sophistication of that at Susa. A pleasing object is, however, one of the many conical bowls painted on the outside with two moufflons whose tremendously enlarged horns form swelling spirals. The space between the horns is filled by cross-hatched squares and circles with an enclosed cross.

Other patterns from Tall-i Bakun and Tal-i Nokhodi show the use of negative design with the same freedom as in a painted filled design. A reversal of forms in rhythmic sequence rather than axial symmetry is also to be observed.

The decorative inventiveness of the early potters of Iran, their sense of form and balance, the assurance with which they executed their lines and shapes, transformed these vessels of simple clay into pleasing works of art. It seems likely that the pottery motifs had more than merely decorative value, but all speculation about their meaning must remain simply speculation.

The use of seals accompanied the emergence of civilization in Iran as in many other regions of western Asia. These engraved seal-stones of various shapes were impressed on lumps of clay which had been pressed over the strings wound around the neck of a vessel to secure in place the piece of woven material or other device which was employed to cover the mouth of the vessel. Other such clay sealings assured the safety of the contents of baskets or of containers fashioned of various materials. No unauthorized person could tamper with goods protected by clay sealings without risking the heavy penalties imposed on thieves in antiquity. [s. 30]

Aside from its practical function, the design engraved on the sealing surface--geometric, animal or human forms--probably had a general protective significance. Thus the seals which were usually perforated and worn as a pendant on a necklace or bracelet surely also served as amulets.

As in the potter of Iran, several groups can be distinguished among the stamp seals of that country, their style differing according to place and date of origin. [7] Only two examples are shown here, both of them closely related to groups of seals represented at Susa, although both were said to have been found in Luristan. The first is a black plaque perforated lengthwise through the middle of the object. One side of the plaque is engraved with a demon with a human body and moufflon horns. The demon has the elbows bent and both hands raised in a gesture of conjuration. Two snakes extend their triangular heads toward the demon's armpits. On either side of the demon appear several V-shaped lines of diminishing size and unknown meaning. The design is deeply and sharply gouged out from the relatively soft stone. All the shapes, such as the demon's limbs, are indicated merely by lines--except for his thorax, which is a triangular plane with horizontal lines and small vertical nicks, perhaps meant to suggest hair. Some surface design is also indicated on the bodies of the snakes, which are represented by two lines between which there is hatching in changing directions. The plaque belongs to the style of Susa A, contemporary with the beautiful pottery discussed above. In one of the painted bowls [8] occurs a human figure whose torso is similarly rendered in triangular form, although the fact that the demon on the seal has bent knees and the figure on the bowl stands upright makes the latter seem more advanced and human, whereas our demon seems to be shuffling along like an animal.

The second seal shown here is called in seal terminology a low hemispheroid. The seal is of dark red stone and has on the base the figure of a demon with the head of an ibex and feet in the form of heads of horned animals--the one recognizable horn looks like that of a bovine animal, but one cannot be sure with one hand the demon holds an ibex by the horns, with the other he raises a second ibex by one hind leg. It seems as if the demon were about to throw these animals into the air. His body is covered with short striations which probably indicate a hariy skin. The engraving is much more delicate than on the foregoing seal the entire surface of the bodies is hollowed out of the stone, and the outlines are almost naturalistically drawn. Moreover, despite the animal-head form of the feet, the demon's posture is so human that one is inclined to think of a man in the guise of a demon rather than a creature from the fearful unreasoning world of animal demons.

It is interesting to note that in the period to which the second stamp seal belongs, Susa B, the painted pottery of Susa A appears to have been largely replaced by unpainted pottery with characteristics of the Uruk period of Mesopotamia. [9] At all times Mesopotamian art appears to have centered more on man than did the pre-Islamic art of Iran. Perhaps Mesopotamian influence, so noticeable in the pottery of Susa of that time, was also responsible for the striking differences from the moufflon demon in the conception of the ibex demon in this seal. The difference in the horns, moufflon and ibex, of the demons on our two seals may or may not indicate a basic difference in the meaning of the figures. We can only say that, of the two, the ibex demon was far more widely represented and seems to have alternated on seal impressions from Susa with a human master of animals who in one case wears ibex horns on a fez-like headgear. [10] [s. 32]

This is the first evidence for the representation of human and demonic creatures whose power to control snakes and other dangerous animals transcends that of ordinary men. Unfortunately we may never know whether we should call these powerful superhuman beings gods, shamans or--taking into consideration the occasional human form of the figure--kings with superhuman powers.

When the ibex demon was represented in Mesopotamia [11] he probably had a different and lesser significance. At least in historical times, gods were shown in Mesopotamia in human form and only demons, most of them evil, were given features of animals. [s. 33]


BEMÆRKNINGER:
1. For a description of the Khuzistan region and its connections with Mesopotamia, see Adams, 'Early South-western Iran,' p. 109.

2. Ann L. Perkins in Relative Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, red. R. W. Ehrich [Univ of Chicago Press, 1954], p. 42, pointed to the fact that northern Mesopotamia lay 'in the path of migratory movements and commerce between Syria and Iran [and farther Asia] and the lands bordering the Mediterranean.'

3. For a discussion of these 'areas of refuge,' see Frye, Heritage of Persia, pp. 7-9.

4. The ornaments of the wooden horses from the equestrian statue in the Rumbur valley, Kafiristan, are reproduced in ILN [March 30, 1963], p. 468, lower left. In the time of King Sargon [721-705 B.C.], Assyrian horses had similar ornaments worn in the same way, as shown in Barnett, Assyrian Reliefs, Pl. 43. Herzfeld, Iran, p. 141, Fig. 256, reproduced drawings of several slightly differing ornaments of this type, two of which are Assyrian, one comes from Luristan, another from the Ordos region. Examples made of shell in various shapes, which were found at Nimrud, are in the Metropolitan Museum, acc. nos. 54-117, 16-19.

5. For an archaeological survey of Seistan, see W. A. Fairservis, Archeological Studies in the Seiston Basin of Southwestern Afghanistan and Eastern Iran [Anthroplogical Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 48, New York, 1961].

6. Numerous sources of copper are known elsewhere in Iran see R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology IX [Leyden, 1964], p. 9.


Historical relations between India and Iran

New Delhi: The age-long historical relations between the Iranians and the people of the Indian subcontinent date back to a very remote past. In the splendid civilization of Mohenjodaro and the Sindh Valley which flourished between 2500 and 1500 BC, there are visible signs of relationship with the Iranian civilization. The ancient relics, earthenware and the marked resemblance in their designs and patterns are strong evidence in favor of this assertion.


This civilization is followed by the arrival of the Aryans in this land. Although the factors which lead to this mass migration are yet not fully known the various similarities found in the legends and religious texts of the two peoples allude to such connection. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that Sanskrit, Old Persian, and Avestan languages are the sisters born of the same mother. Inauthentic books of history some references have been made to the continuous relations of the two people during the days of the Medes, Pishdadiyan, and Kiwanian. In the holy book of Zoroastrians i.e. Avesta, too, mention has been made of North India.


Fortunately, since the Achaemenid period, we have authentic sources like the historical monuments of Persepolis. During the Achaemenid rule in the kingdom of Darius the Great the artisans, craftsmen, and traders traveled from Iran to India and from India to Iran and even in some battles between Iran and Greece the Indian soldiers fought as a part of the army of Achaemenid. The relics of Persepolis to confirm this view.


After the invasion of Alexander and the subsequent establishment of the Seleucid reign the relations between Iran and India weakened but following the fall of the Seleucids and foundation of the Parthian rule (228 CE), the relations between the two people were further enhanced, while the Sasanian period (224 – 651 CE) provides an excellent example of cultural affinity between them.


This reciprocal enrichment continued and there was an exchange of visits and even inter-marriage came in vogue between the two peoples. As the great poet of Iran Ferdowsi has related in Shahnameh, (The Book of Kings) the Sassanid king Bahram-e Gur who was a man of festivity, hunting and music, requested the Indian king Shangol to select ten thousand expert singers and musicians and send them to Iran so that they teach the art of Indian music and Iranians may learn Indian musical tunes and the Indian king did so.


Some of the historical works have claimed that Bahram-e Gur (d. 438 CE) even came on a visit to India and the Iranian kings also chose some of the Indian women as their queens. Similarly there are several other examples of very close cultural relations in the pre-Islamic era such as the well-known translation of Panchatantra – the ancient Indian book of fables in Sanskrit into Pahlavi during the reign of Anushiravan, better known as Nowsherwan the Just, and the arrival of chess in Iran from India and sending of backgammon to India by Nowsherwan which was an invention of Bozorgmehr, Nowsherwan’s wise minister. There was also the presence of several Indian translators in the royal courts of the Sassanid and ever-growing commercial and trade relations between the two countries, followed by the constant trail of traders’ caravans.

(12) With the advent of Islam and the subsequent gradual conversion of the Iranians to Islam in 652 CE which led to the end of the Sassanid rule in Iran, Iran was annexed to the vast Muslim empire.
Thousands of Iranian scholars, writers, poets and physicians who brought with them the Persian language, customs and traditions and this led to the serious and all-out the impact of Iranian culture on the Indian culture. So the Iranian culture was effectively grafted on the Indian soil and consequently, the ever-existing cordial relations between the two people were further enhanced. It is also considered as the beginning of the influence of the Persian language which developed more and more with the passage of time.


Keeping in view the historical – intellectual traditions of this region, the mystics and Sufis played a very important role in the dissemination of Islam in these areas. They compiled a number of books and treatises on Islamic Sufism in Persian which had an effective role in the development and promotion of Persian in these territories.


Sheikh Ali Hujweri (d. circa 1099 CE) the renowned Sufi author of Kashf ul-Mahjub arrived in Lahore in 1040 CE and wrote the first work on Islamic Sufism in Persian prose which is considered to be the earliest book written in Persian in the Indian subcontinent.


Among a large number of poets, writers, scholars, and Sufis who flourished in India. Persian language and the Iranian culture reached the remotest corners of the subcontinent and scholars, theologians and artists from different parts of Iran like Tabriz, Isfahan, and Ray thronged the courts in India and received rich gifts and rewards.


The founders of four main Sufi orders of Chishti, Qadiriyya, Suhrawardiyya, and Naqshbandi who established these Sufi orders in India migrated from Iran to India. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti or KhwajaGhareeb Nawaz was an Iranian Muslim preacher, ascetic, religious scholar, philosopher, and mystic from Chisht in Khurasan, Iran. He settled down in Ajmer, Rajasthan, India in the early 13th-century, where he promulgated the famous Chishtiyya order of Islamic mysticism.


The first promoter of Persian (in the region) was the Sufi saint Seyyed Sharifuddin Bulbul Shah better known as Bulbul Shah Sohrawardi (d. 1327 CE) came to Kashmir.

(16) After him, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani (1313 – 1383 CE) in the company of 700 persons from among his disciples and friends including some artisans entered Kashmir and started providing religious guidance and instruction which naturally accompanied greatest promotion and spreading of Persian language among the people and rulers of Kashmir.

(17) The artisans also started (teaching and training in) Iranian arts.
The second king of Mughal dynasty in India was Humayun who after the defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri Afghan fled to Iran and as a result of military help by Shah Tahmasp Safavi, was able to return to India accompanied by a number of Iranian scholars and poets. It was during the reign of Humayun that due to the acquaintance and long stay of himself and his family in Iran, the number of poets, writers, scholars, and Sufis who migrated to the subcontinent increased gradually.

He too composed poetry in Persian. A Diwan in Persian is also attributed to him.


Akbar Jalaluddin ruled for about half a century. He was unparalleled as regards to the special attention paid and interest taken by him in Persian poetry and his patronage of Iranian scholars. In this period, Iranian poets migrated to the subcontinent in great numbers.

Akbar for the first time appointed a poet as poet-laureate in his court. His first poet-laureate was Ghazali Mashhadi, who was followed by Faizi Akbarabadi. Some of the nobles of his court like Abdur Rahim Khan-e Khanan, also made an important contribution in the development and spread of the Persian language and the Iranian culture.


Following the marriage of Jahangir Nuruddin to Nur Jahan, the daughter of an Iranian noble, Mirza Ghiyasuddin Beg Tehrani, the influence of Iranian language and literature in this subcontinent increased considerably.

Iranian art and architecture also gained extensive popularity.
Shahjahan Shahabuddin’s period is characterized by the glory of Iranian culture and art in the subcontinent. The Iranian architecture and Persian inscriptions on the various buildings became extensively popular in the subcontinent. A large number of forts, gardens, and mosques were built during his period, like the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Jami’ Masjid in Delhi. The famous poets of his time are Abu Talib Kalim, poet-laureate of his court, Qudsi Mashhadi and Sa’eb Tabrizi.


Aurangzeb Alamgir succeeded his father Shah Jahan and although he had little interest in poetry, Persian prose did make a lot of headway. Ruqqa’at-i-Alamgiri (the letters of Alamgir) written by him are a brilliant example of Persian essays. His daughter Zebun Nisa is known for her Persian poetry and her Persian Diwan is available even today.


After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal power also declined and his eleven successors could not keep the vast empire intact. Persian however retained is popularity. Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib (d. 1869 CE) belonged to this period. Ghalib is a distinguished poet of Persian and Urdu in India.
The British period began in 1757 CE and this imperialist rule left no stone unturned in destroying even the last remnants of Persian in this area but all their endeavors failed at least in the sphere of Persian poetry. The Persian poets in India played an important role in the preservation and popularity of the Persian language in the subcontinent. After the independence of India in 1947, the Persian language is taught in all the leading universities in India.


As already mentioned, Persian had been the official language of India for centuries and during this long span of time, hundreds of books had been written by the scholars and poets of India on different subjects. The history of India of this period had been written invariably in Persian. In addition to anthologies and Diwans of poetry, Persian dictionaries are among the most important works compiled. There have been more than one hundred dictionaries compiled in this area. Many translations had also been done and even religious books of Hindus like Ramayana, and Upanishads were translated into Persian.


Even today many books of Persian language are translated into Urdu and other languages and the books are written in the subcontinent are rendered in Persian. The process of cultural exchange between the two nations has continued and it is hoped that this dialogue between the two civilizations will further enhance.


The relations between two brotherly countries India and Iran in real sense strengthened only after 1947 in the political, economic and cultural fields. India and Iran have unitedly fought of the menace and danger of terrorism and are cooperating closely with each other in this field.


The development of the most strategic Iranian seaport of Chahbahar located in the Sea of Oman by the Indian companies has brought together India, Iran, and Afghanistan in the close strategic bond of friendship and cooperation. The most strategic Iranian seaport of Chahbahar is the shortest route for the quick transport of Indian goods to Russia, Afghanistan, and Central Asian countries.


Main History elements in the Persian Art

The art of Persians people in ancient timesreflected their inclination to represent the reality of their lifes and history with clarity without complications in the messages that the art works intended to transmit. In the great Iran which corresponds to the present-day States of: Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and neighboring regions was born one of the richest artistic heritage in the world, The Persian Art where diverse disciplines including architecture, painting, fabrics, ceramics, calligraphy, metallurgy and masonry were developed with highly advances techniques and imaginative artistic expressions.

History is obviously a very powerful factor not only to shape the cultural identity of a region, but also to give color and local identification to it. History contributes to be able to define the dominant cultural characteristics of the people in each region and for instants their art tendencies. This statement in Persian art is very important to take in consideration, since in each period of this imaginative culture the art expression of the people was very aware of their social, political and economic surroundings. Their art was a reflection of their every day issues and was represented in all the drama and poetic means they could use. Not only was the architecture, painting sculpture, ceramic, golsmith or silversmith they extend this means of expression to poems, historical narratives, and fantastic stories.

The Persian Achaemenid Dynasty

The Achaemenid Dynasty marks the emergence of an important stage in the culture of Persia. Aqueménides Persian rulers embraced the artistic achievements of foreign civilizations and absorption occurred in their culture, but this artistic achivements did not satisfy the Persians who gradually created new and particular artistic and technical patterns much more related to the imagination and the histrionic expressiveness of facts and feelings of the Persian people.

The historical archives which refer to the civilization of the Persians show data ranging from 1000 BC to 600 B.C. These historical data are not marked relevant for the Persian Art until the emerge of Cyrus I (550 until 530 BC).

The reign of Cyrus the Great

During the reign of Cyrus the Great, Persia expands to the West and Northwest beyond the borders of what is today Iran to include Babylonia, some of the Aegean Islands and Anatolia (Asia Minor known in our days by Turkey). The son of Cyrus, Cambyses (530 to 522 BC), forces the Pharaoh of Egypt and the islands of Cypress to accept the Persian rule.

Persepolis Palace, Duomo, Cupulas

The reign of Darius

Persia empire reached its geographical peak during the reign of Darius I (522 to 486 BC) Dario’s Government reaches from sea Eral to the Persian Gulf. It also stretched from the first cataract of the Nile River to the Valley of the Rio Hindu.

The rule of Darius covers many cultures. He and his son used foreign artists to promote and strengthen its image of power dare carefully using certain amount of sculptures. This has resulted in the proliferation and the splendor of artistic monuments and buildings with great architectural value. Among these monuments are the Palace of Persepolis sculptures. Susa, Parsedae and Persepolis where the three most important cities of Persia.

Darius listed skilled artists and craftsmen natives of Egypt Greek Ionian and Mesopotamia. They constructed the buildings on a large scale to propagandize his power, so that the effect on the spectator should be daunting.

Ancient persian relief from Persepolis Palace

The Palace of Darius was a resulting stylistic amalgam of influences from countries and regions where all these artists that he recruited came from.

However nevertheless to concur hear so much artistic talent with different inheritance, the constructive design and the decoration of each of the parts of the Palace answered perfectly the needs of expression, ideological and religious of Persian culture as well as a grandiloquent representation of power, the main intension of the message transmitted.

The Sassanid period

The Sassanid period which comprises the entire final period of classical antiquity that even survive a few centuries, is considered one of the most important and influential of the Iran historical periods. Here occurred the greatest achievements of Persian culture, and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Islamic conquest of Persia and the adoption of the Islam as a religion throughout the territory.

Sassanid period ancient persian art.

Persien had an important influence on the Roman civilization culture and also spread their influence well beyond, reaching as far away as Europe, the India, China and the Africa territories.

The Persian culture plays a key role in the formation of the medieval, European and Asian art, reaching the budding Islamic world as well.

The aristocratic and exclusive culture of the Sassanid dynasty became a Persian ‘Renaissance’. The precedence of what would be later known as ‘Islamic culture’ (architecture elements, draperies mastery, jewelry, writing and other skills) were adopted by the broader Islamic world from the Sassanid Persians.

Handmade ancient persian rugs utilized natural ingredients

The famous tapestry, the beautiful works of precious metalwork, reliefs worked in different types of materials as well as the frescoes of bright colors and eloquent expressiveness are today invaluable art work and palpable testimony of the importance of the Sassanid culture who saw themselves as successors of the Aqueménides after the interlude of Hellenistic and Parthian rule, and were convinced that their destiny was to restore the greatness of Persia.

The art of this period reveals an astonishing vitality, anticipating in some respects to the key elements of Islamic art. Sassanid art combined elements of traditional Persian art with elements and influences of Hellenistic art.

The conquest of Persia by Alexander the great began the spread of Hellenistic art into Western Asia. These artistic influences were accepted only externally, the essence never were complete assimilated.

Hellenistic art was interpreted freely by the peoples of the Near East. Thus the Sassanid period was a reaction against these art forms. Sassanid art revived traditional native Persian forms and, and already in the Islamic period, these forms reached the shores of the Mediterranean.

With the rise of the Sassanid’s, Persia regained much of the power and stability they long had lost leading to the resurgence of the art based on the traditions of the time of the Aqueménida culture.

The unique characteristic of Sassanid architecture is the distinctive use of space. Sassanid architects conceived his buildings in terms of masses and surfaces. This led to the use in abundance of brick walls decorated with molded or carved stucco.

The Islamic Period

After the completion of the Sassanid Persians period of predominance Persia integrated the list of regions that embrace Islam. This religion resulted in important changes in the Persian culture covering all areas of the spiri­tual and intellectual elements which determine the life of a traditional society.

If we define the culture as the one to cover these basic elements, “according to Western concepts”, then, there is undoubtedly a unique Islamic culture with different ‘zones’ or worlds contained therein, ‘worlds‘ that are United by the spirit and the sacred form of tradition and are separated by local factors, geographical, linguistic, ethnic or otherwise.

Many factors alone, or in combination could be enumerated, as they have been responsible for the creation of these Islamic cultural ‘worlds’ and they can be used as criteria for the delineation and description of each.

It is clear that the racial and ethnic characteristics of the peoples who have embraced Islam have been a very decisive factor in local cultural variations. These features have affected the language and literature, artistic forms of all kinds, which include clothing, ornamentation, the various styles of calligraphy and architecture, music, the creation of tapestries and metalwork as well as painting and ceramics processing.

Once Islamism converted, the Persians became the main instrument of the expansion of Islam in most of the rest of the Asian territory, at least until Malaysia. The Islamic period has given as predecessors History periods in the Persian Culture, innumerable and invaluable works of art that resonate in perfect accordance with the traditions and the religious fervor with which they were made for and shown, as in the previous periods evolutionary characteristics inherent not only to the history but also to the region in which they were created.


Ancient Persian/Iranian Art - History

TEHRAN – The Sassanid era (224 CE–651) is of very high importance in the history of Iran. Under Sassanids, Persian art and architecture experienced a general renaissance.

Architecture often took grandiose proportions such as palaces at Ctesiphon, Firuzabad, and Sarvestan that are amongst highlights of the ensemble.

Crafts such as metalwork and gem-engraving grew highly sophisticated, yet scholarship was encouraged by the state. In those years, works from both the East and West were translated into Pahlavi, the language of the Sassanians.

Rock-carved sculptures and bas-reliefs on abrupt limestone cliffs are widely deemed as characteristics and striking relics of the Sassanian art, top examples of which can be traced at Bishapur, Naqsh-e Rostam and Naqsh-e Rajab in southern Iran.

In 2018, UNESCO added an ensemble of Sassanian historical cities in southern Iran -- titled “Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region”-- to its World Heritage list.

The ensemble is comprised of eight archaeological sites situated in three geographical parts of Firuzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan. It reflects the optimized utilization of natural topography and bears witness to the influence of Achaemenid and Parthian cultural traditions and of Roman art, which later had a significant impact on the architecture and artistic styles of the Islamic era.

Efforts made by the Sassanids also yield a revival of Iranian nationalism took place, for example, Zoroastrianism was declared as the state religion.

The dynasty evolved by Ardashir I and was destroyed by the Arabs during a period of 637 to 651. The dynasty was named after Sasan, an ancestor of Ardashir I.

Under his leadership who reigned from 224 to 241, the Sassanians overthrew the Parthians and created an empire that was constantly changing in size as it reacted to Rome and Byzantium to the west and to the Kushans and Hephthalites to the east, according to Britannica Encyclopedia.

At the time of Shapur I (reigned 241 CE–272), the empire stretched from Sogdiana and Iberia (Georgia) in the north to the Mazun region of Arabia in the south in the east it extended to the Indus River and in the west to the upper Tigris and Euphrates river valleys.

Bust of a Sasanian king, most likely Shapur II

According to UNESCO, the ancient cities of Ardashir Khurreh and Bishapur include the most significant remaining testimonies of the earliest moments of the Sassanid Empire, the commencement under Ardashir I and the establishment of power under both Ardashir I and his successor Shapur I.

“The architecture of the Sassanid monuments in the property further illustrates early examples of construction of domes with squinches on square spaces, such as in the chahar-taq buildings, where the four sides of the square room show arched openings: this architectural form turned into the most typical form of Sassanid religious architecture, relating closely to the expansion and stabilization of Zoroastrianism under Sassanid reign and continuing during the Islamic era thanks to its usage in religious and holy buildings such as mosques and tombs,” the UN cultural body say in its website.

The Sassanid archaeological landscape also represents a highly efficient system of land use and strategic utilization of natural topography in the creation of the earliest cultural centers of the Sassanid civilization.


Ancient Persian/Iranian Art - History

CAIS is a cultural body founded in 1998, to promote scholarship and

research in all aspects of pre-Islamic Iranian Civilization

T he Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) is an independent not-for-profit educational programme, with no affiliation to any political or religious group dedicated to the research, protection, preservation of the pre-Islamic Iranian civilisation.

CAIS was established in 1998 by Shapour Suren-Pahlav og Oric Basirov (Department of Art and Archaeology), under the name of "Ancient Iranian Civilisation at the School of Oriental and African Studies" (AIC at SOAS) and later changed to "The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies" (CAIS at SOAS) of the University of London, to act as a forum for the exchange of information about the art, archaeology, culture and civilisation of Iranian peoples. CAIS no longer has any affiliation with SOAS .

The mission of the Circle is to expand understanding and appreciation of pre-Islamic Iranian heritage as achieved through systematic investigation of the archaeological and historical records.

The Circle seeks to promote and increase the existing body of knowledge relating to this important area, laying particular emphasis on providing up-to-date information to students, academics and cultural enthusiasts about current Iranian and international research projects and fieldworks.

Although, the Circle's title is about Ancient Iran, it also focuses on the early-Islamic era (as CAIS labels it the "Post-Sasanian period" or Farā-Sāsānī in Persian) of the Iranian art, archaeology, culture, history and languages of the area known as the "Greater Iran", stretching from the Western China to Near East and from the Russian Steppes to southern territories of the Persian Gulf.

The Circle's activities:

- Providing a "free access" website containing scholarly written articles and researches about the ancient Iranian civilisation.

- Daily Newsletter about the latest archaeological discoveries and related news from the Iranian world

- Hosting weekly lectures by scholar's of international reputes.

- Promoting the exchange of information regarding Ancient Iran by means of diverse activities of cultural and scholarly merit in culture and civilisation of the Ancient Iranian Peoples, by forging ties with a number of major institutions throughout the United Kingdom and international educational and cultural establishments.

- Reporting on recently-completed or on-going fieldwork and new research.


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