Poporo Quimbaya

Poporo Quimbaya


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Poporo

Webstedet poporo er en enhed, der bruges af oprindelige folk i nutiden og i præ-columbiansk Sydamerika til opbevaring af små mængder kalk fremstillet af brændte og knuste muslingeskaller. Den består af to dele: en beholder og et låg, der indeholder en nål, der bruges til at transportere kalk til munden, mens man tygger Coca -blade. Da tygningen af ​​Coca er hellig for de oprindelige folk, tilskrives poporerne også mystiske kræfter og social status.
I Colombia findes poporerne i arkæologiske rester fra blandt andet Chibcha, repræsentanter og Quimbaya -kulturer. De materialer, der blev brugt i de tidlige perioder, hovedsageligt keramik og udskæringer i sten. I klassiske perioder er guld og tumbaga de hyppigste: et eksempel på dette er webstedet poporo Quimbaya udstillet i guldmuseet, som er et nationalt symbol. I øjeblikket bruger de indfødte i Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta stadig poporos lavet med de tørrede frugter af en plante af slægten Cucurbita, totumo, på traditionel vis.

1. Hjemmesiden Poporo Quimbaya. (Сайт Сайту Poporo Кимбайе)
Et særligt berømt poporo-websted, webstedet poporo Quimbaya, er et præ-columbiansk kunstværk fra den klassiske Quimbaya-periode, der i øjeblikket udstilles på guldmuseet i Bogota, Colombia. Dets primære brug var som en ceremoniel enhed til at tygge Coca -blade under religiøse ceremonier. Dette blev udført omkring 300 CE med processen med tabt voksstøbning.
Det menes, at kunstværket blev stjålet fra gravkammeret i begyndelsen af ​​1930'erne, på Loma del Pajarito "fuglebakke" nær Anori i Antioquia-afdelingen, hvor plyndring af grave i de oprindelige grave var meget almindelig , der ofte ender med at ødelægge vigtige arkæologiske stykker for at udtrække guldet.
I 1939 blev Banco de La república Central Bank i Colombia erhvervet af stedet poporo Quimbaya for at bevare det mod ødelæggelse. Dette er begyndelsen på et stort projekt om bevarelse af præ-columbiansk spole, som førte til oprettelsen af ​​Museum of gold i Bogota.
På webstedet poporo Quimbaya er et usædvanligt stykke lavet af tumbaga, med et underligt minimalistisk design, der giver det et moderne look. Dette er et af de mest berømte præ-columbianske kunstværker, der ofte bruges som et symbol på oprindelige folk fra præ-columbiansk kultur. Han blev afbildet i den colombianske valuta, mønter og dollarsedler.

  • kulturens mest emblematiske stykke kommer fra denne periode, en form for poporo kendt som Poporo Quimbaya, udstillet på Bogota Gold Museum. Den hyppigste
  • Talt af: Hajime Koseki Japanske Rick Peeples Engelsk chef Poporo Chef Poporo blev sektionschef, der overvåger de dejlige engle, efter at Garner s
  • Mustikkapopero også kendt som popero, poporo poppi eller pollohillo er en traditionel finsk ret. Det fremstilles ved at blande knuste blåbær og finmalet
  • Ngāti Pōporo og Ngāti Whatuiāpiti. Mangaroa Marae og Hikawera II forsamlingshus er et mødested for Ngāti Kahungunu hapū i Ngāti Pōporo og Ngāti
  • tidligere Torneko -spil. I spillet rejser Torneko og hans kone Nene og sønnen Poporo til en fjern ø for en ferie. Mens der, mystiske kræfter
  • definere deres kultur. For eksempel modtager alle Kogi -mænd en poporo, når de bliver myndige. Poporo er en lille, hul græskar, der er fyldt med lima
  • Santander. Guane -folket tyggede coca kombineret med kalkholdige korn ved hjælp af poporos Guane beboede området i det centrale og sydlige Santander, omkring
  • verden, med 10 af alle beskrevne arter. Foto: Gulørede papegøje Poporo Quimbaya er symbolet på den før -columbianske kultur Nationale symboler på
  • andre amerikanske stammer. Nogle af de vigtigste stykker er de gyldne Poporos traditionelle gadgets til at tygge kokablade og zoomorfe
  • eller rejsevarer. De brugte også en fjerde kaldet masi, til at holde deres poporo Kvinderne bærer tutu gawa lavet af agave. Tutu chakeai og jina
  • speciel enhed kaldet poporo Det repræsenterer livmoderen og pinden er et fallisk symbol. Pindens bevægelser i poporo symboliserer den seksuelle handling
  • Muisca lavede bryststykker, næseringe narigueras øreringe, tallerkener, poporos og andre figurer af det guld, de handlede med de omkringliggende indfødte
  • model til sin klasse. Han beskriver sin egen kunst som eksplosiv Poporo Mk - II ポ ポ ロ Mk - II, Poporo Māku - Tsū Talt af: Yoshino Nanjō En bombebortskaffelsesrobot, som
  • deres balacas ornamenter og andre ting til ceremoniel brug, såsom poporosskålen med låg Som nogle andre gamle kulturer praktiserede Pijao
  • Kapu te Poporo Gud Atua Matariri og gudinden Taporo producerede tidsel. - Laks Atua - matariri ki ai ki roto ki a te Poro, ka pu te poporo Gud - af - den - vred - se
  • Produktion: Fra ØST Digital Animation Uafhængighed Sunwoo Entertainment Poporo Media FunnyFlux Film Fabrik International Marketing: Youn - Joo Kim
  • af de mest værdsatte artefakter fra præ -columbiansk guldværk er det såkaldte Poporo Quimbaya, et lille 23,5 11,4 cm hult, hengiven objekt, der bruges til mambeo
  • cal for at øge stoffets effektivitet. Cal blev gemt i poporos ofte lavet af guld eller tumbaga. En række forskellige guder er blevet beskrevet
  • genkendes af deres guldsmed, der blandt andet producerede poporosflasker til opbevaring af kalk, der bruges til at tygge kokablade af guld. Det
  • Filefestival Brasilien, 2004 Queen Elizabeth -stipendiet, England. Poporo Animation Story af Lina Dorado 1. pris, inter - amerikansk biennal for video
  • gudstatue fra Copan, Honduras, 600 - 800 e.Kr. Rum 24 - Guldkalkflasker poporos Quimbaya Culture, Colombia, 600 - 1100 e.Kr. Rum 27 - Overligger 25 fra Yaxchilan
  • Ngāti Kahungunu er en Māori iwi -stamme beliggende langs den østlige kyst af Nordøen i New Zealand. Iwi er traditionelt centreret i Hawke s
  • af Storytelling Gumship. 9. januar 2013. Hentet 22. januar 2013. Poporo Mk. 2 Anime - Planet. Hentet 2019 - 08 - 05. The Last Crusade My Little
  • Poporo Quimbaya og støder. Fytomorfe frugtformet kalkbeholder, guld, 300 f.Kr. - 1000 e.Kr.
  • År Dato Begivenhed 600 Classic Quimbaya civilisation. Poporo Quimbaya Tierradentro -kultur
  • Nukanoa Ngāti Kahungunu Ngāti Pōporo Ngāti Whatuiāpiti Bridge Pa Mangaroa Marae Hikawera II Ngāti Kahungunu Ngāti Pōporo Ngāti Rahunga Bridge Pa Matahiwi

Poporo: poe poporo, stormspire poe, poe stormspire, poe plateau, stormheart, stormwall poe, måge poe handel, portal poe handel

En pulje af par af beslægtede objekter POPORO til undersøgelse af visuelt.

Læs mere information om karakteren Chief Poporo fra Dirty Pair Flash 2? På MyAnimeList kan du finde ud af om deres stemmeskuespillere, animeografi ,. Poporo -karakter World of Warcraft. Ingen seneste redigeringer af denne side. Ingen beskrivelse. ×. Vælg en liste. Tæt. Denne redigering vil også oprette nye sider på Comic Vine for: Pas på, du foreslår at tilføje. PDF En pulje af par af beslægtede objekter POPORO til undersøgelse. Brugerdefinerede håndlavede smykker butik vedhæng Pend poporo. 20170819 ORT5096 369 PRECIO 25. Pendel poporo. $ 25,00. 1 på lager. Tilføj til kurv. Kategori:. Poporo Dirty Pair FANDOM drevet af en. Poporo google map. Satellitbillede af Poporo, Salomonøerne og nær destinationer. Rejsetilbud. Poporo: Et værktøj til formelle metoder til hurtig kontrol af sociale netværk. Poporo oversættelse engelsk, spansk engelsk ordbog, betydning, se også popo, popof, pop, pomposo, eksempel på brug, definition, bøjning, Reverso. Hvid baggrund mennesker ying yang Poporo png gratis download. Sammenlign hotelpriser og find en fantastisk pris for Poporo Quimbaya Hotel i Quimbaya. Se 0 fotos og læs 0 anmeldelser. Hotel? trivago !.

Poporo Quimbaya Illustration Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Fuldt navn: Poporo. Primær landskode: BP Solomon Islands. Første ordens administrative divisionskode: 00 Salomonøerne generelt. Region Font Code: 5. Ægte colombianske tegnebøger Velkommen Poporo -læder. Dette foto er i 34 grupper. VIVER COM ARTE 48.724 genstande MM Artistic Photos 125.476 genstande Kunst - - exklusiv - - art 1 18.047 varer ₪ kre ART ive. Poporo Street Food & Cafe Porvoo Colombian Restaurant. Flor Amazona x Præsident 1906 - Poporo. Få mere at vide om Flor Amazona. Kategorier: Kapselsamlinger, Kvinder. Anmeldelser 0. Anmeldelser. Der er ingen. Poporo Yelp. Download denne gratis Poporo Musical -vektor nu. Intet køb kræves. Gennemse tusindvis af gratis vektorer fra.

Colombiansk Poporo Lime Container EasyBlog Bowers Museum.

Poporo. Det er koldt 1. Spiller nu. 4:12 Kan du smile. Poporo. Kan du smile. Spiller nu. 3:10 Star Kang Min Hyuk. Poporo. Stjerne Kang Min Hyuk. Poporo Detaljer Udforsk NAVITIME Travel Japan Travel Guides. Engelsk oversættelse af poporo Den officielle Collins spansk engelsk ordbog online. Over 100000 engelske oversættelser af spanske ord og sætninger. Poporo Character Comic Vine. Kalkbeholder Poporo 1. – 7. århundrede. Quimbaya. I Andes Sydamerika er der en indfødt tradition for rituel brug af kokablade. På prækolumbiansk. Poporo Anmeldelse af Gold Museum Museo del Oro, Bogota. Third Eye of Monkey Poporo af Third Eye of Monkey, udgivet 12. februar 2019.

Betydning af Poporo -navn: Dens kraftfulde symbolik og skæbneindvirkning.

Poporo og gennemsigtige png -billeder gratis download. Poporo Quimbaya -ikoner Hent gratis vektorikoner -substantivprojekt. Adresse. Rauhankatu 20 06100 Porvoo Eija Anneli Rikala anbefaler Poporo Street Food & Cafe. 7. maj Todella maukas lounas ja erittain hyva kasin suodatettu kahvi! Suosittelen! Smagsmenuer. Kultur: Kogi Culture and Cultivating Harmony Tairona Heritage Trust. Ikoner til Poporo Quimbaya. Download af SVG og PNG. Få gratis ikoner eller ubegrænsede royaltyfrie ikoner med NounPro. Satellitkort over Poporo Salomonøerne ️ satellit verdenskort. Brain Topogr 2012 2–284 DOI 10.1007 s10548 011 0216 8 ORIGINALPAPIR En pulje af par af beslægtede objekter POPORO til undersøgelse af visuelt. Poporo Dribbble. Poporo Tarren Mill ❮ Uendelig❯ 72 Undead Destruction Warlock, 83 ilvl.

Kalkbeholder poporo DMA Collection Online.

Kalken blev båret rundt i en poporo, som denne, en hul kolbe som guldkar med en kvindelig figur på forsiden. Denne er 9 tommer høj. Wiwa -kulturen, en indfødt colombiansk stamme i. Poporo er en enhed, der bruges af indfødte kulturer i nuværende og før columbiansk Sydamerika til opbevaring af små mængder kalk. Den består af to stykker: beholderen og låget, der indeholder en nål, der bruges til at føre kalken til munden. Poporo @poporo1012 Twitter. Foto af Poporo Quimbaya i. Download dens GPS -spor, og følg ruten på et kort. Optag din egen rejseplan fra appen, upload stien og del den med. Poporo Accesorios @ poporo Instagram -billeder og -videoer. Kostumer af Nathan French. fotografi, Naninca Lemmens. poporo. Løbende projekter. interventioner son anthropologie pas une anthropologie du son. Poporo Discography & Songs Discogs. Publikationer fra Poporo. Poporo. Colombia. Publikation 1. Vis historier indeNy. Forside af Portafolio. Portafolio. af Poporo.

Poporo 12 tips fra 451 besøgende Foursquare.

Poporo. Dato: 1–800 e.Kr. Medium: Guld Dimensioner: Samlet: 6 1 4 × 2 1 2 in. 15,8 × 6,3 cm kreditlinje. Gave af Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. Nuværende placering: Ikke på. Poporo Kalkbeholder Early Quimbaya The Met. En lille beholder, ofte lavet af en græskar, som holder kalk overført til munden med en pind for at øge absorptionen af ​​kokain, når man tygger kokablade. Den ernæringsmæssige værdi og antimikrobielle egenskab af Sorghum bicolor L. Poporo -værktøjet bygger på et tidligere arbejde, hvor vi leverede en prædikatregnskabsdefinition til sociale netværk i B, der modellerer.

Te Poporo Historiske optegnelser og slægtstræer MyHeritage.

PoporonbutterflybataplaiŊam metekee poporo ŋembere tate ŋip yuhurnge.Jeg så en stor sommerfugl på mango lukim bikpela bataplai. Poporo Behavenet. Dette objekt er en poporo eller en beholder til pulveriseret kalk. Den er hul og lavet af støbt metal. Der er en åbning på toppen af ​​poporo, med en højderyg omkring. Identificering af trusler om transitivitet i sociale netværk IEEE Conference.org. De seneste tweets fra POPORO @POPORO1102. WEEB KULTUR Trist og træt Drawtectives entusiast. Vær venlig mod mig. POPORO STUDS Cano smykker. Poporo er på Mixcloud. Deltag i at lytte til fantastiske radioprogrammer, DJ -mix -sæt og Podcasts. Sierra Nevada Indians Survival International. Bookwire tilbyder den mest komplette liste over bøger udgivet af Poporo Press med sammenligningspriser på de bøger, du ønsker fra alle de store onlineforhandlere.

Poporos Favoritter Mixcloud.

Blandt de genstande, der var lavet af guld, var den mest populære poporo, en ritualistisk beholder, der bruges til at opbevare kalk, der stammer fra konkylier og bruges til at tygge. Om os korongatamarae. Kalkbeholder Poporo, ca. 1000 1500 A.D. Quimbaya -folk Colombia Guld 2 1 2 x 1 in. 2006.1.1.1.2 Gave af Greg og Mechas Grinnell i. Poporo Products Teespring. Detaljerede oplysninger om Poporo. Billeder, kort, detaljerede oplysninger, relaterede artikler og nærliggende seværdigheder og restauranter kan ses.

Poporo, den højeste Spire officielle eksilsti.

Udforsk historiske optegnelser og slægtstræprofiler om Te Poporo på MyHeritage, verdens familiehistoriske netværk. Beskidte Poporo -numre og udgivelser på Beatport. Se 54 fotos og 12 tips fra 451 besøgende i Poporo. Gentag IKKE: FÅ IKKE den stegte is med grøn te. Røren er tyk og is i. Poporo PNG og Poporo Transparent Clipart Gratis download. Udforsk udgivelser og numre fra Poporo på Discogs. Køb vinyl, cd'er og mere fra Poporo på Discogs Marketplace.

Poporo 159.89.36.132.

Poporo -oplysninger, herunder relateret anime og manga. Tilføj Poporo som en favorit i dag !. Fil: Poporo af Turista media Commons. Læs en interaktiv historie, da den bliver skrevet live. Stem om historiens retning. Poporo 3D -modeller Sketchfab. Poporo -top med menneskelige ansigter, Quimbaya, InfoBarrel -billeder, der vises på udstilling på British Museum Beyond El Dorado power og guld i det gamle Colombia. 1890 Coca and its Therapeutic Application af Angelo Mariani vintage cocktail.bz. En pulje af par af beslægtede objekter POPORO til undersøgelse af visuel semantisk integration: adfærdsmæssig og elektrofysiologisk validering. Hotel Poporo Quimbaya, Quimbaya. Gold Museum Museo del Oro Poporo Se 13670 anmeldelser fra rejsende, 6864 personlige billeder og gode tilbud til Bogota, Colombia, på TripAdvisor. Chefer på Plateau dræber hinanden?! pathofexile Reddit. Poporo. Kookjin Kim 6 videoer 247 visninger Sidst opdateret den 24. august 2019. Spil alle. Del. Indlæser Gem. Log ind på YouTube. Log ind. Poporos stream på SoundCloud Hør verdens lyde. Poporo i Milano, anmeldelser af rigtige mennesker. Yelp er en sjov og nem måde at finde, anbefale og tale om, hvad der er godt og ikke så godt i Milano og videre.

Poporo pedia.

Poporo er sektionschef i 3WA, der fører tilsyn med Lovely Angels i Dirty Pair Flash Missions 2. Udgiver: Poporo Press Open Library. En afspilningsliste med Cyrus The Virus, Vertical Mode, ON3 og andre. Poporo -billeder, Poporo PNG, gratis download, Clipart. Passiv: har ingen enhedskollision og leveres med tilpassede genstande, der kan opgraderes. Emnet er PoPoRos snackboks, hver eneste dødsfald.

Poporo Sweetagram.

Tags: tvillinger exo romace trainee exocomedy exo12. 24k forgyldte PoPoro øreringe - Carolina DeSouza. POPORO STUDS. ØRERINGE 24 KT GRØN FORFALDET MESSING. HÅNDLAGET I COLOMBIA. POPORO. Pris: $ 150. DETALJER. Længde: 3,3. Poporo i løbene. Leder du efter Poporo -vektorer eller gennemsigtige png -billeder? Vi har 14 gratis ressourcer til dig. Download på PNFFLY dine gennemsigtige png -billeder, PSD ,. Poporos og Cañahuates Poporo Børne T -shirt TeePublic. Shop Poporos og Cañahuates poporo børne t -shirts designet af MinosArt samt andre poporo merchandise hos TeePublic. Profil: poporo Vurder din musik. Poporo er en enhed, der bruges af indfødte kulturer i nuværende og før columbianske Sydamerika til opbevaring af små mængder kalk.


PRE-COLUMBIAN KULTURER I COLOMBIA

San Agustín -kultur: San Agustín Arkæologiske Park (San Agustín, Huila Department, Colombia) indeholder den største samling af religiøse monumenter og megalithiske skulpturer i Latinamerika og betragtes som verdens største nekropolis. Datoerne for statuerne er usikre, men de menes at have været skåret mellem 50–400 e.Kr. øverst til venstre: En gravplatform med understøttende statuer. Øverst til højre: Skåret ansigt med jaguartænder. Nederst til venstre: En stående figur med jaguarfunktioner. Nederst til højre: Fisk vedhæng, ca. 0-900 e.Kr. i Guldmuseet (Bogotá, Colombia).

Det arkæologiske kompleks San Agustín ligger i Upper Magdalena -regionen i departementet Huila og er delt i to provinser ved Guacacallo -floden. Det var et fremtrædende ceremonielt center og et vigtigt gravsted for stammehierarkierne, men der var en stillesiddende befolkning, der levede fra landbrug, jagt og fiskeri.

Den religiøse stemning betingede deres kunstneriske udtryk, der er nedfældet i enestående stenværker. Den augustinske statuar - som udtrykte deres tro og tro - blev udtænkt i funktion af begravelseskonstruktionerne. Denne kunst holdt sig stærkt til strenge symbologiske kanoner og udtrykte frit den kunstneriske behandling af former, hvilket gjorde hver af skulpturerne forskellige fra hinanden, individuelle, på trods af deres overfladiske homogene udseende. Disse skulpturer havde lodret og vandret strukturering, frontalitet, symmetri - som en konsekvens af deres religiøse funktion - og de var i overensstemmelse med lineære normer. Deres temaer omfattede: guder, præster og shamaner, krigere og store dignitarer, billeder af afdøde -udskårne på sarkofagstenene-, symbolske dyr, stænger og pilastre. De mest almindeligt anvendte motiver var slanger og stiliseringer af fugle. I perioden “Regional Classic ” skiller den monumentale statuue sig ud med feline kæber og hierarkiske insignier, der skulle have været lavet i guld. I arkitekturen var deres væsentlige arbejde begravelsestemplet.

Tierradentro

Tierradentro -kultur: Den arkæologiske park Tierradentro (Inza, Department of Cauca, Colombia) rummer den største koncentration af præ-columbianske monumentale skaftgrave med sidekamre (hypogea), der blev hugget i vulkansk tuff under bakketoppe og bjergryg. Strukturerne, nogle på op til 12 m brede og 7 m dybe, blev lavet fra 600 til 900 e.Kr. og fungerede som kollektiv sekundær begravelse for elitegrupper. Øverst til venstre: Set fra en hypogea, disse har en indgang orienteret mod vest, en vindeltrappe og et hovedkammer, normalt 5 til 8 meter under overfladen, med flere mindre kamre rundt, hver med et lig. Væggene blev malet med geometriske, antropomorfe og zoomorfe mønstre i rød, sort og hvid. Øverst til højre: Tierradentro begravelsesurner, der plejede at indeholde skeletrester, ca. 700 til 900 e.Kr. (Archaeological Musseum of Tierradentro). Nederst til venstre: Zoomorphic alcarraza (Arkæologisk Museum i Tierradentro). Nederst til højre: Alcarraza-fløjte fra Tierradentro (Guldmuseum, Bogotá).

De kunstneriske manifestationer af Tierradentro -kulturen (Department of Cauca, sydvest Colombia) demonstrerer deres forhold til San Agustín -kulturen og med Andes -området generelt deres kunstneriske produktion var relateret til begravelsespraksis, der var karakteristisk for denne kultur, konstruktionen af hypogea*. Disse underjordiske kabinetter blev dekoreret med maling påført på klippevæggen ved at forme den eller ved en kombination af begge metoder. De brugte farver af mineralsk oprindelse, sort, rød og gul, alene eller kombineret, og tilpassede dekorationen til stedets former og til hypogeumtypen som et uundværligt supplement.

Tierradentro hypogeum blev bygget i grupper og var beregnet til sekundære begravelser. De vigtigste, der blev opdaget indtil i dag, er placeret omkring depressionen af ​​San Andrés Creek, der er af forskellig art: uden nicher, med nicher - i væggene eller i bunden af ​​rummet - og løse søjler arrangeret i ellipse eller placeret i midten danner en lige linje. Tierradentro -kulturen havde en meget veludviklet opfattelse af et udenjordisk eller efter liv, der byggede begravelsesområderne efter modellen for deres egentlige bolig.

I keramik producerede de værker af højeste kvalitet og skønhed, hvis bedste eksponenter var knyttet til religiøse og begravelseskulter. Foruden begravelsesurnerne var de mestre i håndværk af alcarrazas*. En meget almindelig dekorativ teknik var deres prikker fyldt med hvid pasta.

Tumaco kultur. Top: Eksempler på Tumaco -keramik. Nederst: Fem rullesæl fra Tumaco Culture, ca. 500 f.Kr. - 500 e.Kr.

Det lå i det sydvestlige Colombia (Department of Nariño), der grænser op til Ecuador. Dens kunst var af dokumentarisk karakter: den udtrykte med bemærkelsesværdig realisme deres bolig, beklædningsgenstande, ornamenter, sygdomme, skikke og populær tro uden at udelukke den naturlige og mytiske fauna. Det var præget af deres keramikarbejde, som især var skulpturelt i design med flotte designs og kompleks teknik. I deres varemærke keramikstykker repræsenterede de temaet for karakteriseringen af ​​det menneskelige hoved: Tumaco -keramikeren fangede alle udtryk for den menneskelige tilstand og alle de individuelle karakterer. Ved at bruge temaer, der involverede masker, kombinerede de heterogene dekorative elementer, hovedsageligt animaliske, og viste en bemærkelsesværdig beherskelse af teknikker. De komplette menneskeskikkelser udgjorde en eksemplarisk kunst ved deres skulpturelle værdier, der samtidig demonstrerede deres præference for den mandlige figur. Den erotiske kunst var totalt objektiv og varieret ved at være forbundet med kulturen af ​​frugtbarhed og frugtbarhed. Abstrakt kunst blev legemliggjort i sæler med smukke designs.

Calima kultur. Øverst til venstre: Guldpektoral (Guldmuseum, Bogotá). Topcenter: Begravelsesmaske, 5.-1. århundrede f.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Øverst til højre: Havsnegl i bladguld, 200 f.Kr.-1300 e.Kr. (Guldmuseum). Nederst til venstre: Calima keramik, til venstre en Ilama-kvinde, til højre en kurvemager, begge ca. 1700-80 f.Kr. (Arkæologisk museum i Cali, Colombia). Nederst til højre: Guld halskæde, ca. 1500 f.Kr. (Guldmuseum, Cali).

Calima -dalen (Department of Valle del Cauca, det vestlige Colombia) er en af ​​de vigtigste naturlige måder at kommunikere Stillehavskysten med Cauca -dalen, en kendsgerning, der fremmede blomstringen af ​​en høj kultur præget af sin guldsmed. Guldindustrien i Calima fulgte de samme retningslinjer for håndlavet guld kendt i andre indfødte kulturer, men erhvervede ægte specialisering i fremstillingen for at kunne forestille bestemte og specielle stilarter. På deres socioøkonomiske skala var der en laug af guldsmed, de bearbejdede sølvguldet med kobber og andre metalforureninger, der producerede “tumbaga ” -en guld- og kobberlegering, der letter håndværkerens arbejde - og de var mestre i blinkningen , hamring, rullning og belægning af genstande med bladguld. Det er et kendetegn ved Calima -guldsmeden, der forbinder stykker ved hjælp af guldtråde og -tråde. De repræsenterede temaer var for det meste religiøse, hvis kunstneriske udtryk var stærkt og kraftigt med vægt på geometri. De fremstillede genstande med personlig pryd -deres halskæder var deres fineste juveler -masker til rituelle formål, musikinstrumenter -snegle, rangler, trompeter- og huslige artefakter.

Keramik nåede høje kreativitetsniveauer, fremhævet af “basket-maker ”- portrætfigurer i fuld krop, der også almindeligvis blev brugt under den aktive kommercielle handel, der skulle have eksisteret på den tid.

Quimbaya kultur. Øverst til venstre: Zoomorphic alcarraza. Top Center: Mor og barn, Quimbaya keramik. Øverst til højre: Kalkbeholdere eller Poporos, en del af “Quimbaya Treasure ”, en samling af guld- og tumbaga -legeringsgenstande fundet ved to Quimbaya -grave, en af ​​de største og vigtigste indfødte skattekammer, der findes overalt i verden ( Museum of the Americas, Madrid). Nederst til venstre: Den berømte Poporo Quimbaya (Guldmuseum, Bogotá), dens primære anvendelse var som en ceremoniel enhed til at tygge kokablade under religiøse ceremonier, ca. 300 e.Kr. og fremstillet i tumbaga-legering ved hjælp af støbeprocessen med tabt voks. Det er et nationalt symbol på Colombia og er som sådan blevet afbildet i den colombianske valuta, i mønter og sedler. Nederst til højre: Antropomorf poporo, ca. 500 f.Kr. – 700 e.Kr. (Guldmuseum, Bogotá).

Det kulturelle kompleks, der engang var beliggende i det, der i dag er Quindío -afdelingen (det vestlige Colombia), var præget af keramisk produktion af forskellige typer og en dekorativ rigdom anvendt til forskellige anvendelser, som sammen med dets symbolik afspejler kunstneriske kvaliteter, der er særlige for dette område. De var ekspertdesignere af sæler og malerværktøjer, de repræsenterede deres huse ved at gengive deres faktiske struktur og lavede fløjtende fartøjer som en afledt form fra alcarrazaens. Selvom de havde en bred spredning i Andes -området, var Quindío -kulturens fløjtende kar de mest karakteristiske og dem, der havde større æstetiske kvaliteter.

Quimbaya -guldsmeden var af høj kunstnerisk kvalitet og raffineret smag. De producerede en hel række genstande til personlig udsmykning, husholdnings- og krigsføringsredskaber og rituelle elementer, der specialiserede sig i tumbagas arbejde. De mest typiske temaer var det antropomorfe-med repræsentationen af ​​den menneskelige figur beundrende perfektion-, zoomorfe og de forbløffende beholdere af fartøjstype eller poporos*. Disse containere er de bedste guldgenstande produceret af Quimbaya.

Tolima kultur. Øverst til venstre: Antropomorf bryst, tidlig periode, 1000 f.Kr. - 800 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Øverst til højre: Anthropozoomorphic pectoral, Early Period, 1000 BC. - 800 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Nederst til venstre: Begravelsesurn, sen periode, ca. 800 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Nederst til højre: Tolima keramikskål.

Den typiske kunst i Tolima -kulturen blev smedet i dalen i den nuværende Tolima -afdeling (det centrale Colombia) og skråninger ved siden af ​​Magdalena -floden: deres var en guldsmed, der var kendetegnet ved sine designs og stilart. De arbejdede sølvguld af høj kvalitet ved hjælp af de samme teknikker og procedurer som andre præ-spanske guldsmede. Det var en kunstflad i naturen, glat, med en markant geometrisk tendens viser det slidser påført på guldpladerne i parallelle linjer eller stænger, antropomorfe og zoomorfe motiver og en ædru dekoration. De lavede øreringe, vedhæng og halskæder med geometriske zoomorfe designs samt store brystvorter.

Typologien for deres keramik falder sammen med Quimbaya -områdets. De producerede to eller tre typer keramik, der kan betragtes som karakteristiske: antropomorfe repræsentationer -generelt siddende, nøgne, med rituelle deformationer i arme og ben-, lersæder -med et rygstykke, hvis dimensioner antyder at have været brugt af børn-, og begravelsesurner: dem, der findes i byen Honda, har en menneskelig figur på låget.

Tairona kultur. Øverst til venstre: Tairona guld vedhæng (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). Øverst til højre: Bryst i form af en Bat-Man, ca. 900 til 1600 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet i Santa Marta, Colombia). Nederst til venstre: Keramisk bakke med flagermusdekorationer, 650-1600 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet i Santa Marta). Nederst til højre: Alcarraza, ca. 600 – 1500 AD.

Tairona besatte en stor del af området i Santa Marta -bjergkæden (Department of Magdalena, det nordlige Colombia), kendetegnet ved dens barske og vanskelige adgang. Dette geografiske miljø betingede deres kreative aktivitet, som blev rettet til en praktisk ende. Tairona -kunsten er overdådig, og bortset fra begravelsesurner og ceremonielle kar var dens produktion bestemt til den overdådige udsmykning af menneskekroppen, især amuletter og halskæder, vedhæng og bryst. Deres juveler er blandt de mest dyrebare og beundrede af den præ-columbianske guldsmed, overraskende over dens tekniske perfektion. De brugte tumbaga og udtrykte for det meste maskuline emner ud over at repræsentere zoomorfe motiver. Keramikken var af tre typer, der kendetegnes ved farve: sort -ceremoniel i karakter, repræsenteret af “alcarrazas ”-, rødlig -store begravelsesurner- og mørkegrå eller rødgrå -karinas og fløjter-. Derudover fremstillede de små urner (nogle slangeformede) og stole.

Kulturer i Atlanterhavet

Sinú kultur. Øverst til venstre: Guld jaguar (Museum of the Zenú Gold, Cartagena, Colombia). Nederst til venstre: Guld jaguar. Center: Begravelsesurn med menneskelåg. Til højre: Bird final (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Beliggende i Lower Magdalena -området (Department of Córdoba, nordvestlige Colombia) var i den centrale Sinú -flod, hvor de vigtigste arkæologiske steder i dette område blev fundet i Colombia. Deres kunst omfattede: begravelsesurner -kronet med antropomorfe låg, herunder dem, der findes på Tamalameque-, utilitaristisk og rituel keramik formet i menneskelige figurer opfattet som skulpturer og guldsmed, hvor de kombinerede forskellige teknikker, den “false filigran ”, antropomorfe og zoomorfe motiver og geometrisk dekoration. De lavede næsestykker, bh-formede brystvorter, kroner, hule antropomorfe figurer, halskædeperler, korte stifter osv.

Kulturer fra de sydlige colombianske Andes

Nariño kultur. Øverst til venstre: Guld vedhæng. Øverst til højre: Guld vedhæng, sen Nariño periode, 600-1700 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Nederst til venstre: Skål med Tuza -fod med dyremotiver. Nederst til højre: Nariño -fartøj, ca. 1000-1500 e.Kr.

Deres keramik nåede en vigtig kunstnerisk udvikling, keramikken fra Nariño overrasker med dens former og dekoration, der understreger det negative maleri eller den positive bikolor. I området Popayán (Department of Cauca) omfattede skulpturerne og stenrelieffer cylindriske statuer, der skulle placeres direkte på jorden og andre fremstilles i plader med flade former. Deres smykkearbejde skiller sig ud med de store guldpectoraler, næseringe, skiver og plaketter, alle lavet med fine guldplader og med komplekse geometriske designs.

Muisca kultur. Til venstre: Hanne -figur cache -figur eller Tunjo, 1100–1550 e.Kr. (Guldmuseet). Øverst til højre: Muisca -tekstilpose (eller Mochila) fundet sammen med en mumie (Gold Museum). Nederst til venstre: Múcura-stil Muisca-fartøj, 400-1800 e.Kr. (Nationalmuseet i Colombia, Bogotá). Nederst til højre: Guldpektoral (Guldmuseum).

Navnet på kulturen “Muisca ”, hvilket betyder “person ” eller “people ”, gælder for det oprindelige samfund bosat på plateauer og savanner, der i dag svarer til afdelingerne Cundinamarca og Boyacá i det centrale Colombia. Dens kunst er kendetegnet ved sine rene utilitaristiske formål, ved sine ekstremt skematiske former og elementære motiver, der viser en kunstnerisk aktivitet, der blev udført i deres fritid. They excelled in the manufacturing of textiles, for which they used cotton and “wool” -the fibers of lignin and cellulose that surround the seed from the Ceiba tree fruit-, and also mixing human hair to obtain certain textures and qualities in the fabrics. They decorated their fabrics by painting or embossing them and they were of large dimensions. The blankets and the ruana (a poncho-style robe typical of this culture) were very important for the Muisca people. Excellent craftsmen of the copper and the tumbaga, the Muisca produced magnificent pectorals among other objects. Eminently typical of this culture were the “tunjos*”, mainly anthropomorphic. In its pottery stands the “múcura*“, the Muisca vessel par excellence.

The famous Muisca raft (Balsa Muisca), also known as “El Dorado Raft”, a gold votive, is one of the treasures of the Gold Museum in Bogotá. It is dated between 600 and 1600 AD and made using the lost-wax casting technique in gold with a small amount of copper. The artifact refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado and represents the ceremony of investiture of the Muisca chief, which used to take place at Lake Guatavita in Colombia. During this ritual, the heir to the chieftainship (or “Zipa”) covered his body with gold dust and jumped into the lake along with gold offerings and emeralds to the gods. The piece has a base in the shape of a log boat of 19.5 cm x 10.1 cm and various figures on the raft, the largest figure that stands in the middle apparently represents the chief, which is adorned with headdresses, nose rings and earrings, his height is 10.2 cm and is surrounded by his soldiers who carry banners.

Alcarraza: (From the Arabic al-karaz, meaning a pitcher). An earthenware container.

Hypogeum: (plural hypogea or hypogaea from Greek hypo -under- and gaia -mother earth or goddess of earth-). It usually refers to an underground temple or tomb. The later Christians built similar underground shrines, crypts and tombs, which they called catacombs. But this was only a difference in name, rather than purpose and rituals, and archeological and historical research shows they were effectively the same. Hypogea will often contain niches for cremated human remains or loculi for buried remains.

Múcura: A clay pot similar to a pitcher or jug, of medium size, with a long narrow neck and spherical body. In Pre-Columbian times it was used to collect, drink and store water, chicha (a corn-based beverage), and cereals. Symbolically, it represents the feminine principle, more specifically the woman’s womb. It was also a piece of trousseau in funeral rites in various Pre-Columbian cultures.

Poporo: A device used by indigenous cultures in present and pre-Colombian South America for storage of small amounts of lime. It consists of two pieces: the receptacle, and the lid which includes a pin that is used to carry the lime to the mouth while chewing coca leaves. Since the chewing of coca is sacred for the indigenous people, the poporos are also attributed with mystical powers and social status.

Ruana: A poncho-style outer garment typical of the Andes region of Colombia, particularly in the Boyacá department and Antioquia. The word ruana comes from the Chibcha ruana meaning “Land of Blankets,” used to refer to the woolen fabrics manufactured by the Muisca culture. A ruana is basically a very thick, soft and sleeveless square or rectangular blanket with an opening in the center for the head to go through with a slit down the front to the hem. A ruana may or may not come with a hood to cover the head. The ruanas worn by the native Muisca were apparently made of wool and knee-long, well-suited to the cold temperatures of the region where they were used not only as a piece of garment but also as a blanket for use in bed or to sit on as a cushion of sorts.

Tunjo: (from Muysccubun or Muisca language: chunso), a small anthropomorphic or zoomorphic figure elaborated by the Muisca peoples of Colombia as part of their art. Tunjos were made of gold and tumbaga a gold-silver-copper alloy. The Muisca used their tunjos in various instances in their religion and as a small votive offering figures. Tunjos were used as offer pieces, to communicate with the gods and when the Muisca asked for favours from their deities.


The Glittering Gold Museum in Bogota

The Gold Museum in Bogota is one of Columbia’s most important museums with an extraordinary collection of Pre Hispanic gold work on display. The museum has more than 34,000 pieces of gold, belonging to the indigenous cultures who lived more than 500 years ago, during the Inca Empire and long before it. The pieces on display represents the largest collection of pre-Columbian South American gold work in the world, and together with pottery, woodwork, textile and other archeological objects, they tell the stories of more than a dozen indigenous societies which inhabited what is now known as Colombia before contact was made with Europe.

The indigenous people of South America were rich in gold and silver. These people had­ been mining the Andes and working with the precious metal for thousands of years, creating finely crafted treasure and jewelry. Their use of gold was religious and ceremonial, as a beautiful offering to the gods or a sign of status and power.

An exhibit at the Gold Museum in Bogota. This gold mask was made between 200 BC to 900 AD. Photo credit

When the Spanish came, they quickly stripped the Inca Empire of thousands of pounds of gold and silver. What little survived were hidden away in secret tombs and sacred sites, and now are at display at the Gold Museum. The museum was founded in 1939 with its first major acquisition, a container from the Quimbaya people called the Poporo Quimbaya. The vessel’s smooth gold surface and symmetrical crown is strikingly modern, even though it was crafted between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago.

The museum’s most precious collection is the Muisca Raft discovered in 1886 in a Colombian cave. The piece is about 10 inches long and depicts a chieftain standing on a flat raft and surrounded by priests and oarsmen, in what appears to be a ceremony of the legend of El Dorado, a mythical city of unimaginable richness, that seduced the Spanish colonizers. The item weighs 287 grams of which 80% is gold.

The Muisca Raft, circa 600 AD – 1600 AD. Photo credit

As apparent from the Gold Museum, the Spanish invaders did not manage to get their hands on all of Inca’s treasures, but some believe that there is an even larger collection — a fabulous hoard of gold, hidden somewhere deep inside a mountain, still waiting to be found.

The legend begins in the 16th century, when Emperor Atahualpa was captured by the Spanish commander Francisco Pizarro. Pizarro agreed to release Atahualpa if the Inca Emperor filled a large room, about 22 feet by 17 feet by 8 feet, with gold and twice with silver. Atahualpa fulfilled his end of the deal, but the Spaniard did not. Before the last and largest part of the ransom had been delivered, the Spanish, fearing an imminent attack from Atahualpa’s general, had him executed. The story goes that when Atahualpa’s men learned about the murder, they buried the gold in a secret cave in Llanganates mountain somewhere between the Andes and the Amazon. There is a different version according to which the gold was thrown into a lake so that the Spanish could never get it.

Over the next two hundred years, dozens of expedition carrying thousands of men came looking for the lost treasure, but the mountains of the Llanganates refused to surrender their secret.

A funerary mask, circa 100 BC - 400 AD. Photo credit

It’s hard to say whether it really happened or is just a fable, but there is another extension to this story. The legend goes that a Spaniard named Vincente de Valverde, who later became the bishop of Cuzco, discovered the gold after marrying an Inca princess from the area. Before he died, Valverde wrote a detailed guide — the so-called Derrotero de Valverde — on how to find the treasure, and bequeathed the document to King Charles V of Spain. Several attempts were made to locate it but each time the dispatcher the King sent would mysteriously disappear.

Nothing was known about the treasure or the guide, until more than 300 years later, in the 1850s, when English botanist Richard Spruce reportedly uncovered Valverde's guide and a related map. Richard Spruce couldn’t find the gold, but treasure seeker Captain Barth Blake is believed to have.

Blake made maps of the area and sent letters back home. In one of his letters he wrote:

It is impossible for me to describe the wealth that now lays in that cave marked on my map, but I could not remove it alone, nor could thousands of men … There are thousands of gold and silver pieces of Inca and pre-Inca handicraft, the most beautiful goldsmith works you are not able to imagine, life-size human figures made out of beaten gold and silver, birds, animals, cornstalks, gold and silver flowers. Pots full of the most incredible jewelry. Golden vases full of emeralds.

Blake took what he could carry and left for New York where he planned to raise funds for an expedition to recover his prize. Blake never reached New York. Some say he was pushed overboard. If the story is true, Blake might have been the last person to see the lost gold.

The legend of Inca’s lost treasure persist to this date, inspiring dozens of books, movies and the occasional adventurer who still roam the steamy jungles of South America in search of it.

A breastplate in the shape of a bat-man, circa 900 AD – 1600 AD. Photo credit


Opening hours and entrance fee

The Gold Museum is located at Santander’s Square in Carrera 6 No. 15-88, a block away from the Gold Museum Transmilenio station.

  • The entrance fee is 4.000 COP/ 1.5 USD.
  • Monday: Closed
  • Tuesday to Saturday: 9:00-19:00
  • Sunday: 10:00-17:00
  • The last entrance is one hour before closing

So if you want to know more about pre-Colombian art and history in Bogotá and Colombia I strongly advise you to go see it yourself, you’ll be enchanted by gold!


Cultural life

Geography has played a critical role in shaping Colombian culture, particularly in regard to regional isolation. Prior to the arrival of the first Europeans in the 16th century, the aboriginal populations of the area that was to become Colombia had achieved a high level of cultural development. Because they built largely of wood and occupied a tropical area of generally moderate to high rainfall, they left little evidence of their achievements. All groups had some form of social organization, but, except for the Chibcha of the Cordillera Oriental, they were organized in small chiefdoms (cacigazcos) under chiefs (caciques) whose authority was sharply limited geographically. Agriculture, pottery making, and weaving were all but universal. Some groups—for example, the Chibcha, Quimbaya, Tairona, Sinú, and Calima—had developed great skills in metalworking (especially goldsmithing), sculpture, and ceramics. The San Agustín culture, centred in the headwaters area of the Magdalena River, left giant anthropomorphic figures carved of stone that have been an enigma for archaeologists. While groups of Caribbean origin were warlike and practiced ritual cannibalism, others from the interior possessed a rich mythology and a religion that upheld ethical standards and norms on questions of private ownership and the prevention of crime.

Until the mid-1970s it was thought that no indigenous group had left any large architectural monuments such as those erected by the Aztecs, Mayas, or Incas. The excavation, beginning in 1976, of a 1,500-acre (600-hectare) city apparently built about 900 ce by the Tairona in the Santa Marta massif, however, marked a turning point in the study of Colombia’s prehistory.

The Andean Indians, particularly the Chibcha, practiced sedentary agriculture and were able to offer but small resistance to the Spanish invaders. They became the great biological and cultural contributors to the process of racial amalgamation, or mestizaje. The low demographic density of the pre-Hispanic population and its swift destruction during the colonial period led to the formation of a rather open society and to the substitution of Hispanic forms of culture for the indigenous ones. The most widely used native language, Chibcha, virtually disappeared in the 18th century.

From colonial times, Bogotá—the “Athens of South America”—has been the nation’s cultural centre, and most cultural institutions are located within the metropolitan area. Other cities of cultural prominence include Cali, Medellín, Manizales, Tunja, and Cartagena.


Keramik Rediger

There is archaeological evidence that ceramics were produced on Colombia's Caribbean coast earlier than anywhere in the Americas outside of the lower Amazon Basin. Fiber-tempered ceramics associated with shell middens appeared at sites such as Puerto Hormiga, Monsú, Puerto Chacho, and San Jacinto by 3100 BC. Fiber-tempered ceramics at Monsú have been dated to 5940 radiocarbon years before present. The fiber-tempered pottery at Puerto Hormiga was "crude", formed from a single lump of clay. The fiber-tempered pottery at San Jacinto is described as "well-made". Sand-tempered coiled ceramics have also been found at Puerto Hormiga. [2] [3] [4] The Piartal culture (750–1250 AD) in the mountainous region on the Colombia–Ecuador border produced unique methods of producing pottery as well as patterns inspired by animal or snake skin. Vessels were created for use in secondary burial, or the practice of allowing the flesh to decompose and then reburying the bones. These vessels were also used to hold relics and jewelry belonging to the deceased. [5]

Goldwork Edit

The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship have been attributed to the Tumaco people of the Pacific coast and date to around 325 BCE. Gold would play a pivotal role in luring the Spanish to the area now called Colombia during the 16th century (See: El Dorado).

One of the most valued artifacts of Pre-Columbian goldwork is the so-called Poporo Quimbaya, a small (23.5 × 11.4 cm), hollow, devotional object (used to mambeo or coca leaf chewing ritual) made of gold whose aesthetic harmony, simple elegance, and mathematical symmetry are striking and almost modern. [ citat nødvendig ]

The Museo del Oro in Bogotá displays the most important collection of pre-Columbian gold handicraft in the Americas.

Stone Edit

Roughly between 200 BCE and 800 CE, the San Agustín culture, masters of stonecutting, entered its “classical period". They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi, and large stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphhic forms out of stone. Some of these have been up to five meters high.

Related to the San Agustín culture were the inhabitants of Tierradentro (“inner land”, so called because of its inaccessibility) who created over one hundred and fifty underground tombs, or hypogea their walls and ceilings were richly decorated with geometric forms recalling the interior of palm huts. Also in the tombs were found funeral urns, bowls, and pitchers.

The Muisca raft votive piece, Muisca (Pasca, Cundinamarca), gold, 600 CE - 1600 CE

Monumental tomb, Middle San Agustín period (San Agustín, Huila), 100 BCE - 700 CE

The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries was mostly devoted to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture. During the early period of the Colombian republic, the national artists were focused in the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a plain neoclassicist trend. During the 20th century, the Colombian sculpture began to develop a bold and innovative work with the aim of reaching a better understanding of national sensitivity.

Monument to Bachué by Luís Horacio Betancur, Medellín

Vargas Swamp Lancers Memorial is the largest sculpture in Latin America

Botero Plaza in Medellín with permanent display of several sculptures by Fernando Botero

Fugl ( By Fernando Botero) Was destroyed by a terrorist attack in 1997, Medellín where 17 people died. The remains of the sculpture are displayed in San Antonio Square as a memorial for the victims

Ranas bailando. (Dancing frogs) 1990. By María Fernanda Cardoso

Pre-Colombian period Edit

Colombian colonial art includes altar wood carving masterpieces and the statues for religious processions.

Colonial period Edit

Painting in the colonial period reflected the power and prestige of the Catholic Church and the Spanish aristocracy in Colombia or as it was then known The New Kingdom of Granada (c. 1548-1717) and later The Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717–1819).

Early colonial period Edit

Colombian painting in the early colonial period (1530s–1650) was mostly ecclesiastical in subject and based on mannerist, renaissance, and medieval styles, with some minor influence from indigenous culture.

Spanish explorers first set foot on Colombian soil in 1499 and established Santa Marta, the first city and government in the territory of Colombia, in 1599. King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabela of Castille had in 1492 year unified Spain and conquered the remaining Moorish stronghold in southern Spain (Granada) expelled Jews with the Alhambra Decree and continued the Inquisition and sent Christopher Columbus on his first expedition. It is from this context of reconquista or the Christianizing of the Iberian peninsula that the similarly strongly Catholic colonial project in the Americas might be understood. In this period, Spain and Portugal were the greatest powers in Europe and the most dogged defenders (and enforcers) of Catholicism.

Workshops in Seville produced many of the early paintings sent to Colombia. Colombian artists in this period were mostly considered common tradesmen, like cobblers or coopers. As throughout much of the history of art around the world, these usually anonymous artisans produced work that served the ideological needs of their patrons, in this case the Catholic Church.

The churches and homes of wealthy families in the main towns of Cundinamarca and Boyacá contain some of the oldest extant examples of colonial art in Colombia, mostly in the form of mural painting.

The first colonial-era painter to work in Colombia, or as it was then known as, Nueva Granada, was the Seville native Alonso de Narváez (d. 1583). He is credited with painting an image of the Virgin Mary (Our Lady of the Rosary) that later became itself an object of devotion, known as Our Lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquirá thanks to, as Catholics believe, a miraculous repairing of the painting's fabric. [6]

Baroque period Edit

Baroque art (starting in Rome around 1600), including Latin American Baroque (1650-1750 es:Gregorio Vásquez de Arce y Ceballos), tended towards emotionalism, an appeal to populism, and large gestures and flowing garments. In line with the Counter-Reformation a generation prior, the Jesuits, an order formed to counter Protestantism, were the first to embrace the Baroque. The major influences on Colombian artists in this period were Spanish Baroque painters like Francisco de Zurbarán (1580–1664), as well as Flemish, Italian, and also Quito and Cuzco influences, through engravings and various original images imported for churches and monasteries.

Another Seville native, Baltasar de Figueroa El Viejo (1629–1667), settled in Bogotá in the early 17th century and set up an artist's workshop. He and his many descendants would be prolific and would invent a kind of creolized Colombian form of Baroque painting that combined the borrowing of forms and subjects from European engravings (mostly religious in nature: saints in various states of mortification or ecstasy, the Virgin Mary, or Christ) with native motifs and decoration. But it would be one of the Figueroa family's apprentices, Gregorio Vázquez de Arce y Ceballos, who would stand out among all painters of the colonial era.

Gregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos (1638–1711) is considered the greatest master of the colonial period. In his lifetime he produced around five hundred paintings, mostly devotional, with a technique that juxtaposed figures taken from paintings by European masters using innovative materials found in the New World. His depictions of the Trinity as a single figure with four eyes and three faces, an innovation unique to Latin America, would be later condemned as heretical in part because they resembled Hindu deities.

Det Sopo Archangels is a series of twelve paintings, each featuring an archangel (three canonical, plus eight apocryphal, and one guardian) engulfed in a tenebrous (cloudy) background. Their figures are life-sized, clad in rich apparel, full of drapes and folds, and are meant to be "read" through their various iconography. Like many depictions of angels, these ostensibly male figures are depicted with soft, feminine faces and round hips. The origin of this series is unknown, as is the artist. It is considered one of the enduring enigmas of Colombian art.

San José y el Niño by Gregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos, oil on wood, ca. 1670


The Gold Museum in Bogota. The largest collection of pre-Columbian South American gold

This is one of Columbia’s most famous museums. The Gold Museum in Bogota is dedicated to an amazing collection of Pre-Hispanic gold artifacts. The museum owns more than 34,000 items of gold that belonged to the indigenous people who lived there 500 years ago. The items are from the period of the Inca Empire, and some of them are even older. This is the largest collection of pre-Columbian South American gold in the world and probably one of the richest gold collections in existence. Besides the golden items, the museum houses many more archeological items such as pottery, woodwork, textile. Together these artifacts tell the story of the variety of indigenous societies that thrived on the territory of modern-day Colombia before the Europeans arrived there.

Gold and silver were never a problem for the indigenous people in South America. There was always an abundance of these materials there. The locals were mining the Andes for the precious metals for thousands of years. During this time, they became very skilled in creating beautiful items and jewelry out of these materials. In this indigenous cultures, gold was used mainly for religious and ceremonial purposes. They offered it to the gods or wore it or showed it off as a symbol for status and power.

Everything changed when the Spanish came. In a short amount of time, they managed to take away vast amounts of gold and silver from the Incas. The locals struggled to hide what was left. Part of the remaining artifacts were hidden in secret tombs and sacred sites. Today, many years after the colonization, some of those items are on display at the Gold Museum.

The museum was opened in 1939 and the first major artifact was a container from the Quimbaya people called the Poporo Quimbaya. It is a smooth golden vessel with a symmetrical crown. The container was crafted between 1,500 and 2,000 years ago.

Today, the most famous and priceless collection is the Muisca Raft. It was discovered in a Colombian cave in 1886. IT is a 10 inches long sculpture that shows a chieftain standing on a flat raft and surrounded by priests and oarsmen. It is believed that the sculpture represents a ceremony of the legend of El Dorado, the mythical of epic wealth. The item weighs 287 grams and it is made of 80% gold.

The Spanish obviously didn’t manage to take all the gold fro the indigenous people, but again, only a partial amount of the gold is displayed in the museum. Some people believe that there is a huge collection of gold hidden on a secret location. deep in the mountains. The legend of this hoard of gold dates back from the 16-th century. Emperor Atahualpa was captured by the Spanish commander Francisco Pizarro. The commander told Atahualpa that he will be released if he filled a huge room with gold and twice of that amount with silver. Atahualpa honored this demand, but Pizarro didn’t honor his part of the deal. He was afraid that Atahualpa’s general will attack him, he executed him just before the largest shipment of ransom gold was delivered. According to the story, after Atahualpa’s men found out about the murder, they buried the gold in a cave somewhere in the Llanganates mountain, between the Andes and the Amazon.

Many expeditions with thousands of men were searching for the hidden treasures for the next 200 hundred years, but the Llanganates kept its secret safe. It was never found. Even today, this treasure still inspires people to come ad search for it. Maybe one day it will be discovered.

A gold mask made between 200 BC to 900 AD. / Photo source

A breastplate in the shape of a bat-man made between 900 AD – 1600 AD. / Photo source


SHOWROOMS

Welcome to the Banco de la República and its Bogotá Gold Museum. The exhibitions were completely renovated in 2008, in an enlarged building with magnificent architecture. The Gold Museum’s permanent exhibition invites you to discover the history of how gold and other metals were used by the pre-Hispanic societies who lived in the land today known as Colombia. It is displayed in four exhibition galleries and an exploration area, all of which you can visit in whatever order you prefer:

FIRST FLOOR

• People and Gold in Pre-Hispanic Colombia reveals how and in what contexts people used metals as part of their political and religious organisation.

The Gold Museum collection was initiated by the Central Bank in 1939. Illustrates the social and cultural life of different groups of people who lived in what is now Colombia 2,500 years to the time of the European conquest. Who were these people? How did they live? What beliefs and traditions had? How do they relate to their environment?

In this gallery, People and Gold in prehispanic Colombia, will travel the country from south to north. You will know the climates, environments, and societies and ancient cultures that lived in the Andes Mountains and the Pacific and the Caribbean, which were areas where metals are worked in the past.

SECOND FLOOR

• The Working of Metals describes the mining and manufacturing techniques employed by the ancient metallurgists.

The Working of Metals gallery describes the mining, smelting and metalworking processes that are behind every single metal object that is on display in the Gold Museum.

Not only the metalsmith but also the miner transformed the materials that nature offered, in order to create these timeless works of art, and they therefore deserve our fullest admiration. They were also thought of as wise men, and sometimes even as shamans, by their ancient communities.

THIRD FLOOR

• Cosmology and Symbolism explores mythical subjects, shamanism, and the symbology of metals.

Cosmologies gave society and its surroundings a place in the universe. All things acquired a location and a meaning, and they were interwoven in a deep symbolism. According to myths, at the beginning of time the creators gave people all they needed for living.

The Cosmology and Symbolism gallery houses various Banco de la República Gold Museum masterpieces —admittedly, inside a vault, for safekeeping. But the value of what is kept there lies in the indigenous thought which gave those magnificent objects a meaning, a raison d’être.

• The Offering immerses the visitor in the world of ceremonies at which offerings were made.

Pre-Hispanic goldwork objects were more than mere ornaments, they were symbols of the religion of pre-Hispanic indigenous groups: shamanism.

The exhibition room on the third floor of the new Gold Museum deals with the meaning of this religious art, in a semi-dark environment where six cylindrical showcases connect heaven and earth. The Muisca Raft, the object which symbolises the El Dorado myth and ceremony, introduces the subject of the offering that was made by the chieftain or the shaman in order to encourage or restore equilibrium in the world.

FOURTH FLOOR

• The Exploratorium encourages interactivity and reflection on the diversity and meaning of the heritage that is preserved in the Museum.

The Gold Museum offers to the public a room entirely new both in its content and in its concept, called the Exploratorium. Located on the fourth floor, this is a space that encourages each visitor to interact with the exhibits, and to that end proposes surprising elements like videos projected on the floor, on which images walks or models representing different aspects of everyday life of muiscas.

In the Exploratory not give answers: it motivates everyone is asking questions and so link the museum with his own experience. With attractive themes on archeology, Zenú channel map of Colombia and the village of diversity, encourages reflection on memory, heritage, identity, diversity and coexistence.

The Exploratorium also has a terrace and a lounge with well equipped workshops where activities are scheduled.


Religion

✦ The Colombian food shows a reflection of the European style of cooking. Inland recipes also bear Amerindian influences.

✦ Colombian coffee is famous the world over, for its quality.

✦ Fritanga that includes grilled beef and chicken, ribs, and sausage with potatoes, is a favorite dish of the Colombians. Tubers and meat make their staple food.

✦ Ajiaco is a traditional meat dish in the Andes region of Colombia. It was born in Bogota.

✦ Changua (milk soup with eggs) is a breakfast soup of the Andean region. Soups like sancocho de gallina and ajiaco are also popular.

✦ Tamales are popular in the Tolima region. Rondon, a seafood is popular in the island regions. Coconut rice is popular in the coastal regions. Dishes in the Amazon are influenced by the cooking styles of Brazil and Peru.

✦ Manjar Blanco, a creamy dessert, Arroz con Coco (coconut rice pudding), and Natilla, a custard-like pudding made from cornstarch are among the Colombian desserts.

✦ Colombians generally have hot chocolate with cheese. It is added to hot chocolate and allowed to melt, after which one can have it with a spoon. It tastes good that way.


Se videoen: Poporo Quimbaya Manizales